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  • Saint-Pierre-du-Vauvray Bridge (bridge, France)

    bridge: Early bridges: …bridge over the Seine at Saint-Pierre-du-Vauvray (1922), two thin, hollow arches rise 25 metres (82 feet) at mid-span and are connected by nine crossbeams. The arches curve over the deck, which is suspended by thin steel wires lightly coated with mortar and hanging down in a triangular formation. The 131-metre…

  • Saint-Pierre-et-Saint-Paul (cathedral, Troyes, France)

    Troyes: The remarkable cathedral of Saint-Pierre-et-Saint-Paul (13th–17th century) is built in a variety of Gothic styles and has about 180 magnificent stained glass panels. A 20th-century inscription at the base of the tower records that Joan of Arc, escorting Charles VII to his crowning at Reims, was feted there in…

  • Saint-Pierre-Port (Guernsey, Channel Islands)

    Saint Peter Port, chief town, resort, parish, and capital of Guernsey, Channel Islands, located on the east coast of the island of Guernsey where a narrow valley reaches the sea between moderately high cliffs. Early in the 13th century, Castle Cornet was built on an offshore tidal islet, reinforced

  • Saint-Porchaire faience (earthenware)

    Saint-Porchaire faience, lead-glazed earthenware (inaccurately called faience, or tin-glazed ware) made in the second quarter of the 16th century at Saint-Porchaire in the département of Deux-Sèvres, France. Its uniqueness consisted in its method of decoration, which took the form of impressions

  • Saint-Preux (fictional character)

    Jean-Jacques Rousseau: Years of seclusion and exile: The central character, Saint-Preux, is a middle-class preceptor who falls in love with his upper-class pupil, Julie. She returns his love and yields to his advances, but the difference between their classes makes marriage between them impossible. Baron d’étange, Julie’s father, has indeed promised her to a fellow…

  • Saint-Quentin (France)

    Saint-Quentin, town, Aisne département, Hauts-de-France région, northeastern France. The town is situated on the slopes of a hill on the right bank of the Somme River at its junction with the Canal de Saint-Quentin. An important medieval pilgrimage town, Saint-Quentin was besieged in 1557 by the

  • Saint-Quentin, Battle of (World War I [1918])

    Second Battle of the Somme, (March 21–April 5, 1918), partially successful German offensive against Allied forces on the Western Front during the later part of World War I. The German commander, General Erich Ludendorff, believed that it was essential for Germany to use the troops freed from the

  • Saint-Quentin, Canal de (canal, France)

    canals and inland waterways: Europe: In the north the Saint-Quentin Canal, with a 3 12-mile tunnel, opened in 1810, linking the North Sea and the Schelde and Lys systems with the English Channel via the Somme and with Paris and Le Havre via the Oise and Seine. In the interior the Canal du Centre…

  • Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines (France)

    ?le-de-France: Geography: Sénart, Cergy-Pontoise, and Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines.

  • Saint-Remy (cathedral, Troyes, France)

    Troyes: The cathedral of Saint-Remy (14th–16th century) is notable for its 197-foot- (60-metre-) tall spire. Troyes’s notable secular buildings include the 16th-century H?tel de Vauluisant, which houses a hosiery museum displaying among its collections stockings as worn by the kings of France. The building also houses a museum of…

  • Saint-Sa?ns, Camille (French composer)

    Camille Saint-Sa?ns, composer chiefly remembered for his symphonic poems—the first of that genre to be written by a Frenchman—and for his opera Samson et Dalila. Saint-Sa?ns was notable for his pioneering efforts on behalf of French music, and he was a gifted pianist and organist as well as a

  • Saint-Sa?ns, Charles-Camille (French composer)

    Camille Saint-Sa?ns, composer chiefly remembered for his symphonic poems—the first of that genre to be written by a Frenchman—and for his opera Samson et Dalila. Saint-Sa?ns was notable for his pioneering efforts on behalf of French music, and he was a gifted pianist and organist as well as a

  • Saint-Savin-sur-Gartempe, Church of (church, Saint-Savin-sur-Gartempe, France)

    Western painting: France: … in France is in the church of Saint-Savin-sur-Gartempe, where the compositions show great narrative vigour and inventiveness. Quite startling formal mannerisms sometimes occur in provincial French painting of the first half of the 11th century. Two examples are the wonderfully highlighted and emphatically banded and pleated figures at Vicq-sur-Saint-Chartrier and…

  • Saint-Sernin (church, Toulouse, France)

    chapel: St. Sernin, at Toulouse, has no fewer than 17 pentagonal chapels, linked by narrow passages. The multiplication of chapels in the later Middle Ages stemmed from two innovations: the inclusion of the chantry, a special place of worship established by a donor for the singing…

  • Saint-Severin (church, Paris, France)

    Paris: Saint-Germain-des-Prés and the Latin Quarter: Two churches in this area—Saint-Séverin (1489–94), Gothic and humble, and Saint-Julien-le-Pauvre (1165–1220), which belongs to the transitional period between the Romanesque and the Gothic—are notable. The square in front of the latter church offers one of the finest views of Notre-Dame de Paris.

  • Saint-Simon, Henri de (French social reformer)

    Henri de Saint-Simon, French social theorist and one of the chief founders of Christian socialism. In his major work, Nouveau Christianisme (1825), he proclaimed a brotherhood of man that must accompany the scientific organization of industry and society. Saint-Simon was born of an impoverished

  • Saint-Simon, Louis de Rouvroy, duc de (French author)

    Louis de Rouvroy, duke de Saint-Simon, soldier and writer, known as one of the great memoirists of France. His Mémoires are an important historic document of his time. His father, Claude de Rouvroy (1607–93), was raised to the nobility by Louis XIII in 1635. The young Saint-Simon began his career

  • Saint-Simonianism (political philosophy)

    France: The Second Republic, 1848–52: …outlook, in the tradition of Saint-Simonian socialism. His effort to please the assembly probably derived from his hope that the assembly would reciprocate: he wanted funds from the treasury to pay his personal debts and run his household, along with a constitutional amendment that would allow him to run for…

  • Saint-Sorlin, Henri I de Savoie, marquis de (French duke)

    Henri I de Savoie, duc de Nemours, brother and successor of the former duke, Charles-Emmanuel. Henri had helped the Roman Catholic Savoyards to capture Saluzzo (1588) and had fought for the Holy League in Daupiné, of which he became governor in 1591. Becoming duc de Nemours in 1595, he submitted

  • Saint-Sorlin, Jacques de Savoie, marquis de (French duke)

    Jacques de Savoie, duke de Nemours, noted soldier and courtier during the French wars of religion. He won a military reputation in the French royal service on the eastern frontier and in Piedmont in the 1550s and against the Huguenots and their German allies in the 1560s. His amorous exploits at

  • Saint-Sorlin, Jean Desmarets de (French author)

    Jean Desmarets de Saint-Sorlin, French prose writer, poet, dramatist, Christian polemicist, and political figure. One of the original members and the first chancellor of the French Academy, Desmarets opened the long literary battle, since called the querelle des anciens et des modernes (see

  • Saint-Sulpice (church, Paris, France)

    Jean-Jacques Olier: …he was made pastor of Saint-Sulpice. The school became known as Saint-Sulpice Seminary, and the French government approved the Society of Saint-Sulpice (Sulpicians) in 1645. Olier’s writings, edited in 1856 by J.P. Migne, concentrate on the spiritual direction of priests.

  • Saint-Sulpice, Society of (Roman Catholic order)

    Jean-Jacques Olier: …1657, Paris), founder of the Sulpicians, a group of secular priests dedicated to training candidates for the priesthood.

  • Saint-Tropez, Pierre André de Suffren de (French admiral)

    Pierre André de Suffren de Saint-Tropez, French admiral, noted for his daring tactics, who fought the British in Indian waters during the American Revolutionary War. A Knight of Malta, Suffren de Saint-Tropez served under Admiral C.H. d’Estaing in America and was sent to assist French military

  • Saint-Trophime, Church of (church, Arles, France)

    Arles: The Romanesque church of Saint-Trophime was founded in the 7th century and was rebuilt several times. (The city’s Roman and Romanesque monuments were inscribed on UNESCO’s World Heritage List in 1981.) Arles was also home to the painter Vincent van Gogh during one of his most productive…

  • Saint-Urbain, Church of (church, Troyes, France)

    Western architecture: High Gothic: …of the most complete is Saint-Urbain, Troyes (founded 1262). There, one can see the virtuosity practiced by the architects in playing with layers of tracery, setting off one “skin” of tracery against another.

  • Saint-Venant, Adhémar-Jean-Claude Barré de (French engineer)

    mechanics of solids: The general theory of elasticity: The French mathematician Adhémar-Jean-Claude Barré de Saint-Venant derived in the 1850s solutions for the torsion of noncircular cylinders, which explained the necessity of warping displacement of the cross section in the direction parallel to the axis of twisting, and for the flexure of beams due to transverse loadings;…

  • Saint-Victor (building, Marseille, France)

    Marseille: The city layout: …port stands the crenellated, square-towered basilica of Saint-Victor, dating from the 11th to the 14th century; it once was attached to an abbey founded about 413 by St. John Cassian to commemorate a 3rd-century martyr and patron saint of sailors and millers. When Saint-Victor was built, the abbey was a…

  • Saint-Victor, Abbey of (abbey, Paris, France)

    biblical literature: The medieval period: One such centre was the Abbey of Saint-Victor at Paris, where Hugh (died 1141) compiled biblical commentaries that fill three volumes of Jacques-Paul Migne’s (1800–75) Patrologiae Cursus Completus (Series Latina) and indicate the commentator’s dependence on Rashi as well as on his Christian predecessors. Of Hugh’s disciples, Andrew, abbot of…

  • Saint-Vincent de Besan?on (abbey, Besan?on, France)

    museum: Public collections: …1694 the head abbot of Saint-Vincent-de-Besan?on in France bequeathed his collection of paintings and medallions to the abbey to form a public collection. To some extent the emerging learned societies also were becoming repositories for such collections, in addition to developing their own. In the case of Ole Worm’s collection,…

  • Saint-Vincent-de-Paul (church, Paris, France)

    Western architecture: France: In Saint-Vincent-de-Paul, Paris (1830–46), a church with a giant portico leading to an aisled basilican interior, Hittorff incorporated polychromatic decoration inspired by his discoveries that Greek temples had been systematically painted in strong colours. His publications on this subject between 1827 and 1851 were important because…

  • saint-wheel (Jainism)

    siddha: … sect the saint-wheel is called navapada (“nine dignities,” or “nine virtues”) and consists of the pa?ca-parame??hin plus the Jina (saviour) image, temple, scriptures, and dharma-cakra (sacred wheel of the law).

  • Saint-Yrieix-la-Perche (town, France)

    Saint-Yrieix-la-Perche, town, Haut-Vienne département, Nouvelle-Aquitaine région, west-central France. It is the main centre in France for quarrying kaolin (china clay) and supplies the porcelain factories of nearby Limoges and Sèvres, near Paris. The medieval church of Saint-Yrieix survives. Pop.

  • sainte ampoule, la (vase)

    ampulla: …history was that known as la sainte ampoule (“the holy ampulla”), at Reims, from which the kings of France were anointed (legend said that it was brought from heaven by a dove for the coronation of Clovis); this ampulla was destroyed during the French Revolution.

  • Sainte Genevieve (Missouri, United States)

    Sainte Genevieve, city, seat (1812) of Sainte Genevieve county, eastern Missouri, U.S. It lies along the Mississippi River, opposite Kellogg, Illinois, approximately 60 miles (100 km) south of St. Louis. The first permanent European settlement in Missouri, it was founded by French Canadians

  • Sainte Ligue, La (French history)

    Holy League, association of Roman Catholics during the French Wars of Religion of the late 16th century; it was first organized in 1576 under the leadership of Henri I de Lorraine, 3e duc de Guise, to oppose concessions granted to the Protestants (Huguenots) by King Henry III. Although the basic r

  • Sainte-Anne-de-Beaupré (Quebec, Canada)

    Sainte-Anne-de-Beaupré, town, Québec region, southern Quebec province, Canada. It lies along the St. Lawrence River near the mouth of the Sainte-Anne, about 20 miles (32 km) northeast of the city of Quebec. Settled about 1650, the town has been a noted Roman Catholic pilgrimage centre since 1658,

  • Sainte-Anne-de-Beaupré (basilica, Quebec, Canada)

    Sainte-Anne-de-Beaupré: The present basilica was completed in 1963; constructed in the 12th-century Romanesque-Gothic style, it can accommodate 9,000 worshippers. Sainte-Anne-de-Beaupré is the headquarters of the French Redemptorists and the seat of their college. An attraction of the town is a huge cyclorama of Jerusalem depicting the day of…

  • Sainte-Beuve, Charles Augustin (French critic)

    Charles Augustin Sainte-Beuve, French literary historian and critic, noted for applying historical frames of reference to contemporary writing. His studies of French literature from the Renaissance to the 19th century made him one of the most-respected and most-powerful literary critics in

  • Sainte-Catherine, Church of (church, Honfleur, France)

    Honfleur: The timber church of Sainte-Catherine, which looks like a ship upside down, was constructed in the 15th century by shipbuilders. It is separated from its wooden belfry, which is in the Place du Marché.

  • Sainte-Cécile Cathedral (cathedral, Albi, France)

    Albi: …architectural glory is the Gothic Sainte-Cécile Cathedral (1277–1512), which was constructed in brick, without flying buttresses. Between the cathedral and the river is situated the red brick Berbie Palace, a 13th-century archbishop’s palace that is now a museum where the works of Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, a native of Albi, are…

  • Sainte-Chapelle (church, Paris, France)

    baldachin: …rich Gothic example in the Sainte-Chapelle at Paris (1247–50), reconstructed by Eugène-Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc in the 19th century. In the Renaissance the use of the baldachin became more common, and during the 17th century elaborate structures were built, probably as a result of the influence of the enormous bronze baldachin that…

  • Sainte-Claire Deville, Henri-étienne (French chemist)

    Henri-étienne Sainte-Claire Deville, French chemical researcher who invented the first economical process for producing aluminum. Sainte-Claire Deville was the son of a French diplomat. He received a degree in medicine in Paris in 1843 but was already attracted to chemistry. He established his own

  • Sainte-Clotilde (church, Paris, France)

    Western architecture: France: …to approve the plans for Sainte-Clotilde in Paris by Franz Christian Gau, plans that they had held up for more than four years. It became a cause célèbre. A furious pamphlet war followed, from which the Gothic Revivalists emerged triumphant, and in 1852 Didron estimated that 200 neo-Gothic churches had…

  • Sainte-Croix Cathedral (cathedral, Orléans, France)

    Orléans: History: The Sainte-Croix Cathedral, begun in the 13th century, was largely destroyed by the Protestants in 1568. Henry IV, king of France from 1589–1610, gave funds for its reconstruction, and it was faithfully rebuilt (17th–19th century) in Gothic style. The 18th-century towers were damaged in World War…

  • Sainte-Foy (Quebec, Canada)

    Sainte-Foy, former city, Québec region, southern Quebec province, Canada. In 2002 it was incorporated into Quebec city, becoming a borough of the enlarged city. Sainte-Foy borough is situated on the north bank of the St. Lawrence River, opposite the mouth of the Saint-Charles River, in the

  • Sainte-Geneviève (building, Paris, France)

    Panthéon, building in Paris that was begun about 1757 by the architect Jacques-Germain Soufflot as the Church of Sainte-Geneviève to replace a much older church of that name on the same site. It was secularized during the French Revolution and dedicated to the memory of great Frenchmen, receiving

  • Sainte-Geneviève, Library of (library, Paris, France)

    Western architecture: France: This was the Library of Sainte-Geneviève, Paris, designed in 1838–39 and built from 1843 to 1850; it is one of the masterpieces of 19th-century architecture. The austere arcuated (arched) facade, owing something to Leon Battista Alberti’s Malatesta Temple at Rimini, Italy, is adorned with the carved names of…

  • Sainte-Lagu? method (political science)

    election: Party-list proportional representation: Under the so-called Sainte-Lagu? method, developed by Andre Sainte-Lagu? of France, only odd numbers are used. After a party has won its first seat, its vote total is divided by three; after it wins subsequent seats, the divisor is increased by two. The d’Hondt formula is used in…

  • Sainte-Marie, Beverly (American singer-songwriter)

    Buffy Sainte-Marie, Canadian-born American singer-songwriter, guitarist, political activist, and visual artist known especially for her use of music to promote awareness of issues affecting Native Americans. Orphaned as an infant in Canada when her mother, a Plains Cree, died in an automobile

  • Sainte-Marie, Buffy (American singer-songwriter)

    Buffy Sainte-Marie, Canadian-born American singer-songwriter, guitarist, political activist, and visual artist known especially for her use of music to promote awareness of issues affecting Native Americans. Orphaned as an infant in Canada when her mother, a Plains Cree, died in an automobile

  • Sainte-Marie, Cathedral of (cathedral, Bayonne, France)

    Bayonne: …the Chateau Vieux and the Cathédrale de Sainte-Marie (13th–16th century, with two 19th-century towers [210 feet; 64 metres]). Across the river in Petit Bayonne are the Chateau Neuf, the Bonnat Museum, and the Basque Museum. Downstream, on the right bank of the Adour, are the port and industrial complexes of…

  • Sainte-Marie, Cathedral of (cathedral, Auch, France)

    Auch: The town’s cathedral of Sainte-Marie (1489–1662) is one of the finest Gothic buildings of southern France. Its chief features are 113 Renaissance choir stalls of carved oak and Renaissance stained-glass windows by Arnaud de Moles. The cathedral’s classical facade dates from the 16th and 17th centuries, and…

  • Sainte-Marie-de-la-Tourette (convent, Eveux-sur-Arbresle, France)

    Le Corbusier: The second period: …austere is the convent of Sainte-Marie-de-la-Tourette at Eveux-sur-Arbresle, near Lyon. The square building imposes a fortress of concrete in a natural setting. In the three-tiered facade of glass at la Tourette, Le Corbusier first employed panes of glass set at “musical” intervals to obtain a lyrical effect. Le Corbusier’s reputation…

  • Sainte-Marie-du-Mont (town, France)

    Sainte-Marie-du-Mont, town, Normandy région, on the Cotentin peninsula of northwestern France. It is situated 6 miles (10 km) north of Carentan and some 3 miles (5 km) inland of La Madeleine, an area of sand dunes on the English Channel coast. At the southernmost end of Utah Beach, La Madeleine was

  • Sainte-Marie-Madeleine, église (church, Paris, France)

    Madeleine, Paris church designed by Pierre-Alexandre Vignon in 1806. Together with the Arc de Triomphe (1806–08) and the Vend?me Column, the Madeleine is one of the monuments with which Napoleon sought to turn Paris into an imperial capital. Built in the form of a Roman temple surrounded by a

  • Sainte-Marthe, Church of (church, Tarascon, France)

    Tarascon: The church of Sainte-Marthe dates mainly from the 15th century and has a portal dating from a 12th-century Romanesque building. The church’s spire was destroyed during World War II but has been rebuilt.

  • Sainte-Maxence, Pont (bridge, France)

    bridge: Stone arch bridges: … (1774), over the Seine, the Pont Sainte-Maxence (1785), over the Oise, and the beautiful Pont de la Concorde (1791), also over the Seine. In Great Britain, William Edwards built what many people consider the most beautiful arch bridge in the British Isles—the Pontypridd Bridge (1750), over the

  • Sainte-Mère-église (town, France)

    Sainte-Mère-église, town, Normandy région, northwestern France. It is situated on the Cotentin peninsula, 8 miles (13 km) north-northwest of Carentan and 24 miles (39 km) southeast of Cherbourg, and it was the first French town liberated by the Allies during the Normandy Invasion of World War II.

  • Sainte-Thérèse (Quebec, Canada)

    Sainte-Thérèse, city, Laurentides region, southern Quebec province, Canada. It lies along the Montreal-Laurentian Autoroute. The parish of Sainte-Thérèse, dating from 1789, and the community were named for Thérèse de Blainville, daughter of the seigneur who made the first land grants for it about

  • Sainte-Thérèse Basilica (church, Lisieux, France)

    Lisieux: …is buried, and the imposing Basilica of St. Thérèse, built in Romano-Byzantine style, begun in 1929 and consecrated in 1954.

  • Saintes (France)

    Saintes, town, Charente-Maritime département, Nouvelle-Aquitaine région, western France. It lies along the Charente River, 47 miles (76 km) southeast of La Rochelle. Saintes was the administrative centre of the Charente Inférieure département (now Charente-Maritime) from 1791 until La Rochelle

  • Saintes Islands (islands, Guadeloupe)

    Guadeloupe: … to the east, and the Saintes Islands (Terre-de-Haut and Terre-de-Bas) to the south. Two French overseas collectivities—Saint-Barthélemy and Saint-Martin, the French-administered part of the island of Saint Martin (the southern third of which is administered by the Netherlands as Sint Maarten)—were part of Guadeloupe until 2007. They are situated about

  • Saintes, Battle of the (West Indies [1782])

    Battle of the Saintes, (April 9–12, 1782), in the American Revolution, major naval victory for Britain in the West Indies that restored British naval mastery in the area and ended the French threat to nearby British possessions. After the Siege of Yorktown (September 29–October 19, 1781), the

  • Saintes-Maries, Les (France)

    Saintes-Maries-de-la-Mer, village in the Camargue, Bouches-du-Rh?ne département, Provence–Alpes–C?te d’Azur région, southern France, along the Mediterranean coast. Its name originates in the ancient Proven?al tradition that the early Christian figures Mary, sister of the Virgin, and Mary, mother of

  • Saintes-Maries-de-la-Mer (France)

    Saintes-Maries-de-la-Mer, village in the Camargue, Bouches-du-Rh?ne département, Provence–Alpes–C?te d’Azur région, southern France, along the Mediterranean coast. Its name originates in the ancient Proven?al tradition that the early Christian figures Mary, sister of the Virgin, and Mary, mother of

  • sainthood

    Saint, holy person, believed to have a special relationship to the sacred as well as moral perfection or exceptional teaching abilities. The phenomenon is widespread in the religions of the world, both ancient and contemporary. Various types of religious personages have been recognized as saints,

  • Saintonge (historical region, France)

    Saintonge, former province of western France, covering most of the present département of Charente-Maritime. Its chief city was Saintes. Saintonge was originally the territory inhabited by the Santones, a Gallic tribe. Through the Middle Ages, Saintonge shared the political fortunes of

  • Saintpaulia (plant)

    African violet, (genus Saintpaulia), any of the six species of flowering plants in the genus Saintpaulia (family Gesneriaceae). Native to higher elevations in tropical eastern Africa, African violets are widely grown horticulturally, especially S. ionantha. The members of Saintpaulia are small

  • Saintpaulia ionantha (plant)

    African violet: …are widely grown horticulturally, especially S. ionantha. The members of Saintpaulia are small perennial herbs with thick, hairy, ovate leaves. These dark green leaves have long petioles (leaf stems) and are arranged in a basal cluster at the base of the plant. The violet-like flowers are bilaterally symmetric with five…

  • Saints (British religious group)

    Clapham Sect, group of evangelical Christians, prominent in England from about 1790 to 1830, who campaigned for the abolition of slavery and promoted missionary work at home and abroad. The group centred on the church of John Venn, rector of Clapham in south London. Its members included William

  • Saints and Sinners (short stories by O’Brien)

    Edna O'Brien: … (1984), Lantern Slides (1990), and Saints and Sinners (2011). She also wrote plays, screenplays for film and television, and nonfiction about Ireland. In 1999 her short study James Joyce was published to critical acclaim. She chronicled the frenetic passions of Lord Byron in Byron in Love (2009). Country Girl, O’Brien’s…

  • Saints Cyril and Methodius, Brotherhood of (Ukrainian literary organization)

    Russia: The Russian Empire: …a different form in the Brotherhood of SS. Cyril and Methodius, in Kiev. This group, among whose members was the Ukrainian poet Taras Shevchenko, believed that a federation of Slav peoples should include the Ukrainians, whom they claimed were not a part of the Russian nation but a distinct nationality.…

  • Saints Marcellinus and Peter (church, Seligenstadt, Germany)

    Western architecture: Carolingian period: In the church of Saints Marcellinus and Peter at Seligenstadt (830–840) only the three-aisle nave on pillars is original. In the style of the great basilicas of Rome, this church had a hall-shaped, wide transept with a semicircular apse adjoining it. Some churches, such as Centula (Saint-Riquier, France), which…

  • Saints Maria e Donato (basilica, Murano, Italy)

    Murano: …Murano is the basilica of Saints Maria e Donato. In its present state it dates from the 13th century, having been rebuilt several times since its founding in the 7th century. Notable for the beautiful external architecture of the apse, it contains a spring-beam roof and most of the original…

  • Saints Maurice and Catherine, cathedral of (cathedral, Magdeburg, Germany)

    Magdeburg: …Gothic cathedral (1209–1520) dedicated to Saints Maurice and Catherine has survived, and the Monastery of Our Lady (begun c. 1070), the oldest church in the city, has been restored. The Magdeburg Rider, the oldest German equestrian statue (c. 1240), showing Otto the Great, can be seen in Magdeburg’s Cultural History…

  • Saints Peter and Paul, Cathedral of (cathedral, Naumburg, Germany)

    Western sculpture: Early Gothic: 1250) of Naumburg cathedral. Here, the desire for dramatic tension is exploited to good effect, since the figures—a series of lay founders in contemporary costume—are given a realistic place in the architecture, alongside a triforium gallery. Naumburg also has a notable amount of extremely realistic foliage carving.

  • Saints Peter and Paul, Church of (church, Weimar, Germany)

    Weimar: … (1724–32), Tiefurt Castle, and the Church of Saints Peter and Paul (with an altarpiece by Lucas Cranach the Elder and his son), sometimes called the Herder Church for its association with the critic and theologian Johann Gottfried von Herder. Between 1919 and 1925 Weimar was the seat of the Bauhaus…

  • Saints Peter and Paul, Feast of (religious festival)

    Malta: Daily life and social customs: Mnarja, the Feast of St. Peter and St. Paul, takes place on the weekend preceding June 29 in Buskett Gardens in Rabat. It is the country’s principal folk festival and is highlighted by folksinging (g?ana) contests and fried-rabbit picnics. The annual Carnival is celebrated in various villages…

  • Saints Sergius and Bacchus (church, Constantinople)

    Western architecture: The early Byzantine period (330–726): In Saints Sergius and Bacchus it stood on an octagonal base, so that no great problems were involved in converting the angular ground plan to a circle on which the dome could rest. But in the others the dome stands above a square, and the transition…

  • Saints, Assembly of (English history)

    Oliver Cromwell: First chairman of the Council: …came to think that the Assembly of Saints, as it was called, was too hasty and too radical. He also resented the fact that it did not consult him. Later he described this experiment of choosing Saints to govern as an example of his own “weakness and folly.” He sought…

  • saints, communion of (Christian theology)

    Communion of saints, in Christian theology, the fellowship of those united to Jesus Christ in Baptism; the phrase is first found in the 5th-century version of the Apostles’ Creed by Nicetas of Remesiana. The original Greek phrase has been translated both as a sharing of the benefits of membership

  • saints, cult of the (Christianity)

    history of Europe: Devotional life: …popular devotion and the official cult of the saints (the system of religious belief and ritual surrounding the saints). The cult of the saints was celebrated by clergy and laity in the observance of feast days and processions, the veneration of saints’ relics, pilgrimages to saints’ shrines, and the rituals…

  • Saints, Proper of (Christianity)

    church year: The major church calendars: …of Christmas, and (2) the Proper of Saints (Sanctorale), other commemorations on fixed dates of the year. Every season and holy day is a celebration, albeit with different emphases, of the total revelation and redemption of Christ, which are “made present at all times” or proclaim “the paschal mystery as…

  • saints, veneration of the (religion)

    church year: Saints’ days and other holy days: …to Christ, since they are commemorated for the virtues in life and death that derive from his grace and holiness. Originally each local church had its own calendar. Standardization came with the fixation of the rites of the great patriarchal sees, which began in the 4th century and was completed…

  • Saintsbury, George (British critic and historian)

    George Saintsbury, the most influential English literary historian and critic of the early 20th century. His lively style and wide knowledge helped make his works both popular and authoritative. Disappointed at not getting a fellowship at Merton College, Oxford (M.A., 1868), Saintsbury spent almost

  • Saintsbury, George Edward Bateman (British critic and historian)

    George Saintsbury, the most influential English literary historian and critic of the early 20th century. His lively style and wide knowledge helped make his works both popular and authoritative. Disappointed at not getting a fellowship at Merton College, Oxford (M.A., 1868), Saintsbury spent almost

  • Saiokuken (Japanese poet)

    Sōchō, Japanese renga (“linked-verse”) poet and chronicler of the late Muromachi period (1338–1573) who, along with two other renga poets, wrote Minase sangin hyakuin (1488; Minase Sangin Hyakuin: A Poem of One Hundred Links Composed by Three Poets at Minase). Little is known of Sōchō’s early

  • Saionji Kimmochi (prime minister of Japan)

    Saionji Kimmochi, the longest-surviving member of the oligarchy that governed Japan after the Meiji Restoration (1868), which had brought an end to the Edo (Tokugawa) period and formally (if nominally) reestablished the authority of the emperor. As prime minister and elder statesman (genro), he

  • Saionji Kinmochi (prime minister of Japan)

    Saionji Kimmochi, the longest-surviving member of the oligarchy that governed Japan after the Meiji Restoration (1868), which had brought an end to the Edo (Tokugawa) period and formally (if nominally) reestablished the authority of the emperor. As prime minister and elder statesman (genro), he

  • Saipan (island, Northern Mariana Islands)

    Saipan, island, one of the Mariana Islands and part of the Northern Mariana Islands commonwealth of the United States, in the western Pacific Ocean. The island is hilly, rising to an elevation of 1,545 feet (471 metres) at Mount Takpochao (Tagpochau); it is 14 miles (23 km) long and 5 miles (8 km)

  • Saiph (star)

    astronomical map: Star names and designations: …Orion,” Mintaka, the “Belt,” and Saiph, the “Sword,” all follow the Ptolemaic figure; Betelgeuse, from yad al-Jawzah, is an alternative non-Ptolemaic description meaning “hand of Orion”; and Bellatrix, meaning “Female Warrior,” either is a free Latin translation of an independent Arabic title, al-najid, “the conqueror,” or is a modification of…

  • Sairoon (political alliance, Iraq)

    Muqtadā al-?adr: Shift toward nationalism: …parliamentary elections, ?adr formed the Sairoon (“Moving Forward”) alliance. Reflecting his new antisectarian viewpoint, it included his newly formed Istiqāmah (“Integrity”) Party, the Iraqi Communist Party, and smaller parties or civil groups, representing an eclectic mix of Shi?is, Sunnis, secularists, and liberals. Sairoon campaigned on a platform of being against…

  • SAIS (Peruvian organization)

    land reform: Latin America: …estates are run by the Agricultural Societies of Social Interest (SAIS), a mechanism devised to avoid breaking up economically efficient enterprises rather than to modify the tenure institutions.

  • Sais (ancient city, Egypt)

    Sais, ancient Egyptian city (Sai) in the Nile River delta on the Canopic (Rosetta) Branch of the Nile River, in Al-Gharbīyah mu?āfa?ah (governorate). From prehistoric times Sais was the location of the chief shrine of Neith, the goddess of war and of the loom. The city became politically important

  • saisei-itchi (Japanese religion)

    State Shintō: …on the ancient precedent of saisei itchi, the unity of religion and government. Traditionally, the kami (gods, or sacred powers), the Japanese emperor, the citizens, and the nation were all considered descendants of common ancestors, and the prosperity of all was assured by coincidence between human politics and the will…

  • saishu (Japanese priestess)

    shinshoku: …Ise, the supreme priestess, the saishu (“chief of the religious ceremonies”), ranks even above the supreme priest, the dai-gūji. Formerly the post of supreme priestess was always filled by an unmarried princess of the Imperial family. She devoted herself entirely to the religious ceremonies (matsuri, q.v.) of the Ise Shrine.

  • Saison à Rihata, Un (novel by Condé)

    Maryse Condé: Un Saison à Rihata (1981; A Season in Rihata) is set in a late 20th-century African land.

  • Saison au Congo, Une (play by Césaire)

    Aimé Césaire: …Une Saison au Congo (1966; A Season in the Congo), the epic of the 1960 Congo rebellion and of the assassination of the Congolese political leader Patrice Lumumba. Both depict the fate of black power as forever doomed to failure.

  • Saison dans la vie d’Emmanuel, Une (novel by Blais)

    Canadian literature: Contemporary trends: …dans la vie d’Emmanuel (1965; A Season in the Life of Emmanuel), which won the Prix Médicis, presented a scathing denunciation of Quebec rural life, and Godbout’s Salut, Galarneau! (1967; Hail, Galarneau!) described the Americanization of Quebec. Blais went on to receive critical acclaim for Soifs (1995; These Festive Nights),…

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