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  • sodium–potassium–ATPase (biology)

    nervous system: Active transport: the sodium-potassium pump: …enzyme in the pump, called sodium-potassium-ATPase, splits the phosphate from the ADP, the energy released powers the transport action of the pump.

  • sodium-vapour lamp (instrument)

    Sodium-vapour lamp, electric discharge lamp using ionized sodium, used for street lighting and other illumination. A low-pressure sodium-vapour (LPS) lamp contains an inner discharge tube made of borosilicate glass that is fitted with metal electrodes and filled with neon and argon gas and a little

  • sodoku (pathology)

    Rat-bite fever, relapsing type of infection caused by the bacterium Spirillum minus (also called Spirillum minor) and transmitted to humans by the bite of an infected rat. It is characterized by infection at the site of inoculation, inflammation of the regional lymph nodes, relapsing fever, chills,

  • Sodom (industrial site, Israel)

    Sedom, industrial site in southeastern Israel, near the southern end of the Dead Sea. It is the location of Dead Sea Works, originally an Israeli national company (founded 1952), which was sold to private interests in 1999. The biblical cities of Sodom and Gomorrah are believed to have been located

  • Sodom and Gomorrah (Old Testament)

    Sodom and Gomorrah, notoriously sinful cities in the biblical book of Genesis, destroyed by “sulfur and fire” because of their wickedness (Genesis 19:24). Sodom and Gomorrah along with the cities of Admah, Zeboiim, and Zoar (Bela) constituted the five “cities of the plain,” and they are referenced

  • Sodom ve Gomore (work by Karaosmano?lu)

    Yakup Kadri Karaosmano?lu: Sodom ve Gomore (1928; “Sodom and Gomorrah”) is about life in occupied Constantinople after World War I. Yaban, perhaps his best-known novel (1932; “The Stranger”), deals with the psychological distance between the Turkish peasant and the urban intellectual. He also wrote poetry and several works…

  • Sodom, Mount (mountain, Israel)

    Sodom and Gomorrah: Historicity: …Sedom (Arabic: Jabal Usdum), or Mount Sodom, at the southwestern end of the sea, reflects Sodom’s name. The present-day industrial site of Sedom, Israel, on the Dead Sea shore, is located near the presumed site of Sodom and Gomorrah.

  • Sodoma, Il (Italian painter)

    Il Sodoma, Italian painter whose works reflect the transition from High Renaissance to Mannerist style. Sodoma was the son of a shoemaker. From 1490 to 1497 he was apprenticed to G.M. Spanzotti, a minor Piedmontese artist, but he was afterward much influenced by Leonardo da Vinci and later by

  • sodomy (sexual behaviour)

    Sodomy, noncoital carnal copulation. The term is understood in history, literature, and law in several senses: (1) as denoting any homosexual practices between men, in allusion to the biblical story of Sodom (Genesis 18:19), (2) as denoting anal intercourse, (3) as synonymous with bestiality or

  • sodomy law

    Bowers v. Hardwick: …(5–4) a Georgia state law banning sodomy. The ruling was overturned by the court 17 years later in Lawrence v. Texas (2003), which struck down a Texas state law that had criminalized homosexual sex between consenting adults.

  • Sodruzhestvo Nezavisimykh Gosudarstv (international organization)

    Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), free association of sovereign states that was formed in 1991 by Russia and 11 other republics that were formerly part of the Soviet Union. The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) had its origins on December 8, 1991, when the elected leaders of Russia,

  • Soe Win (prime minister of Myanmar)

    Soe Win, Myanmar military leader (born 1948, Burma—died Oct. 12, 2007, Yangon [Rangoon], Myanmar [Burma]), was prime minister of Myanmar from 2004 and was associated with two bloody suppressions of the democracy movement. Soe Win was one of the commanders in charge of the violent crackdown in 1988

  • Soeiro, Manoel Dias (Dutch scholar)

    Manasseh ben Israel, major Hebraic scholar of the Jewish community of Amsterdam and the founder of the modern Jewish community in England. Manasseh was born into a family of Marranos (Jews of Spain and Portugal who publicly accepted Christianity but privately practiced Judaism). After his father

  • Soekaboemi (Indonesia)

    Sukabumi, kota (city), West Java (Jawa Barat) propinsi (or provinsi; province), western Indonesia. It lies at the foot of Mount Pangrango 50 miles (80 km) south of Jakarta, the national capital. Roads and railways link Sukabumi with the cities of Bogor and Jakarta to the north and Bandung to the

  • Soekarno (president of Indonesia)

    Sukarno, leader of the Indonesian independence movement and Indonesia’s first president (1949–66), who suppressed the country’s original parliamentary system in favour of an authoritarian “Guided Democracy” and who attempted to balance the Communists against the army leaders. He was deposed in 1966

  • Soela Eilanden (islands, Indonesia)

    Sula, chain of islands in western North Maluku propinsi (province), Indonesia. They lie east of central Celebes and between the Molucca Sea (north) and Banda Sea (south). Three large islands, Taliabu (the largest), Mangole, and Sanana (or Sulabesi), and several smaller ones make up the chain. The

  • Soemba (island, Indonesia)

    Sumba, island, one of the Lesser Sunda Islands, southern Nusa Tenggara Timur provinsi (East Nusa Tenggara province), southern Indonesia, in the Indian Ocean across the Sumba Strait from Flores and west of Timor across the Savu Sea. Sumba has an area of 4,306 square miles (11,153 square km) and

  • Soembawa (island, Indonesia)

    Sumbawa, island of the Lesser Sunda Islands, west-central Nusa Tenggara Barat provinsi (West Nusa Tenggara province), southern Indonesia. Sumbawa has several deeply cut bays producing numerous peninsulas and the excellent harbour of Bima. The island has an area of 5,965 square miles (15,448 square

  • Soemmering’s gazelle (mammal)

    gazelle: dama gazelle, Grant’s gazelle, and Soemmering’s gazelle—are placed in the genus Nanger (formerly considered a subgenus), and three of the smaller species—Thomson’s gazelle, the red-fronted gazelle, and the Mongalla gazelle—have become the genus Eudorcas. The Gazella genus as traditionally defined includes eight species that occur

  • Soerabaja (Indonesia)

    Surabaya, kota (city), capital of East Java (Jawa Timur) propinsi (or provinsi; province), Indonesia. Situated on the northeastern coast of Java, it lies along the Surabaya Strait opposite the island of Madura. The canalized Mas River, which is a branch of the Brantas River, flows through the

  • Soerakarta (Indonesia)

    Surakarta, kota (city), eastern Central Java (Jawa Tengah) propinsi (or provinsi; province), Indonesia. It lies along the Solo River about 35 miles (55 km) northeast of Yogyakarta. Once the capital of Surakarta principality under the Dutch, it was occupied by Japan (1942–45) during World War II and

  • Soest (Netherlands)

    Soest, gemeente (municipality), central Netherlands, in the wooded Gooi district. It includes the villages of Soestdijk, site of a royal residence; Soesterberg, with an air base and the Dutch Air Force Museum; and Soestduinen. Soest town, founded in 1029, has a Gothic church dating from c. 1400 and

  • Soest (Germany)

    Soest, city, North Rhine–Westphalia Land (state), northwestern Germany. It lies on the fertile Soester Plain (Soester B?rde) in the Hellweg region, which extends south from the Lippe River, east of Dortmund. Although excavations have shown there to have been a settlement on the site since Roman

  • sofa (furniture)

    Settee, an upholstered seat with back and arms (sometimes upholstered), designed to accommodate two or more people in a sitting or reclining position. The earliest surviving types, dating back to the 17th century in Europe, have sides that let down for conversion into a bed. Variations of backrests

  • sofa table (furniture)

    drop-leaf table: …its more elongated version, the sofa table, which dates from about the 1790s. The sofa table could be drawn up to a sofa and was long enough for two people to sit at, side by side. It had a flap at either end, each supported on a hinged bracket. The…

  • Sofala (Mozambique)

    Sofala, historic seaport situated at the mouth of the Sofala River on the coast of what was Portuguese East Africa, now Mozambique. Once the first town of the Portuguese possessions of eastern Africa, Sofala declined rapidly in importance after 1890, when Beira was established about 20 miles (30

  • SOFAR channel (oceanography)

    SOFAR channel, zone of minimum sound speed in the oceans that occurs at depths of approximately 1,000 metres (3,300 feet). In this region, pressure, temperature, and salinity combine to inhibit the movement of sound through the water medium. If a sound is generated by a point source in the SOFAR

  • SOFC (device)

    fuel cell: Solid oxide fuel cells: In some ways solid oxide fuel cells are similar to molten carbonate devices. Most of the cell materials, however, are special ceramics with some nickel. The electrolyte is an ion-conducting oxide such as zirconia treated with yttria. The fuel for these…

  • sofer (Judaism)

    Sofer, any of a group of Jewish scholars who interpreted and taught biblical law and ethics from about the 5th century bc to about 200 bc. Understood in this sense, the first of the soferim was the biblical prophet Ezra, even though the word previously designated an important administrator

  • soferim (Judaism)

    Sofer, any of a group of Jewish scholars who interpreted and taught biblical law and ethics from about the 5th century bc to about 200 bc. Understood in this sense, the first of the soferim was the biblical prophet Ezra, even though the word previously designated an important administrator

  • Soffen, Gerald Alan (American biologist)

    Gerald Alan Soffen, American biologist (born Feb. 7, 1926, Cleveland, Ohio—died Nov. 22, 2000, Washington, D.C.), was the chief scientist for the Viking 1 and 2 missions to Mars. After earning a Ph.D. in biology from Princeton University in 1961, Soffen joined the National Aeronautics and Space A

  • SOFIA (airplane)

    Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA), a Boeing 747 jet aircraft that carries a 2.5-metre (8.2-foot) telescope for performing astronomical observations of infrared sources from high altitudes. SOFIA is operated jointly by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  • Sofia (national capital, Bulgaria)

    Sofia, capital of Bulgaria. It is situated near the geographical centre of the Balkans region, in the Sofia Basin, a troughlike valley in the western part of the country. The Serdi (Sardi), a Thracian tribe, established a settlement in the region in the 8th century bce. This community was conquered

  • Sofia Higher Institute (university, Sofia, Bulgaria)

    Sofia: …of Agricultural Sciences, and the University of Sofia (1888), the oldest establishment of higher learning in Bulgaria. The city also contains the Cyril and Methodius National Library, the Ivan Vazov National Theatre and Opera House, an astronomical observatory, and a number of museums. In addition to the restored St. George,…

  • Sofia Palaeologus (grand princess of Moscow)

    Ivan III: Early life and reign: …of his ward and pupil, Zo? Palaeologus, niece of the last emperor of Byzantium. It took three years before the fat and unattractive Zo?, who, on entering Moscow, changed her name to Sofia (and perhaps her faith to Orthodoxy), was married to Ivan in the Kremlin.

  • Sofia, Kliment Ohridski University of (university, Sofia, Bulgaria)

    Sofia: …of Agricultural Sciences, and the University of Sofia (1888), the oldest establishment of higher learning in Bulgaria. The city also contains the Cyril and Methodius National Library, the Ivan Vazov National Theatre and Opera House, an astronomical observatory, and a number of museums. In addition to the restored St. George,…

  • Sofia, University of (university, Sofia, Bulgaria)

    Sofia: …of Agricultural Sciences, and the University of Sofia (1888), the oldest establishment of higher learning in Bulgaria. The city also contains the Cyril and Methodius National Library, the Ivan Vazov National Theatre and Opera House, an astronomical observatory, and a number of museums. In addition to the restored St. George,…

  • Sofie (film by Ullmann [1992])

    Liv Ullmann: …addition, Ullmann directed the films Sofie (1992); Kristin Lavransdatter (1995); Trol?sa (1999; Faithless), for which Bergman wrote the screenplay; and Miss Julie (2014), which she adapted from August Strindberg’s play of the same name.

  • Sofies verden (novel by Gaarder)

    Jostein Gaarder: His novel Sofies verden (1991; Sophie’s World) was an international best seller.

  • Sofifi (Indonesia)

    North Maluku: The capital is officially Sofifi, in central Halmahera; however, since the formation of the province at the end of the 20th century, North Maluku has been administered from Ternate, on the island of the same name in west-central North Maluku, while Sofifi develops facilities and infrastructure sufficient to support…

  • Sofiya (national capital, Bulgaria)

    Sofia, capital of Bulgaria. It is situated near the geographical centre of the Balkans region, in the Sofia Basin, a troughlike valley in the western part of the country. The Serdi (Sardi), a Thracian tribe, established a settlement in the region in the 8th century bce. This community was conquered

  • Sofonisba (play by Trissino)

    Gian Giorgio Trissino: …his masterpiece, the blank-verse tragedy Sofonisba (written 1514–15, published 1524, first performed 1562), based on a story about the Carthaginian wars by the Roman historian Livy and employing the dramatic techniques of Sophocles and Euripides. Sofonisba, though not an interesting drama in itself, incorporated profound innovations in intent, structure, and…

  • Sofroniy (bishop of Vratsa)

    Bulgaria: The national revival: Sofroniy, bishop of Vratsa, helped to spread Paisiy’s influence. In his own writings he stressed the importance of education, without which his people would remain, in his words, “dumb animals.”

  • soft acid (chemistry)

    acid–base reaction: Lewis acids: …with hard bases and, similarly, soft acids react with soft bases. The terms hard and soft are chosen to suggest that the atomic structures associated with hard acids and bases are rigid and impenetrable, whereas those associated with soft acids and bases are more readily deformable. Hard acids include the…

  • soft asset (finance)

    accounting: Problems of measurement and the limitations of financial reporting: …assigning value to so-called “soft” assets such as brand image, corporate reputation, goodwill, and human capital. These can be among the most valuable assets controlled by the entity, yet they might be undervalued or ignored altogether under current practices.

  • soft ball stage (candy making)

    fudge: …termed in kitchen parlance the soft ball stage, that point between 234° and 240° F (112° and 115° C) at which a small ball of the candy dropped in ice water neither disintegrates nor flattens when picked up with the fingers. Butter and vanilla are added as the candy cools,…

  • soft base (chemistry)

    acid–base reaction: Lewis acids: …similarly, soft acids react with soft bases. The terms hard and soft are chosen to suggest that the atomic structures associated with hard acids and bases are rigid and impenetrable, whereas those associated with soft acids and bases are more readily deformable. Hard acids include the proton; sodium, calcium, and…

  • soft chancre (pathology)

    Chancroid, acute, localized, chiefly sexually transmitted disease, usually of the genital area, caused by the bacillus Haemophilus ducreyi. It is characterized by the appearance, 3–5 days after exposure, of a painful, shallow ulcer at the site of infection. Such an ulcer is termed a soft chancre,

  • soft coal (coal classification)

    Soft coal, in the United States, bituminous coal (q.v.), as opposed to hard coal, or anthracite. In Europe the designation soft coal is reserved for lignite and brown coal (qq.v.), whereas hard coal means bituminous

  • soft communitarianism (political and social philosophy)

    communitarianism: The third sector: …Rauch introduced the term “soft communitarianism” to refer to communitarianism that focuses on the role of civil society, in contrast to “hard,” East Asian communitarianism, which views the state as the primary social agent.

  • soft contact lens (optometry)

    contact lens: Soft contact lenses are usually comfortable because they allow oxygen to penetrate to the eye’s surface. Their large size makes them more difficult to lose than hard lenses. Their delicacy, however, makes them more subject to damage, and, as with all contact lenses, they require…

  • soft coral (subclass of cnidarians)

    cnidarian: Size range and diversity of structure: …of most hydroids, hydrocorals, and soft and hard corals, however, proliferate asexually into colonies, which can attain much greater size and longevity than their component polyps. Certain tropical sea anemones (class Anthozoa) may be a metre in diameter, and some temperate ones are nearly that tall. Anthozoans are long-lived, both…

  • soft drink (beverage)

    Soft drink, any of a class of nonalcoholic beverages, usually but not necessarily carbonated, normally containing a natural or artificial sweetening agent, edible acids, natural or artificial flavours, and sometimes juice. Natural flavours are derived from fruits, nuts, berries, roots, herbs, and

  • soft furnishings

    textile: Household textiles: …textiles, frequently referred to as soft furnishings, are fabrics used in the home. They include items frequently classified as linens, such as bath and dish towels, table linens, shower curtains, and bathroom ensembles. Related items include sheets, pillowcases, mattresses, blankets, comforters, and bedspreads. In addition, textile products contributing to the…

  • soft hail (meteorology)

    climate: Hail: The first is soft hail, or snow pellets, which are white opaque rounded or conical pellets as large as 6 mm (0.2 inch) in diameter. They are composed of small cloud droplets frozen together, have a low density, and are readily crushed.

  • soft laser desorption (science)

    Tanaka Koichi: …Tanaka reported a method, called soft laser desorption, in which the sample, in solid or viscous form, is bombarded with a laser pulse. As molecules in the sample absorb the laser energy, they let go of each other (desorb) and form a cloud of ions suitable for MS. Tanaka’s soft…

  • soft law (international relations)

    international law: Other sources: …produce what is termed “soft law”—that is, an instrument that has no strict legal value but constitutes an important statement.

  • Soft Machine (British musical group)

    art rock: …Pretty Things, Procol Harum, and Soft Machine released art-rock-type albums. Much of this music combined roots in British Invasion manifestations of rhythm and blues or eclectic pop with psychedelic, avant-garde, or classical tendencies. From 1972 to 1974 Genesis, King Crimson, ELP, and Yes (all of whom debuted in 1969–70) turned…

  • soft magnetic material (physics)

    magnetism: Remanence: …demagnetized and are known as soft magnetic materials.

  • soft maple (plant)

    Silver maple, (Acer saccharinum), large, spreading tree, of the soapberry family (Sapindaceae), popular as a rapid-growing shade tree. Native to eastern North America, it is widely cultivated elsewhere. It grows to 18 metres (60 feet)—higher under favourable conditions—with a short, stout trunk and

  • soft money (political donation)

    Soft money, in the United States, paper money as contrasted with coins, or hard money; also, unregulated monetary donations to political parties or candidates. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, advocates of soft money favoured governmental deficit spending to stimulate consumption and

  • soft money (economics)

    Specie Circular: …directed the Treasury Department, “pet” banks, and other receivers of public money to accept only specie as payment for government-owned land after Aug. 15, 1836. But actual settlers and bona fide residents of the state in which they purchased land were permitted to use paper money until December 15 on…

  • soft news (journalism)

    Soft news, journalistic style and genre that blurs the line between information and entertainment. Although the term soft news was originally synonymous with feature stories placed in newspapers or television newscasts for human interest, the concept expanded to include a wide range of media

  • soft palate (human anatomy)

    palate: The soft palate is composed of muscle and connective tissue, which give it both mobility and support. This palate is very flexible. When elevated for swallowing and sucking, it completely blocks and separates the nasal cavity and nasal portion of the pharynx from the mouth and…

  • soft pedal (music)

    keyboard instrument: Modifications in the action: …right and the action-shifting (una corda, or “soft”) pedal at the left.

  • soft pine (wood)

    pine: …they may be designated as soft pines or hard pines. Soft pines, such as white, sugar, and pi?on pines, have relatively soft timber, needles in bundles of five (less commonly, one to four), stalked cones with scales lacking prickles, and little resin. Their wood is close-grained, with thin, nearly white…

  • soft porcelain (pottery)

    Sèvres porcelain: …true, porcelain as well as soft-paste porcelain (a porcellaneous material rather than true porcelain) made at the royal factory (now the national porcelain factory) of Sèvres, near Versailles, from 1756 until the present; the industry was located earlier at Vincennes. On the decline of Meissen after 1756 from its supreme…

  • soft reaction (chemistry)

    transuranium element: Synthesis of transuranium elements: …discovered) by the use of “cold,” or “soft,” fusion reactions. In this type of reaction, medium-weight projectiles are fused to target nuclei with protons numbering close to 82 and neutrons numbering about 126—i.e., near the doubly “magic” lead-208—resulting in a relatively “cold” compound system. The elements from 113 to 118…

  • soft real-time system (computer science)

    computer: Reactive systems: …the other hand, is a soft real-time system, since a missed booking is rarely catastrophic.

  • soft rot (plant pathology)

    plant disease: Symptoms and signs: Soft rot diseases are caused by pathogens that secrete enzymes capable of decomposing cell wall structures, thereby destroying the texture of plant tissue—i.e., the plant tissue becomes macerated (soft and watery). Soft rots commonly occur on fleshy vegetables such as potato, carrot, eggplant, squash, and…

  • soft rush (plant)

    rush: effusus, called soft rush, is used to make the tatami mats of Japan. The bulrush, also called reed mace and cattail, is Typha angustifolia, belonging to the family Typhaceae; its stems and leaves are used in North India for ropes, mats, and baskets. The horsetail genus (Equisetum)…

  • soft sculpture

    Claes Oldenburg: …which Oldenburg is best known: soft sculptures. Like other artists of the Pop-art movement, he chose as his subjects the banal products of consumer life. He was careful, however, to choose objects with close human associations, such as bathtubs, typewriters, light switches, and electric fans. In addition, his use of…

  • Soft Soap (work by Elsschot)

    Willem Elsschot: …“The Deliverance”) and Lijmen (1924; Soft Soap), went virtually unnoticed; discouraged, he devoted himself to his business career and ceased writing until the 1930s. He published Kaas (“Cheese”) in 1933 and followed it with the novel Tsjip (“Cheep”) in 1934. Laarmans, who is the protagonist in Kaas, had been introduced…

  • soft sore (pathology)

    Chancroid, acute, localized, chiefly sexually transmitted disease, usually of the genital area, caused by the bacillus Haemophilus ducreyi. It is characterized by the appearance, 3–5 days after exposure, of a painful, shallow ulcer at the site of infection. Such an ulcer is termed a soft chancre,

  • soft technology

    assistive technology: Assistive-technology classification and characterization: …technology are hard technologies and soft technologies. Hard technologies are tangible components that can be purchased and assembled into assistive-technology systems. They include everything from simple mouth sticks to computers and software. Soft technologies include the human areas of decision making, strategy development, training, and concept formation. They may be…

  • soft tick (arachnid)

    tick: Soft ticks differ from hard ticks by feeding intermittently, laying several batches of eggs, passing through several nymphal stages, and carrying on their developmental cycles in the home or nest of the host rather than in fields.

  • soft water (chemistry)

    Soft water, water that is free from dissolved salts of such metals as calcium, iron, or magnesium, which form insoluble deposits such as appear as scale in boilers or soap curds in bathtubs and laundry equipment. See also hard

  • soft wheat

    cereal processing: Wheat: varieties and characteristics: Soft wheats, the major wheats grown in the United Kingdom, most of Europe, and Australia, result in flour producing less attractive bread than that achieved from strong wheats. The loaves are generally smaller, and the crumb has a less pleasing structure. Soft wheats, however, possess…

  • soft X ray (physics)

    spectroscopy: X-ray spectroscopy: …to 200 angstroms known as soft X-rays.

  • soft-coated wheaten terrier (breed of dog)

    Soft-coated wheaten terrier, breed of dog developed from the terriers kept as farm dogs in Ireland. It was recognized by the Irish Kennel Club in 1937 and brought to the United States in the 1940s. The American Kennel Club accepted the breed into the regular classes in 1973. The soft-coated wheaten

  • soft-goods industry

    Clothing and footwear industry, factories and mills producing outerwear, underwear, headwear, footwear, belts, purses, luggage, gloves, scarfs, ties, and household soft goods such as drapes, linens, and slipcovers. The same raw materials and equipment are used to fashion these different end

  • soft-ground etching (art)

    printmaking: Soft-ground etching: Soft-ground etching is basically the same as hard-ground etching except that the ground contains about one-third grease, which keeps it in a semihard, or tacky, condition.

  • soft-ground tunneling (mining)

    tunnels and underground excavations: Modern soft-ground tunneling: Soft-ground tunnels most commonly are used for urban services (subways, sewers, and other utilities) for which the need for quick access by passengers or maintenance staff favours a shallow depth. In many cities this means that the tunnels…

  • soft-hammer technique

    hand tool: Techniques for making stone tools: The second method was the soft-hammer, or baton, technique, based on a discovery of perhaps 500,000 years ago that hard rock (flint in particular) could be chipped by striking it with a softer material. The baton was a light “hammer,” an almost foot-long piece of bone, antler, or even wood,…

  • soft-mud process (clay)

    brick and tile: Mixing and forming: …method of forming bricks, the soft-mud process, much more water is used, and the mix is placed in wooden molds to form the size unit desired. To keep the clay from sticking, the molds are lubricated with sand or water; after they are filled, excess clay is struck from the…

  • soft-paste porcelain (pottery)

    Sèvres porcelain: …true, porcelain as well as soft-paste porcelain (a porcellaneous material rather than true porcelain) made at the royal factory (now the national porcelain factory) of Sèvres, near Versailles, from 1756 until the present; the industry was located earlier at Vincennes. On the decline of Meissen after 1756 from its supreme…

  • soft-service ice cream (gastronomy)

    ice cream: ” So-called soft-service ice cream was invented in 1939; it is served directly from the freezing machine without being allowed to harden.

  • soft-shell clam (mollusk)

    clam: The soft-shell clam (Mya arenaria), also known as the longneck clam, or steamer, is a common ingredient of soups and chowders. Found in all seas, it buries itself in the mud to depths from 10 to 30 cm. The shell is dirty white, oval, and 7.5…

  • soft-shelled turtle (reptile)

    Softshell turtle, (family Trionychidae), any of about 30 turtle species characterized by a flattened shell. The shell lacks the epidermal scutes (large scales) characteristic of most turtles, as in the leatherback sea turtle (Dermochelys coriacea), and the bony architecture of the shell is reduced.

  • soft-shoe (dance)

    tap dance: Early history: …older than the clog dance), soft-shoe dancing (a relaxed, graceful dance done in soft-soled shoes and made popular in vaudeville), and buck-and-wing dancing (a fast and flashy dance usually done in wooden-soled shoes and combining Irish clogging styles, high kicks, and complex African rhythms and steps such as the shuffle…

  • soft-spring suspension system (mechanics)

    automobile: Suspension: A soft-spring suspension provides a comfortable ride on a relatively smooth road, but the occupants move up and down excessively on a rough road. The springs must be stiff enough to prevent a large deflection at any time because of the difficulty in providing enough clearance…

  • soft-tailed swift (bird)

    swift: …into the subfamilies Apodinae, or soft-tailed swifts, and Chaeturinae, or spine-tailed swifts. Almost worldwide in distribution, swifts are absent only from polar regions, southern Chile and Argentina, New Zealand, and most of Australia.

  • soft-tip pen (instrument)

    pen: Soft-tip pens that use points made of porous materials became commercially available during the 1960s. In such pens a synthetic polymer of controlled porosity transfers ink from the reservoir to the writing surface. These fibre-tipped pens can be used for lettering and drawing as well…

  • soft-winged flower beetle

    coleopteran: Annotated classification: Family Melyridae (soft-winged flower beetles) About 4,000 species widely distributed; diverse; example Malachius. Family Phloiophilidae Rare; 1 species in Britain. Family Phycosecidae Few species; examples Phycosecis, Alfieriella; in

  • softball (sport)

    Softball, a variant of baseball and a popular participant sport, particularly in the United States. It is generally agreed that softball developed from a game called indoor baseball, first played in Chicago in 1887. It became known in the United States by various names, such as kitten ball, mush

  • softball squash rackets (sport)

    squash rackets: …varieties of game are played: softball (the so-called “British,” or “international,” version) and hardball (the “American” version). In softball, which is the standard game internationally, the game is played with a softer, slower ball on the kind of wide, tall court shown in the accompanying diagram. The ball stays in…

  • Softbank Corp. (Japanese corporation)

    Son Masayoshi: …as chairman and CEO of Softbank Corp, a media and telecommunications company he founded in 1981.

  • softbot (computer science)

    Agent, a computer program that performs various actions continuously and autonomously on behalf of an individual or an organization. For example, an agent may archive various computer files or retrieve electronic messages on a regular schedule. Such simple tasks barely begin to tap the potential

  • Softcops (play by Churchill)

    Caryl Churchill: Softcops (produced 1984), a surreal play set in 19th-century France about government attempts to depoliticize illegal acts, was produced by the Royal Shakespeare Company. Serious Money (1987) is a comedy about excesses in the financial world, and Icecream (1989) investigates Anglo-American stereotypes. The former received…

  • softening (technology)

    metallurgy: Softening treatments: In many situations the purpose of heat treating is to soften the alloy and thereby increase its ductility. This may be necessary if a number of cold-forming operations are required to form a part but the metal is so hardened after the first…

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