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  • Smith, Zilpha Drew (American social worker)

    Zilpha Drew Smith, American social worker under whose guidance in the late 19th century Boston’s charity network was skillfully organized and efficiently run. Smith grew up in East Boston (now part of Boston). She graduated from the Girls’ High and Normal School of Boston in 1868. After working as

  • Smith-Barry, Robert (British officer)

    military aircraft: Air transport and training: Robert Smith-Barry introduced a curriculum based on a balanced combination of academic classroom training and dual flight instruction. Philosophically, Smith-Barry’s system was based not on avoiding potentially dangerous maneuvers—as had been the case theretofore—but on exposing the student to them in a controlled manner so…

  • Smith-Connally Anti-Strike Act (United States [1943])

    Smith-Connally Anti-Strike Act, (June 25, 1943), measure enacted by the U.S. Congress, over President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s veto, giving the president power to seize and operate privately owned war plants when an actual or threatened strike or lockout interfered with war production. Subsequent

  • Smith-Dorrien, Horace (British general)

    Battle of Mons: Sir Horace Smith-Dorrien’s II Corps on the British left, where the situation was not unfavourable for the British. A canal that looped north of Mons provided a valuable defensive line, while the terrain on the opposite side held numerous difficulties for the attackers. Muddy ditches…

  • Smith-Helmholtz theorem (mathematics)

    optics: Magnification: the optical invariant: This theorem has been named after the French scientist Joseph-Louis Lagrange, although it is sometimes called the Smith-Helmholtz theorem, after Robert Smith, an English scientist, and Hermann Helmholtz, a German scientist; the product (hnu) is often known as the optical invariant. As it is easy to…

  • Smith-Hughes Act (United States [1917])

    Smith-Hughes Act, U.S. legislation, adopted in 1917, that provided federal aid to the states for the purpose of promoting precollegiate vocational education in agricultural and industrial trades and in home economics. Although the law helped to expand vocational courses and enrollment, it generally

  • Smith-Lever Act (United States [1914])

    agricultural sciences: U.S. agricultural education and research: Congress passed the Smith–Lever Act in 1914, providing for, among other things, the teaching of improved agricultural practices to farmers. Thus the agricultural extension service—now recognized as an outstanding example of adult vocational education—was established.

  • Smitherman, Joseph (American politician)

    Selma March: Voter registration in Selma: , Selma’s recently elected mayor, Joseph Smitherman, sought to prevent local law-enforcement officers from employing violence, fearing that bad publicity would work against his attempt to lure new industry to Selma.

  • Smithfield (area, London, United Kingdom)

    Smithfield, area in the northwestern part of the City of London. It is famous for its meat market (the London Central Meat Market), one of the largest of its kind in the world. From 1133 until 1855 the site was used for the Bartholomew Fair, a cloth and meat market that later became known as a

  • Smithfield (Washington, United States)

    Olympia, city, capital of Washington, U.S., seat (1852) of Thurston county, on Budd Inlet and Capitol Lake (at the south end of Puget Sound), at the mouth of the Deschutes River, 29 miles (47 km) southwest of Tacoma. Laid out in 1851 as Smithfield, it became the site of a U.S. customs house and was

  • Smithfield Fires (English history)

    United Kingdom: Mary I (1553–58): …women were martyred in the Smithfield Fires during the last three years of her reign; compared with events on the Continent, the numbers were not large, but the emotional impact was great. Among the first half-dozen martyrs were the Protestant leaders Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley, Hugh Latimer, and John Hooper, who…

  • Smithfield ham (food)

    ham: …United States are those of Smithfield, Virginia, which are processed from hogs fattened on acorns, nuts, and corn. The hams are cured in a dry mixture for 30–37 days, then spiced with black pepper, and cold smoked (at 70–90 °F [21–27 °C]) for another 10–15 days. Afterward, the ham is…

  • Smithies, Oliver (American scientist)

    Oliver Smithies, British-born American scientist who, with Mario R. Capecchi and Sir Martin J. Evans, won the 2007 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for developing gene targeting, a technology used to create animal models of human diseases in mice. In 1951 Smithies earned both a master’s

  • smithing (metalwork)

    Smithing, Fabrication and repair of metal objects by hot and cold forging on an anvil or with a power hammer or by welding and other means. Blacksmiths traditionally worked with iron (anciently known as “black metal”), making agricultural and other tools, fashioning hardware (e.g., hooks, hinges,

  • SmithKline Beecham PLC (pharmaceutical company)

    Jean-Pierre Garnier: …Garnier made the move to SmithKline Beecham, a British-based pharmaceutical firm, where he was named president of the company’s North American business. He was elected to SmithKline Beecham’s board of directors in 1992 and was appointed chief operating officer of the company in 1995. In recognition of his accomplishments, Garnier…

  • Smiths, the (British rock group)

    The Smiths, one of the most popular and critically acclaimed English bands of the 1980s. The original members were lead singer Morrissey (original name Steven Patrick Morrissey; b. May 22, 1959, Manchester, England), guitarist Johnny Marr (original name John Maher; b. October 31, 1963, Manchester),

  • Smithson, Alison (British architect)

    Alison Margaret Smithson, British architect (born June 22, 1928, Sheffield, Yorkshire, England—died Aug. 16, 1993, London, England), with her husband, Peter, was in the forefront of New Brutalism, an architectural movement that stressed spartan functionality and a stark presentation of structure a

  • Smithson, Alison Margaret (British architect)

    Alison Margaret Smithson, British architect (born June 22, 1928, Sheffield, Yorkshire, England—died Aug. 16, 1993, London, England), with her husband, Peter, was in the forefront of New Brutalism, an architectural movement that stressed spartan functionality and a stark presentation of structure a

  • Smithson, Alison; and Smithson, Peter (British architects)

    Alison Smithson and Peter Smithson, British architects notable for their design for the Hunstanton Secondary Modern School, Norfolk (1954), which is generally recognized as the first example of New Brutalism, an approach to architecture that often stressed stark presentation of materials and

  • Smithson, Forrest (American athlete)
  • Smithson, Harriet (Irish actress)

    Symphonie fantastique, Op. 14: …poet: he was enchanted by Harriet Smithson, the young Irishwoman who played Ophelia. That enchantment soon turned to obsession as Berlioz haunted the stage door and inundated Smithson with love letters only to have his advances ignored. Motivated by the pain of unilateral love, Berlioz began after three years to…

  • Smithson, James (British scientist)

    James Smithson, English scientist who provided funds for the founding of the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. Smithson, the natural son of Hugh Smithson Percy, 1st duke of Northumberland, and Elizabeth Keate Macie, a lineal descendant of Henry VII, was educated at the University of Oxford.

  • Smithson, Peter (British architect)

    Peter Denham Smithson, British architect (born Sept. 18, 1923, Stockton-on-Tees, Durham, Eng.—died March 3, 2003, London, Eng.), with his wife, Alison, was among the foremost proponents of the New Brutalism style of architecture, which stressed a new respect for the functionality of materials. S

  • Smithson, Peter Denham (British architect)

    Peter Denham Smithson, British architect (born Sept. 18, 1923, Stockton-on-Tees, Durham, Eng.—died March 3, 2003, London, Eng.), with his wife, Alison, was among the foremost proponents of the New Brutalism style of architecture, which stressed a new respect for the functionality of materials. S

  • Smithson, Robert (American sculptor and writer)

    Robert Smithson, American sculptor and writer associated with the Land Art movement. His large-scale sculptures, called Earthworks, engaged directly with nature and were created by moving and constructing with vast amounts of soil and rocks. Smithson preferred to work with ruined or exhausted sites

  • Smithsonian Agreement (1971)

    international payment and exchange: The Smithsonian Agreement and after: On Dec. 17 and 18, 1971, representatives of the Group of Ten met at the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C., and agreed on a realignment of currencies and a new set of pegged exchange rates. The dollar was devalued in terms…

  • Smithsonian American Art Museum (museum, Washington, District of Columbia, United States)

    Smithsonian American Art Museum (SAAM), first federal art collection of the United States, housing the world’s largest collection of American art. The Washington, D.C., museum showcases more than 40,000 works of art, representing 7,000 American artists. Featured permanent collections include

  • Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (observatory, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States)

    Charles Greeley Abbot: …who, as director of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory in Washington, D.C., for almost four decades, engaged in a career-long campaign to demonstrate that the Sun’s energy output varies and has a measurable effect on the Earth’s weather.

  • Smithsonian Institution (institution, Washington, District of Columbia, United States)

    Smithsonian Institution, research institution founded by the bequest of James Smithson, an English scientist. Smithson, who died in 1829, had stipulated in his will that should his nephew and heir himself die without issue, his remaining assets would pass to the United States and be used to found

  • Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (Panama)

    Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (STRI), a collection of scientific facilities in Panama that is primarily devoted to ecological studies. Although located on Panamanian territory, the institute has been operated by the American Smithsonian Institution since 1946 and was originally

  • smithsonite (mineral)

    Smithsonite, zinc carbonate (ZnCO3), a mineral that was the principal source of zinc until the 1880s, when it was replaced by sphalerite. It is ordinarily found in the oxidized zone of ore deposits as a secondary mineral or alteration product of primary zinc minerals. Notable deposits are at

  • Smithton (Tasmania, Australia)

    Smithton, town, northwestern Tasmania, Australia, at the mouth of the Duck River on Duck Bay. It is a commercial centre for the northwest coastal region. The site was included in a grant made to the Van Diemen’s Land Company in 1825. Settlement by Europeans began in earnest in the 1850s, and from

  • Smithton (Missouri, United States)

    Columbia, city, seat of Boone county, near the Missouri River, central Missouri, U.S., midway between St. Louis and Kansas City. It was originally established (1819) as Smithton, but an inadequate water supply forced its move in 1821, when it was laid out and renamed Columbia. The rerouting of

  • Smithville (Indiana, United States)

    Richmond, city, seat (1873) of Wayne county, east-central Indiana, U.S. It is located on the East Fork of Whitewater River, 67 miles (108 km) east of Indianapolis at the Ohio border. Settled in 1806 by migrating North Carolina Quakers, it was first called Smithville and in 1818 amalgamated with

  • Smits, Rik (American basketball player)

    Indiana Pacers: …on the team by centre Rik Smits in 1988, and in 1989–90 Indiana began a streak of seven consecutive postseason berths. The team reached the conference finals in 1993–94 and 1994–95, losing in seven games each time. After missing out on the playoffs in 1995–96, the Pacers advanced to the…

  • SMK (political party, Georgia)

    Mikheil Saakashvili: Education and early political career: …Zhvania, then chairman of the Union of Citizens of Georgia (SMK), and was elected to parliament in November 1995 on the SMK ticket. From 1995 to 1998 he served as chairman of parliament’s Committee on Legal Affairs and lobbied unsuccessfully for faster and more comprehensive reforms. In August 1998 he…

  • SMM (United States space laboratory)

    telescope: Reflecting telescopes: …the Earth-orbiting space observatory, the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM), launched in 1980.

  • smock (clothing)

    Smock, loose, shirtlike garment worn by women in the European Middle Ages under their gowns. The smock eventually developed into a loose, yoked, shirtlike outer garment of coarse linen, used to protect the clothes; it was worn, for example, by peasants in Europe. Modern smocks are loose,

  • smog (atmosphere)

    Smog, community-wide polluted air. Its composition is variable. The term is derived from the words smoke and fog, but it is commonly used to describe the pall of automotive or industrial origin that lies over many cities. The term was probably first used in 1905 by H.A. Des Voeux to describe

  • Smohalla (American Indian leader)

    Smohalla, North American Indian prophet, preacher, and teacher, one of a series of such leaders who arose in response to the menace presented to Native American life and culture by the encroachment of white settlers. He founded a religious cult, the Dreamers, that emphasized traditional Native

  • Smoholler (American Indian leader)

    Smohalla, North American Indian prophet, preacher, and teacher, one of a series of such leaders who arose in response to the menace presented to Native American life and culture by the encroachment of white settlers. He founded a religious cult, the Dreamers, that emphasized traditional Native

  • smoke (gas)

    balloon flight: Smoke and coal gas: Smoke balloons, without onboard fire, became popular for fairs and exhibitions as parachutes were perfected. In particular, the standard grand climax of many celebrations at the turn of the 20th century was to have a trapeze artist ascend for hundreds of…

  • Smoke (film by Wang [1995])

    William Hurt: …included The Accidental Tourist (1988), Smoke (1995), One True Thing (1998), Syriana (2005), Into the Wild (2007), Robin Hood (2010), Winter’s Tale (2014), Days and Nights (2014), and Race (2016). He portrayed the Marvel comic character Thaddeus (“Thunderbolt”) Ross in the films The Incredible Hulk (2008), Captain America: Civil War…

  • Smoke (novel by Turgenev)

    Smoke, novel by Ivan Turgenev, published in Russian in 1867 as Dym. Set in Baden-Baden, Germany, it combines a sensitive love story with political satire. While waiting in fashionable Baden to meet Tanya Shestoff, his fiancée, Grigory Litvinov, the young heir to a declining Russian estate,

  • smoke chamber (mechanism)

    chimney: The smoke chamber narrows uniformly toward the top; it slows down drafts and acts as a reservoir for smoke trapped in the chimney by gusts across the chimney top. The flue, the main length of the chimney, is usually of masonry, often brick, and metal-lined. Vertical…

  • Smoke Creek Desert (desert, Nevada, United States)

    Black Rock Desert: …Pyramid Lake is called the Smoke Creek Desert.

  • smoke detector

    Smoke detector, device used to warn occupants of a building of the presence of a fire before it reaches a rapidly spreading stage and inhibits escape or attempts to extinguish it. On sensing smoke the detectors emit a loud, high-pitched alarm tone, usually warbling or intermittent, and usually

  • Smoke on the Ground (work by Delibes)

    Miguel Delibes: Smoke on the Ground).

  • Smoke on the Water (song by Deep Purple)

    Jon Lord: …series of hits, including “Smoke on the Water” (from Machine Head, 1972) which Lord co-wrote. Deep Purple pioneered earsplitting metal and hard rock; Lord’s keyboard lines, played on an amplified Hammond B-3 organ, combined with Ritchie Blackmore’s guitar at extraordinary decibel levels, earned (1972) the group a designation by…

  • smoke shell (artillery)

    artillery: Projectile, powder, and fuze: Smoke shells, filled with white phosphorus, were adopted for screening the activities of troops; illuminating shells, containing magnesium flares suspended by parachutes, illuminated the battlefield at night; gas shells, filled with various chemicals such as chlorine or mustard gas, were used against troops; incendiary shells…

  • smoke tree (plant)

    Smoke tree, any of several plant species, the foliage or flowers of which suggest clouds of smoke. The name is commonly applied to two ornamental species of small trees or shrubs of the genus Cotinus in the cashew family (Anacardiaceae). Both are deciduous with attractive fall foliage and have

  • Smoke-Free Air Act (2002, New York City, New York, United States)

    Michael Bloomberg: Mayor of New York City: …controversial citywide smoking ban (the Smoke-Free Air Act of 2002), revitalized tourism, and erased the city’s budget deficit.

  • Smokeholer (American Indian leader)

    Smohalla, North American Indian prophet, preacher, and teacher, one of a series of such leaders who arose in response to the menace presented to Native American life and culture by the encroachment of white settlers. He founded a religious cult, the Dreamers, that emphasized traditional Native

  • smokehouse (device)

    smoking: Commercial smokehouses, usually several stories high, often use steampipes to supplement the heat of a natural sawdust fire. Hickory sawdust is the preferred fuel. Whatever the size of the smoking operation, it is imperative that a hardwood fire be used. The softwood of conifers such as…

  • smokejack (device)

    gas-turbine engine: Origins: It was followed by the smokejack, first sketched by Leonardo da Vinci and subsequently described in detail by John Wilkins, an English clergyman, in 1648. This device consisted of a number of horizontal sails that were mounted on a vertical shaft and driven by the hot air rising from a…

  • smokeless powder (explosive)

    naval ship: Armament: …began to achieve success with smokeless powder of nitrated cellulose and usually some nitroglycerin. With greater striking power available, armour-piercing projectiles became more formidable. These were originally solid shot designed simply to punch through armour plate. In the 1890s, better steel and fuses made it possible to add an explosive…

  • smokeless tobacco

    smoking: Cancer: Smokeless tobacco users, meanwhile, repeatedly expose the oral mucosa to toxins and have a substantially increased risk of getting head and neck cancers, though the risk depends in part on the period of consumption and the nature of the product. For example, Swedish smokeless tobacco…

  • smoker (mask)

    beekeeping: Beekeeping equipment: …of the beekeeper are: the smoker to quell the bees; a veil to protect the face; gloves for the novice or the person sensitive to stings; a blunt steel blade called a hive tool, for separating the frames and other hive parts for examination; the uncapping knife, for opening the…

  • Smokey Joe’s Cafe (song by Leiber and Stoller)

    the Coasters: 9” and “Smokey Joe’s Cafe”). In 1955, with a change in personnel (most notably the loss of Richard Berry, who would later write the rock classic “Louie, Louie”), they became the Coasters. The group had a series of rock-and-roll hits—largely for Atlantic Records’ subsidiary label Atco—with witty…

  • Smokies, the (mountains, North Carolina-Tennessee, United States)

    Great Smoky Mountains, western segment of the high Appalachian Mountains in eastern Tennessee and western North Carolina, U.S. The Great Smokies lie between Knoxville, Tennessee (just to the west), and Asheville, North Carolina (just to the east), blending into the Blue Ridge escarpment to the east

  • smoking (food preservation)

    Smoking, in food processing, the exposure of cured meat and fish products to smoke for the purposes of preserving them and increasing their palatability by adding flavour and imparting a rich brown colour. The drying action of the smoke tends to preserve the meat, though many of the chemicals

  • smoking (tobacco)

    Smoking, the act of inhaling and exhaling the fumes of burning plant material. A variety of plant materials are smoked, including marijuana and hashish, but the act is most commonly associated with tobacco as smoked in a cigarette, cigar, or pipe. Tobacco contains nicotine, an alkaloid that is

  • smoking ban (law)

    smoking: Smoking and health: … in 2008, have implemented complete smoking bans in restaurants, taverns, and enclosed workplaces. A ban introduced in 2011 in China, which was home to one-third of the global smoking population, barred smoking in hotels, restaurants, and other indoor public spaces (the ban did not include smoking in workplaces, nor did…

  • smoking cessation (behaviour)

    smoking: Smoking cessation: The starting point for “kicking the habit” is awareness of the harm smoking can cause. For example, after the U.S. surgeon general’s report in 1964 brought to public awareness a link between smoking and cancer, smoking rates in the United States dropped precipitously.…

  • smoky bat (mammal species)

    smoky bat: Amorphochilus schnablii is the smoky bat, whereas Furipterus horrens is also commonly called the thumbless bat. Small and delicately built, both species range in size from about 3.7 to 5.8 cm (1.5 to 2.3 inches), have tails about 2.4 to 3.6 cm (1 to 1.4 inches) in length, and…

  • smoky bat (mammal family)

    Smoky bat, (family Furipteridae), either of two bat species found in the Central and South American tropics and classified as a family unto themselves. Amorphochilus schnablii is the smoky bat, whereas Furipterus horrens is also commonly called the thumbless bat. Small and delicately built, both

  • Smoky Hill River (river, United States)

    Smoky Hill River, river formed by two headstreams (North and South forks) that rise north of Cheyenne Wells, Cheyenne county, in eastern Colorado, U.S., and flow east into Kansas, continuing past Wallace to unite near Russell Springs. The main stream then continues in a generally eastward

  • Smoky Mountains (mountains, North Carolina-Tennessee, United States)

    Great Smoky Mountains, western segment of the high Appalachian Mountains in eastern Tennessee and western North Carolina, U.S. The Great Smokies lie between Knoxville, Tennessee (just to the west), and Asheville, North Carolina (just to the east), blending into the Blue Ridge escarpment to the east

  • smoky quartz (mineral)

    Smoky quartz, very common coarse-grained variety of the silica mineral quartz that ranges in colour from nearly black through smoky brown. No distinct boundary exists between smoky and colourless quartz. Its abundance causes it to be worth considerably less than either amethyst or citrine. Heating

  • Smolensk (oblast, Russia)

    Smolensk, oblast (region), western Russia. The oblast lies mostly in the upper Dnieper River basin. The terminal moraines of the Smolensk-Moscow Upland lie east-west across the oblast, rising to 1,050 feet (320 m) and dividing the Dnieper, Volga, and Western Dvina basins. Easy portages between

  • Smolensk (Russia)

    Smolensk, city and administrative centre of Smolensk oblast (region), western Russia. The city stands on both banks of the Dnieper River, 260 miles (418 km) west of Moscow. Smolensk is one of the oldest and most historic of Russian cities, dating back to the 9th century, but the ravages of war

  • Smolensk Cathedral (cathedral, Moscow, Russia)

    Moscow: The middle zone: …Novodevichy Convent, with its beautiful Smolensk Cathedral, whose tall bell tower (1690) dominates the churches and buildings within the crenellated walls and towers of the convent. The cathedral now houses the Novodevichy Convent Museum, and the complex includes a cemetery where Khrushchev and other prominent figures from Soviet history are…

  • Smolensk Upland (region, Russia)

    Smolensk Upland, ridge of high land, western Russia, running in a west-southwest to east-northeast direction across the Russian Plain from Orsha, southwest of Smolensk, to Yuryev-Polsky, northeast of Moscow, a distance of 420 miles (680 km). Marking the southern limit of the last glaciation, it c

  • Smolensk, Battle of (Napoleonic Wars [1812])

    Battle of Smolensk, (16–18 August 1812), engagement of the Napoleonic Wars. When Napoleon invaded Russia in June 1812, he led a multinational army of more than half a million soldiers. He needed a rapid and decisive victory, but although victorious at Smolensk, some 230 miles (370 km) west of

  • Smolensk-Moscow Upland (region, Russia)

    Smolensk Upland, ridge of high land, western Russia, running in a west-southwest to east-northeast direction across the Russian Plain from Orsha, southwest of Smolensk, to Yuryev-Polsky, northeast of Moscow, a distance of 420 miles (680 km). Marking the southern limit of the last glaciation, it c

  • Smolenskaya Vozvyshennost (region, Russia)

    Smolensk Upland, ridge of high land, western Russia, running in a west-southwest to east-northeast direction across the Russian Plain from Orsha, southwest of Smolensk, to Yuryev-Polsky, northeast of Moscow, a distance of 420 miles (680 km). Marking the southern limit of the last glaciation, it c

  • Smolenskin, Peretz (Russian-Jewish author)

    Hebrew literature: Romanticism: Peretz Smolenskin created in six novels a kaleidoscope of Jewish life in which he rejected the westernized Jew as much as orthodox reactionaries did.

  • Smolensko-Moskovskaya Upland (region, Russia)

    Smolensk Upland, ridge of high land, western Russia, running in a west-southwest to east-northeast direction across the Russian Plain from Orsha, southwest of Smolensk, to Yuryev-Polsky, northeast of Moscow, a distance of 420 miles (680 km). Marking the southern limit of the last glaciation, it c

  • Smólikas óros (mountain, Greece)

    Greece: Central Greece: the Píndos Mountains: The range’s highest point, Mount Smólikas, 8,652 feet (2,637 metres) high, is found in the north.

  • Smollet, Tobias George (Scottish novelist)

    Tobias Smollett, Scottish satirical novelist, best known for his picaresque novels The Adventures of Roderick Random (1748) and The Adventures of Peregrine Pickle (1751) and his epistolary novel The Expedition of Humphry Clinker (1771). Smollett came of a family of lawyers and soldiers, Whig in

  • Smollett, Tobias (Scottish novelist)

    Tobias Smollett, Scottish satirical novelist, best known for his picaresque novels The Adventures of Roderick Random (1748) and The Adventures of Peregrine Pickle (1751) and his epistolary novel The Expedition of Humphry Clinker (1771). Smollett came of a family of lawyers and soldiers, Whig in

  • Smolny Convent (convent, Saint Petersburg, Russia)

    St. Petersburg: The rise to splendour: …belong the Winter Palace, the Smolny Convent, and the Vorontsov and Stroganov palaces, among others; outside the city were built the summer palaces of Peterhof and of Tsarskoye Selo (now Pushkin). After a transitional period dominated by the architecture of Jean-Baptiste M. Vallin de la Mothe and Aleksandr Kokorinov, toward…

  • Smolny Institute (institution, Saint Petersburg, Russia)

    St. Petersburg: The rise to splendour: Isaac’s cathedrals, the Smolny Institute, the new Admiralty, the Senate, and the Mikhaylovsky Palace (now the State Russian Museum) are representative of the splendid buildings of this period.

  • Smolny Monastery (convent, Saint Petersburg, Russia)

    St. Petersburg: The rise to splendour: …belong the Winter Palace, the Smolny Convent, and the Vorontsov and Stroganov palaces, among others; outside the city were built the summer palaces of Peterhof and of Tsarskoye Selo (now Pushkin). After a transitional period dominated by the architecture of Jean-Baptiste M. Vallin de la Mothe and Aleksandr Kokorinov, toward…

  • Smoltz, John (American baseball player)

    Atlanta Braves: John Smoltz—each of whom won at least one Cy Young Award with the Braves—and hitters such as David Justice and Chipper Jones. During the 1990s and early 2000s, the Braves had one of the most remarkable runs in U.S. sports history, winning an unprecedented 14…

  • Smolyan (Bulgaria)

    Smolyan, town, southern Bulgaria, on the Cherna River in the southeastern Rhodope Mountains. Its elevation, 3,300 feet (1,000 metres), makes it the highest town in Bulgaria. It is a local agricultural centre, with a timber industry and, more recently, mining. It is picturesquely located among

  • Smon-lam chen-mo (Buddhist celebration)

    Smon-lam chen-mo, (Tibetan: “Great Prayer”), most important Tibetan Buddhist celebration of the year, held annually as part of the New Year festivities in Lhasa at least up until 1959, when the People’s Republic of China abolished the government of the Dalai Lama. Smon-lam was established in 1409

  • Smoot, George F. (American physicist)

    George F. Smoot, American physicist, who was corecipient, with John C. Mather, of the Nobel Prize for Physics in 2006 for discoveries supporting the big-bang model. Smoot received a Ph.D. in physics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1970. The following year he joined the faculty at

  • Smoot, George Fitzgerald III (American physicist)

    George F. Smoot, American physicist, who was corecipient, with John C. Mather, of the Nobel Prize for Physics in 2006 for discoveries supporting the big-bang model. Smoot received a Ph.D. in physics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1970. The following year he joined the faculty at

  • Smoot, Reed (American senator)

    Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act: …from its chief sponsors, Senator Reed Smoot of Utah, chairman of the Senate Finance Committee, and Representative Willis Hawley of Oregon, chairman of the House Ways and Means Committee. It was the last legislation under which the U.S. Congress set actual tariff rates.

  • Smoot–Hawley Tariff Act (United States [1930])

    Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act, U.S. legislation (June 17, 1930) that raised import duties to protect American businesses and farmers, adding considerable strain to the international economic climate of the Great Depression. The act takes its name from its chief sponsors, Senator Reed Smoot of Utah,

  • smooth azalea (plant)

    azalea: …North American kinds include the smooth, or sweet, azalea (R. arborescens), a fragrant white-flowering shrub 3 to 6 metres (about 10 to 20 feet) high; the flame azalea (R. calendulaceum), a shrub 0.5 to 2 metres (1.5 to 6.5 feet) high; and the pinxter flower (R. periclymenoides), a shrub 1…

  • smooth brome (plant)

    bromegrass: …forage and pasture grass, and smooth brome (B. inermis), a perennial native to Eurasia and introduced into the northern United States as a forage plant and soil binder, are economically important bromegrasses. The common weed chess (B. secalinus), sometimes known as cheat, is found along roadsides and in grain fields.…

  • smooth crabgrass (plant)

    crabgrass: …hairy crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis) and smooth crabgrass (D. ischaemum), are very troublesome weeds in lawns, fields, and waste spaces because they have decumbent stems that root at the joint and form tenacious patches. Arizona cottontop (D. californica) is a useful forage grass in southwestern North America.

  • smooth dogfish (fish)

    Smooth hound, any of a number of small sharks of the family Triakidae, among them the well-known smooth dogfish. See

  • smooth endoplasmic reticulum (anatomy)

    Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER), meshwork of fine disklike tubular membrane vesicles, part of a continuous membrane organelle within the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells, that is involved in the synthesis and storage of lipids, including cholesterol and phospholipids, which are used in the

  • smooth ER (anatomy)

    Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER), meshwork of fine disklike tubular membrane vesicles, part of a continuous membrane organelle within the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells, that is involved in the synthesis and storage of lipids, including cholesterol and phospholipids, which are used in the

  • smooth gooseberry (shrub)

    Ribes: uva-crispa), American gooseberry (R. hirtellum), black currant (R. nigrum), buffalo currant (R. odoratum), and common, or garden or red, currant (R. rubrum). Species of ornamental value include the alpine currant (R. alpinum); buffalo currant; fuchsia-flowered gooseberry (R. speciosum);

  • smooth green snake (reptile)

    green snake: The smooth green snake (Opheodrys vernalis), sometimes called green grass snake, is about 50 cm (20 inches) long. The rough, or keeled (ridged), green snake (O. aestivus), often called vine snake, is about 75 cm (23 inches) long.

  • smooth hammerhead (shark)
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