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  • social position (social differentiation)

    Social class, a group of people within a society who possess the same socioeconomic status. Besides being important in social theory, the concept of class as a collection of individuals sharing similar economic circumstances has been widely used in censuses and in studies of social mobility. The

  • social problem novel (literature)

    Social problem novel, work of fiction in which a prevailing social problem, such as gender, race, or class prejudice, is dramatized through its effect on the characters of a novel. The type emerged in Great Britain and the United States in the mid-19th century. An early example is Elizabeth

  • Social Process (work by Cooley)

    Charles Horton Cooley: In his last major work, Social Process (1918, reprinted 1966), he applied the Darwinian principles of natural selection and adaptation to collective (social) existence.

  • social program (sociology)

    social movement: Relations between structural elements: Values include the program and the ideology. The program is the scheme of change, the new social order that the movement proposes to bring about. The ideology is a body of ideas justifying the program and the strategy of the movement. It usually includes a reinterpretation of history,…

  • social protection

    Social welfare program, any of a variety of governmental programs designed to protect citizens from the economic risks and insecurities of life. The most common types of programs provide benefits to the elderly or retired, the sick or invalid, dependent survivors, mothers, the unemployed, the

  • social protection networks

    The European welfare state suffered a year of crisis in 1997. In the years after World War II, generations of Europeans had grown accustomed to levels of social protection that were generous and comprehensive compared with, for example, the United States or Asia. In recent years, however, various

  • Social Provision, Institute of (agency, Paraguay)

    Paraguay: Health and welfare: The state-run Institute of Social Provision (IPS) is funded by contributions from government, employers, and employees. It offers pensions, medical care, and subsidies during illness but reaches only a small percentage of the salaried workers.

  • Social Psychology (work by Ross)

    Edward A. Ross: …read book by Ross was Social Psychology (1908), one of the first American works written specifically on that discipline. Sin and Society (1907) was his argument in favour of sociological jurisprudence. His Principles of Sociology (1920) was for years a standard introductory textbook.

  • social psychology

    Social psychology, the scientific study of the behaviour of individuals in their social and cultural setting. Although the term may be taken to include the social activity of laboratory animals or those in the wild, the emphasis here is on human social behaviour. Once a relatively speculative,

  • Social Realism (painting)

    Social Realism, trend in American art originating in about 1930 and referring in its narrow sense to paintings treating themes of social protest in a naturalistic or quasi-expressionist manner. In a broader sense, the term is sometimes taken to include the more general renderings of American life

  • social realism (literature)

    American literature: Realism and metafiction: …novelists were reluctant to abandon Social Realism, which they pursued in much more personal terms. In novels such as The Victim (1947), The Adventures of Augie March (1953), Herzog (1964), Mr. Sammler’s Planet (1970), and

  • Social Reality of Crime, The (work by Quinney)

    Richard Quinney: In The Social Reality of Crime (1970), for example, he concluded that public conceptions of crime are constructed in the political arena to serve political purposes. Taking a neo-Marxist approach in Critique of Legal Order (1974), he introduced a theory of legal order intended to demystify…

  • social reconstructionism

    education: Social-reconstructionist education: A different social-reconstructionist movement was that of the kibbutzim (collective farms) of Israel. The most striking feature of kibbutz education was that the parents forgo rearing and educating their offspring themselves and instead hand the children over to professional educators, sometimes immediately after birth. The kibbutzim type…

  • social reform (politics and society)

    Ottoman Empire: Reform efforts: The Ottoman reforms introduced during the 17th century were undertaken by Sultans Osman II (ruled 1618–22) and Murad IV (1623–40) and by the famous dynasty of K?prülü grand viziers who served under Mehmed IV (1648–87)—K?prülü Mehmed Pa?a

  • Social Register (American publication)

    Social Register, annually published directory purporting to list the socially prestigious members of society in 13 selected U.S. cities. It is administered and published in New York City by the Social Register Association, which refuses any interviews about its publication and which will not

  • Social Research, Institute for (Frankfurt am Main, Germany)

    Frankfurt School: …of researchers associated with the Institute for Social Research in Frankfurt am Main, Germany, who applied Marxism to a radical interdisciplinary social theory. The Institute for Social Research (Institut für Sozialforschung) was founded by Carl Grünberg in 1923 as an adjunct of the University of Frankfurt; it was the first…

  • social revolution (theory)

    anarchism: Anarchism in East Asia: …was the idea of “social revolution”—i.e., the idea that revolutionary political change cannot occur without radical changes in society and culture, specifically the elimination of social institutions that are inherently coercive and authoritarian, such as the traditional family. Although some anarchists in East Asia sought to create revolution through…

  • Social Revolutionary Transcaspian Provincial Government (Turkmen history)

    Turkmenistan: Soviet era: …of sporadic fighting between the Social Revolutionary Transcaspian Provincial Government and the Bolshevik troops trying to penetrate from Tashkent. The Social Revolutionaries were for a time supported by a small British force of 1,200 men with its headquarters in northeastern Iran. The British force was withdrawn in April 1919, and…

  • social science

    Social science, any discipline or branch of science that deals with human behaviour in its social and cultural aspects. The social sciences include cultural (or social) anthropology, sociology, social psychology, political science, and economics. Also frequently included are social and economic

  • social science, philosophy of

    Philosophy of social science, branch of philosophy that examines the concepts, methods, and logic of the social sciences. The philosophy of social science is consequently a metatheoretical endeavour—a theory about theories of social life. To achieve their end, philosophers of social science

  • social security (government program)

    Social security, any of the measures established by legislation to maintain individual or family income or to provide income when some or all sources of income are disrupted or terminated or when exceptionally heavy expenditures have to be incurred (e.g., in bringing up children or paying for

  • Social Security (United States social insurance system)

    George W. Bush: Social Security and immigration: The major domestic initiative of Bush’s second term was his proposal to replace Social Security (the country’s system of government-managed retirement insurance) with private retirement savings accounts. The measure attracted little support, however, mainly because it would have required significant cuts…

  • Social Security Act (United States [1935])

    Social Security Act, (August 14, 1935), original U.S. legislation establishing a permanent national old-age pension system through employer and employee contributions; the system was later extended to include dependents, the disabled, and other groups. Responding to the economic impact of the Great

  • Social Security Act (New Zealand [1939])

    New Zealand: Nationalism and war: In 1938 the Social Security Act provided a state medical service, extended the pension system, and increased benefits. The expansion of secondary industry was accelerated after the outbreak of World War II in 1939.

  • Social Security and Public Policy (work by Burns)

    Eveline M. Burns: Her landmark textbook, Social Security and Public Policy (1956), investigates the factors involved in economic policy decisions through comparative analysis. Throughout her career, in addition to teaching and writing books, Burns contributed numerous articles to professional journals and served as a consultant to several federal agencies. She held…

  • Social Security number

    cybercrime: Identity theft and invasion of privacy: …official identity card but a Social Security number that has long served as a de facto identification number. Taxes are collected on the basis of each citizen’s Social Security number, and many private institutions use the number to keep track of their employees, students, and patients. Access to an individual’s…

  • social security tax (government finance)

    progressive tax: For example, social security taxes in the United States are levied only up to an inflation-adjusted wage cap, meaning that wages beyond the cap are free of this particular tax. Considered on its own, then, the social security tax appears regressive because low-wage earners pay proportionately more…

  • social service

    Social service, any of numerous publicly or privately provided services intended to aid disadvantaged, distressed, or vulnerable persons or groups. The term social service also denotes the profession engaged in rendering such services. The social services have flourished in the 20th century as

  • Social Service Review (American journal)

    Sophonisba Preston Breckinridge: …in the pages of the Social Service Review, a highly regarded journal of which she was cofounder in 1927 and which she edited until 1948.

  • social settlement (social agency)

    Social settlement, a neighbourhood social welfare agency. The main purpose of a social settlement is the development and improvement of a neighbourhood or cluster of neighbourhoods. It differs from other social agencies in being concerned with neighbourhood life as a whole rather than with

  • Social Significance of the Modern Drama, The (play by Goldman)

    Emma Goldman: …were published in 1914 as The Social Significance of the Modern Drama. She also lectured on “free love,” by which she meant an uncoerced attachment between two persons for whom conventions of law and church were irrelevant, and she was jailed briefly in 1916 for speaking out on birth control.

  • social smiling

    infancy: …all normal infants show a social smile that invites adults to interact with them, and at about six months of age infants begin to respond socially to particular people to whom they have become emotionally attached.

  • social speciation (social science)

    social science: Heritage of the Enlightenment: …of what might be called social speciation—that is, the emergence of one institution from another in time and of the whole differentiation of function and structure that goes with this emergence.

  • Social Statics (work by Spencer)

    Herbert Spencer: Life and works: In 1851 he published Social Statics, which contained in embryo most of his later views, including his argument in favour of an extreme form of economic and social laissez-faire. About 1850 Spencer became acquainted with the novelist George Eliot, and his philosophical conversations with her led some of their…

  • social statistics

    social science: Social statistics and social geography: Two final manifestations of the social sciences in the 19th century are social statistics and social (or human) geography. At that time, neither achieved the notability and acceptance in colleges and universities that such fields as political science and economics…

  • social status

    Social status, the relative rank that an individual holds, with attendant rights, duties, and lifestyle, in a social hierarchy based upon honour or prestige. Status may be ascribed—that is, assigned to individuals at birth without reference to any innate abilities—or achieved, requiring special

  • social stratification

    African dance: The social context: In societies that stress horizontal stratification into age sets, the qualities proper to a particular age are expressed in dances, as in those that keep young men physically fit and teach them the discipline necessary in warfare. The dances of young Zulu and Ndebele men in Southern Africa recall the…

  • social structure

    Social structure, in sociology, the distinctive, stable arrangement of institutions whereby human beings in a society interact and live together. Social structure is often treated together with the concept of social change, which deals with the forces that change the social structure and the

  • Social Structure (work by Murdock)

    social structure: Structure and social organization: Murdock, in his book Social Structure (1949), examined kinship systems in preliterate societies and used social structure as a taxonomic device for classifying, comparing, and correlating various aspects of kinship systems.

  • social surplus (economics)

    Consumer surplus, in economics, the difference between the price a consumer pays for an item and the price he would be willing to pay rather than do without it. As first developed by Jules Dupuit, French civil engineer and economist, in 1844 and popularized by British economist Alfred Marshall, the

  • Social System, The (work by Parsons)

    Talcott Parsons: In The Social System (1951), he turned his analysis to large-scale systems and the problems of social order, integration, and equilibrium. He advocated a structural-functional analysis, a study of the ways in which the interrelated and interacting units that form the structures of a social system…

  • social systems theory (sociology)

    Systems theory, in social science, the study of society as a complex arrangement of elements, including individuals and their beliefs, as they relate to a whole (e.g., a country). The study of society as a social system has a long history in the social sciences. The conceptual origins of the

  • Social Teachings of the Christian Churches, The (work by Troeltsch)

    Ernst Troeltsch: Life and works: …his best known work, Die Soziallehren der christlichen Kirchen und Gruppen. In that work he explored the relationships between and within social and cultural groups in the context of the social ethics of the Christian churches, denominations, and sects. In 1915, realizing that his strength lay more in the philosophy…

  • Social Theory and Social Structure (work by Merton)

    Robert K. Merton: In Social Theory and Social Structure (1949; rev. ed. 1968), Merton developed a theory of deviant behaviour based on different types of social adaptation. He defined the interrelationship between social theory and empirical research, advancing a structural-functional approach to the study of society and creating the…

  • social therapy (psychology)

    group therapy: Social, or milieu, therapy for institutionalized patients represents an extension of group therapeutic principles to make the mental hospital a therapeutic community, all aspects of which will help to restore the patients’ mental health. This involves the creation of a positive, supportive atmosphere and a…

  • social transformation, ceremony of (sociology)

    rite of passage: Ceremonies of social transformation: Ceremonies of social transformation include all the life-cycle ceremonies, since these involve social transitions for the subjects of the ritual and also for other persons. A man or woman who dies, for example, assumes a new social role as a spirit…

  • social unrest (psychology)

    collective behaviour: Social unrest: The general condition of the community in which milling is both frequent and widespread and in which rumour is recurrent is the crucible in which the more highly organized forms of collective behaviour develop. This condition, known as social unrest, can lead to…

  • Social War (Roman history)

    Social War, (90–89 bc), rebellion waged by ancient Rome’s Italian allies (socii) who, denied the Roman franchise, fought for independence. The allies in central and southern Italy had fought side by side with Rome in several wars and had grown restive under Roman autocratic rule, wanting instead

  • Social War (Greek history)

    Isocrates: Isocrates as rhetorician.: …was divided first by the Social War, precipitated by the Athenian policy of sending cleruchies (colonizing groups) to Samos, the subjection of Cos and Naxos to Athenian jurisdiction, and the arbitrary demands of Athenian generals for money, and then by the Sacred War, fought as a result of the refusal…

  • social weaver (bird)

    Social weaver, any of a number of small African birds of the family Ploceidae (order Passeriformes) that are extremely gregarious. This name is given particularly to Philetairus socius, which makes an “apartment house” in a tree: dozens of pairs of these little black-chinned birds cooperate

  • social welfare

    International Council on Social Welfare: …and local organizations dedicated to social welfare, social development, and social justice. It was founded in Paris in 1928. Its international headquarters are in Utrecht, Neth., and Kampala, Ugan.

  • social welfare program

    Social welfare program, any of a variety of governmental programs designed to protect citizens from the economic risks and insecurities of life. The most common types of programs provide benefits to the elderly or retired, the sick or invalid, dependent survivors, mothers, the unemployed, the

  • social work

    Social service, any of numerous publicly or privately provided services intended to aid disadvantaged, distressed, or vulnerable persons or groups. The term social service also denotes the profession engaged in rendering such services. The social services have flourished in the 20th century as

  • social worker

    social service: Modern evolution: …public assistance officials and the social workers of today in his command of statutory financial aid. The voluntary charitable agencies of the time differed on the relative merits of deterrent poor-law services on the one hand, implying resistance to the growth of statutory welfare, and on the provision of alternative…

  • social workshop (social reform)

    Louis Blanc: Theory of socialism.: …work for everyone by establishing “social workshops” financed by the state. These workshops, controlled by the workers themselves, would gradually take over most production until a socialist society would come into being. Blanc did not believe in human equality. But he did not agree with the followers of the socialist…

  • Social-Democratic Party (political party, Russia)

    Russian Social-Democratic Workers’ Party, Marxist revolutionary party ancestral to the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Founded in 1898 in Minsk, the Social-Democratic Party held that Russia could achieve socialism only after developing a bourgeois society with an urban proletariat. It r

  • Social-Democratic Workers’ Party (political party, Russia)

    Russian Social-Democratic Workers’ Party, Marxist revolutionary party ancestral to the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Founded in 1898 in Minsk, the Social-Democratic Party held that Russia could achieve socialism only after developing a bourgeois society with an urban proletariat. It r

  • social-overhead capital (economics)

    economic development: Surplus resources and disguised unemployment: …for the construction of major social-overhead-capital projects arises from an inadequate consideration of the problem of providing the necessary subsistence fund to maintain the workers during what may be a considerably long waiting period before these projects yield consumable output. This may be managed somehow for small-scale local-community projects when…

  • social-psychological component (therapy)

    infant stimulation program: Forms of stimulation and administration: …“infant-centred” and to incorporate a social-psychological component (SPC). Infant-centred programs focus on the infant’s communication to the caregiver about the types and amounts of sensory stimulation that the infant can tolerate—e.g., an infant’s eye-to-eye contact with a caregiver indicates tolerance of the stimulation, whereas the infant’s looking away from the…

  • social-reconstructionist education

    education: Social-reconstructionist education: A different social-reconstructionist movement was that of the kibbutzim (collective farms) of Israel. The most striking feature of kibbutz education was that the parents forgo rearing and educating their offspring themselves and instead hand the children over to professional educators, sometimes immediately after birth. The kibbutzim type…

  • social-structural-strain theory (sociology)

    Strain theory, in sociology, proposal that pressure derived from social factors, such as lack of income or lack of quality education, drives individuals to commit crime. The ideas underlying strain theory were first advanced in the 1930s by American sociologist Robert K. Merton, whose work on the

  • Socialdemokratiet (political party, Denmark)

    Thorvald Stauning: After leading the Social Democratic Party to its greatest electoral victory in 1935, Stauning benefitted from improving economic conditions in the late 1930s. He failed in 1939, however, to gain a constitutional reform to create a unicameral parliamentary system. Although his government signed a nonaggression treaty with Germany…

  • socialism

    Socialism, social and economic doctrine that calls for public rather than private ownership or control of property and natural resources. According to the socialist view, individuals do not live or work in isolation but live in cooperation with one another. Furthermore, everything that people

  • Socialism (film by Godard [2010])

    Jean-Luc Godard: Later work and awards: …experimental collage Film socialisme (2010; Film Socialism); and Adieu au langage (2014; Goodbye to Language), a fragmented narrative about a man, a woman, and a dog, filmed in 3-D. Le Livre d’image (2018; The Image Book) is a cinematic essay, featuring a montage of film clips, photographs, and wartime footage,…

  • Socialism and Political Struggle (work by Plekhanov)

    Georgy Valentinovich Plekhanov: Formulation of Russian Marxism: In two major works, Socialism and Political Struggle (1883) and Our Differences (1885), he launched a destructive critique of populism and laid the ideological basis of Russian Marxism. Russia, he argued, had been caught up in a capitalistic development that was altering its social structure and creating the conditions…

  • socialism in one country (Stalinist doctrine)

    communism: Stalinism: …was the idea of “socialism in one country”—i.e., building up the industrial base and military might of the Soviet Union before exporting revolution abroad. To this end, Stalin rescinded the NEP, began the collectivization of Soviet agriculture, and embarked on a national program of rapid, forced industrialization. Specifically, he…

  • Socialist Democratic Party (political party, United States)

    Communist Party of the United States of America: …the left wing of the Socialist Party of America (SPA): the Communist Party of America (CPA), composed of the SPA’s foreign-language federations and led by the sizeable and influential Russian Federation, and the Communist Labor Party of America (CLP), the predominantly English-language group. They were established legally but were soon…

  • Socialist Education Movement (Chinese history)

    Mao Zedong: Retreat and counterattack: …a struggle, primarily through the Socialist Education Movement in the countryside, and it was over the guidelines for that campaign that the major political battles were fought within the Chinese leadership. At the end of 1964, when Liu Shaoqi refused to accept Mao’s demand to direct the main thrust of…

  • socialist feminism (philosophy)

    philosophical feminism: Feminist social and political philosophy: …to address women’s concerns, the socialist feminists Alison Jaggar and Iris Marion Young appropriated Marxist categories, which were based on labour and economic structures. Criticizing traditional Marxism for exaggerating the importance of waged labour outside the home, socialist feminists insisted that the unpaid caregiving and homemaking that women are expected…

  • Socialist Front (political party, Singapore)

    Lee Kuan Yew: …the party to form the Barisan Sosialis (“Socialist Front”), and Lee subsequently broke his remaining ties with the communists. Henceforth Lee and his fellow moderates within the PAP would dominate Singaporean politics.

  • Socialist International (association of political parties [1951])

    Socialist International (SI), association of national socialist parties that advocates a democratic form of socialism. After World War II the reinstitution of an international federation of working-class parties took place in gradual stages. First, an information and liaison office was established

  • Socialist International (labour federation and political organization [1889])

    Second International, federation of socialist parties and trade unions that greatly influenced the ideology, policy, and methods of the European labour movement from the last decade of the 19th century to the beginning of World War I. The Second International was founded at a congress in Paris in

  • Socialist Labor Party (political party, United States)

    Daniel De Leon: In 1890 he joined the Socialist Labor Party. Within a few years he became one of the leading figures in the party, editing its newspaper and helping to transform it into a disciplined national organization. He excoriated the labour union leadership of the day as insufficiently radical and in 1895…

  • Socialist Labour Party of Germany (political party, Germany)

    Wilhelm Liebknecht: …Lassalleans and Liebknechtians as the Sozialistische Arbeiterpartei Deutschlands (Socialist Labour Party) at Gotha in 1875. The Gotha Program, a compromise between the positions of the two parties—although criticized by Marx for its call for government-aided productive organizations—remained the charter of German socialism until the adoption of the Erfurt Program in…

  • socialist law

    Soviet law, law developed in Russia after the communist seizure of power in 1917 and imposed throughout the Soviet Union in the 1920s. After World War II, the Soviet legal model also was imposed on Soviet-dominated regimes in eastern and central Europe. Later, ruling communist parties in China,

  • Socialist Parties of the European Community, Confederation of (political party, Europe)

    Party of European Socialists, transnational political group representing the interests of allied socialist and social democratic parties in Europe, particularly in the European Parliament and other organs of the European Union (EU). Although a socialist group fostered cooperation among socialist

  • Socialist Party (political party, Chile)

    Chile: Government: …under its new name); the Socialist Party of Chile (Partido Socialista de Chile; PS); and the Party for Democracy (Partido por la Democracia; PPD). The Communist Party of Chile (Partido Comunista de Chile; PCC), which was condemned under Pinochet’s rule, was reinstated by 1990. The centre-right Alliance for Chile (Alianza…

  • Socialist Party (political party, Senegal)

    Senegal: Independent Senegal: Under Diouf the Socialist Party (PS) maintained Senghor’s alliance with the Muslim hierarchies. When the PS secured more than 80 percent of the votes in the 1983 elections, there were complaints of unfair practice, and the eight deputies returned by the Senegalese Democratic Party (PDS) of Abdoulaye Wade…

  • Socialist Party (political party, India)

    Samajwadi Party (SP), regional political party in India based in Uttar Pradesh state. The SP was formed in 1992 in Lucknow, and it professes a socialist ideology. Influenced by the veteran socialist leader Ram Manohar Lohia (1910–67), the party aimed at “creating a socialist society, which works on

  • Socialist Party (political party, United States)

    Communist Party of the United States of America: …the left wing of the Socialist Party of America (SPA): the Communist Party of America (CPA), composed of the SPA’s foreign-language federations and led by the sizeable and influential Russian Federation, and the Communist Labor Party of America (CLP), the predominantly English-language group. They were established legally but were soon…

  • Socialist Party (political party, Puerto Rico)

    Puerto Rico: Political developments: Socialist Party, led by the highly respected labour leader Santiago Iglesias, remained focused on the plight of Puerto Rico’s labouring classes, but its program had little support, because popular attention was largely concentrated on the political status of the island.

  • socialist party (politics)

    political party: Mass-based parties: The socialist parties made an effort to control this tendency by developing democratic procedures in the choice of leaders. At every level those in responsible positions were elected by members of the party. Every local party group would elect delegates to regional and national congresses, at…

  • Socialist Party (political party, France)

    Socialist Party (PS), major French political party formally established in 1905. The Socialist Party traces its roots to the French Revolution. Its predecessor parties, formed in the 19th century, drew inspiration from political and social theorists such as Charles Fourier, Henri de Saint-Simon,

  • Socialist Party of Albania (political party, Albania)

    Enver Hoxha: …communists helped Hoxha found the Albanian Communist Party (afterward called the Party of Labour). Hoxha became first secretary of the party’s Central Committee and political commissar of the communist-dominated Army of National Liberation. He was prime minister of Albania from its liberation in 1944 until 1954, simultaneously holding the ministry…

  • Socialist Party of America (political party, United States)

    Communist Party of the United States of America: …the left wing of the Socialist Party of America (SPA): the Communist Party of America (CPA), composed of the SPA’s foreign-language federations and led by the sizeable and influential Russian Federation, and the Communist Labor Party of America (CLP), the predominantly English-language group. They were established legally but were soon…

  • Socialist Party of Austria (political party, Austria [1889])

    Schutzbund: …workers’ guards by the Austrian Social Democratic Party, of which the Schutzbund remained an adjunct. It was also descended from the People’s Guard of 1918, a Social Democratic weapon against the Communists; it considered as its main objective the protection of a social reform program hated by Austria’s conservative bourgeois…

  • Socialist Party of Austria (political party, Austria [1945])

    Austria: Political process: The centre-left Social Democratic Party of Austria (Sozialdemokratische Partei ?sterreichs; SP?; until 1991 the Socialist Party) was founded in 1945. It is a successor of the original Social Democratic Party (founded in 1889), which was a driving force in the establishment of the First Austrian Republic in…

  • Socialist Party of France (political party, France)

    Socialist Party: …in progressive governments; and the Socialist Party of France (Parti Socialiste de France), led by Guesde and édouard-Marie Vaillant, both of whom opposed any participation in bourgeois coalitions. At a congress held in Paris in 1905, the two parties merged to become the French Section of the Workers’ International (Section…

  • Socialist Party of Italian Workers (political party, Italy)

    Giuseppe Saragat: …statesman and founder of the Socialist Party of Italian Workers (PSLI), who held many ministerial posts from 1944 to 1964, when he became president of the Italian Republic (1964–71).

  • Socialist Party of Serbia (political party, Yugoslavia)

    fascism: Serbia: Slobodan Milo?evi?, leader of the Socialist Party of Serbia (Socijalisticka Partija Srbije; SPS), the campaigns in Croatia and Bosnia were undertaken in part to bolster Milo?evi?’s image as a staunch nationalist and to consolidate his power at the expense of Vojislav Seselj’s Serbian Radical Party (Srpska Radikalna Stranka; SRS), then…

  • Socialist People’s Party (political party, Denmark)

    Denmark: Political process: …anti-immigration sentiments, and the left-wing Socialist People’s Party (Socialistisk Folkeparti), which at first opposed Danish membership in the EU but later modified its hard-line stance. Smaller parties and alliances also maintain seats in the legislature.

  • Socialist Realism (art)

    Socialist Realism, officially sanctioned theory and method of literary composition prevalent in the Soviet Union from 1932 to the mid-1980s. For that period of history Socialist Realism was the sole criterion for measuring literary works. Defined and reinterpreted over years of polemics, it

  • Socialist Reich Party (political party, Germany)

    fascism: Germany: …in July 1944, founded the Socialist Reich Party (Sozialistische Reichspartei; SRP), one of the earliest neofascist parties in Germany. Openly sympathetic to Nazism, the SRP made considerable gains in former Nazi strongholds, and in 1951 it won 11 percent of the vote in regional elections in Lower Saxony. The party…

  • Socialist Revolutionary Party (political party, Russia)

    Socialist Revolutionary Party, Russian political party that represented the principal alternative to the Social-Democratic Workers’ Party during the last years of Romanov rule. Ideological heir to the Narodniki (Populists) of the 19th century, the party was founded in 1901 as a rallying point for

  • socialist self-management (Yugoslavian policy)

    Edvard Kardelj: …of a theory known as socialist self-management, which served as the basis of Yugoslavia’s political and economic system and distinguished it from the Soviet system. In foreign affairs he pioneered the concept of nonalignment for Yugoslavia between the West and the Soviet Union.

  • Socialist Trade and Labor Alliance (political organization, United States)

    Daniel De Leon: …of Labor, subsequently forming the Socialist Trade and Labor Alliance (STLA). In 1899 a dissident faction left the SLP and formed what became the Socialist Party of America. The membership and prestige of the SLP declined thereafter.

  • Socialist Unity Party (political party, Italy)

    Italian Socialist Party, former Italian political party, one of the first Italian parties with a national scope and a modern democratic organization. It was founded in 1892 in Genoa as the Italian Workers’ Party (Partito dei Lavoratori Italiani) and formally adopted the name Italian Socialist Party

  • Socialist Unity Party of Germany (political party, Germany)

    Freier Deutscher Gewerkschaftsbund: Controlled by the Socialist Unity Party, the FDGB was formed shortly after World War II with virtually compulsory membership. With the rapid reduction of private enterprise in the Soviet-occupied zone of Germany, the trade unions dropped their original function of representing the workers’ interests as against the employers’…

  • Socialist Worker’s Party (political party, Spain)

    Spanish Socialist Workers’ Party, Spanish socialist political party. Spain’s oldest political party, the PSOE was founded in 1879 by Pablo Iglesias, a Madrid typesetter and union organizer. Iglesias was also the founder in 1888 of the party’s affiliated trade union confederation, the General Union

  • Socialist Workers’ Federation (political organization, France)

    Karl Marx: Last years: In 1879, when the French Socialist Workers’ Federation was founded, its leader Jules Guesde went to London to consult with Marx, who dictated the preamble of its program and shaped much of its content. In 1881 Henry Mayers Hyndman in his England for All drew heavily on his conversations with…

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