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  • Saks, Gene (American director and actor)

    Gene Saks, (Jean Michael Saks), American director and actor (born Nov. 8, 1921, New York, N.Y.—died March 28, 2015, East Hampton, N.Y.), directed hit comedies and musicals on Broadway and in Hollywood and was a superlative interpreter of the works of playwright Neil Simon. He began his association

  • Saks, Jean Michael (American director and actor)

    Gene Saks, (Jean Michael Saks), American director and actor (born Nov. 8, 1921, New York, N.Y.—died March 28, 2015, East Hampton, N.Y.), directed hit comedies and musicals on Broadway and in Hollywood and was a superlative interpreter of the works of playwright Neil Simon. He began his association

  • ?akti (Hindu deity)

    Hinduism: Shaivism: Shakti is in turn personified in the form of many different goddesses, often said to be aspects of her.

  • ?āktism (Hindu sect)

    Shaktism, worship of the Hindu goddess Shakti (Sanskrit: “Power” or “Energy”). Shaktism is, together with Vaishnavism and Shaivism, one of the major forms of modern Hinduism and is especially popular in Bengal and Assam. Shakti is conceived of either as the paramount goddess or as the consort of a

  • Sakuma Kunitada (Japanese minister)

    Sakuma Zōzan, early and influential proponent of Westernization in Japan whose slogan Tōyō no dōtoku, seiyō no geijutsu (“Eastern ethics, Western techniques”) became the basis of the Japanese modernization effort in the late 19th century. Sakuma’s ideas, especially as they became known through his

  • Sakuma Shōzan (Japanese minister)

    Sakuma Zōzan, early and influential proponent of Westernization in Japan whose slogan Tōyō no dōtoku, seiyō no geijutsu (“Eastern ethics, Western techniques”) became the basis of the Japanese modernization effort in the late 19th century. Sakuma’s ideas, especially as they became known through his

  • Sakuma Zōzan (Japanese minister)

    Sakuma Zōzan, early and influential proponent of Westernization in Japan whose slogan Tōyō no dōtoku, seiyō no geijutsu (“Eastern ethics, Western techniques”) became the basis of the Japanese modernization effort in the late 19th century. Sakuma’s ideas, especially as they became known through his

  • Sakurada Jisuke I (Japanese dramatist)

    Sakurada Jisuke I, kabuki dramatist who created more than 120 plays and at least 100 dance dramas. After completing his studies with Horikoshi Nisōji in 1762, Sakurada moved to Kyōto to write plays for a theatre there. On his return to Edo three years later he became chief playwright at the M

  • Sakya (Tibetan Buddhist sect)

    Sa-skya-pa, Tibetan Buddhist sect that takes its name from the great Sa-skya (Sakya) monastery founded in 1073, 50 miles (80 km) north of Mount Everest. The sect follows the teachings of the noted traveler and scholar ’Brog-mi (992–1072). He translated into Tibetan the important Tantric work

  • Sakya (monastery, Tibet, China)

    Sa-skya-pa: …its name from the great Sa-skya (Sakya) monastery founded in 1073, 50 miles (80 km) north of Mount Everest. The sect follows the teachings of the noted traveler and scholar ’Brog-mi (992–1072). He translated into Tibetan the important Tantric work Hevajra Tantra, which remains one of the basic texts of…

  • Sakya Pandita (Tibetan leader)

    Mongolia: The successor states of the Mongol empire: …sought spiritual guidance from the Sakya Pandita, leader of the Sa-skya-pa (Sakyapa; Red Hat) school of Tibetan Buddhism. The Sakya Pandita, accompanied by his nephew, Phagspa Lama, journeyed to Godan’s camp (in what is now Gansu province, China). He and Godan created a patron-priest relationship in which the Sakya Pandita,…

  • ?ākyamuni (founder of Buddhism)

    Buddha, (Sanskrit: “Awakened One”) the founder of Buddhism, one of the major religions and philosophical systems of southern and eastern Asia and of the world. Buddha is one of the many epithets of a teacher who lived in northern India sometime between the 6th and the 4th century before the Common

  • Sakyapa (Tibetan Buddhist sect)

    Sa-skya-pa, Tibetan Buddhist sect that takes its name from the great Sa-skya (Sakya) monastery founded in 1073, 50 miles (80 km) north of Mount Everest. The sect follows the teachings of the noted traveler and scholar ’Brog-mi (992–1072). He translated into Tibetan the important Tantric work

  • ?ākyas (people)

    India: Political systems: …of the Koliyas, Moriyas, Jnatrikas, Shakyas, and Licchavis. The Jnatrikas and Shakyas are especially remembered as the tribes to which Mahavira (the founder of Jainism) and Gautama Buddha, respectively, belonged. The Licchavis eventually became extremely powerful.

  • sal (tree)

    Himalayas: Plant life: …where the valuable timber tree sal (Shorea robusta) is the dominant species. Wet sal forests thrive on high plateaus at elevations of about 3,000 feet (900 metres), while dry sal forests prevail higher up, at 4,500 feet (1,400 metres). Farther west, steppe forest (i.e., expanse of grassland dotted with trees),…

  • SAL

    postal system: Development of airmail: …mid-1970s, the concept of “surface air-lifted” (SAL) mails was developed in conjunction with the International Air Transport Association (IATA). This arrangement allows some mails to receive, for little or no surcharge, speedier transmission than by surface, but without the priority of fully surcharged mails. Use of SAL varies from…

  • sal ammoniac (chemical compound)

    Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl), the salt of ammonia and hydrogen chloride. Its principal uses are as a nitrogen supply in fertilizers and as an electrolyte in dry cells, and it is also extensively employed as a constituent of galvanizing, tinning, and soldering fluxes to remove oxide coatings from

  • Sal Island (island, Cabo Verde)

    Sal Island, northeasternmost island of Cape Verde, in the Atlantic Ocean, about 400 miles (640 km) off the coast of western Africa. It rises to an elevation of 1,332 feet (406 metres). Sal (Portuguese for “salt”) is noted for its saltworks near the towns of Pedra Lume and Santa Maria, the island’s

  • sal soda (chemical compound)

    Washing soda, sodium carbonate decahydrate, efflorescent crystals used for washing, especially textiles. It is a compound of sodium

  • Sal, Ilha do (island, Cabo Verde)

    Sal Island, northeasternmost island of Cape Verde, in the Atlantic Ocean, about 400 miles (640 km) off the coast of western Africa. It rises to an elevation of 1,332 feet (406 metres). Sal (Portuguese for “salt”) is noted for its saltworks near the towns of Pedra Lume and Santa Maria, the island’s

  • Sala dell’Udienza (building, Perugia, Italy)

    Perugino: Mature work: …a fresco cycle in their Sala dell’Udienza that is believed to have been completed during or shortly after 1500, the date that appears opposite Perugino’s self-portrait in one of the scenes. The importance of these frescoes lies less in their artistic merit than in the fact that the young Raphael,…

  • ?alābat Jang (Indian ruler)

    India: The Anglo-French struggle, 1740–63: …the late nizam’s third son, ?alābat Jang, on the Hyderabad throne. Thenceforward, in the person of the skillful Charles, marquis de Bussy-Castelnau, Dupleix had a kingmaker at the centre of Muslim power in the Deccan. (See Carnatic wars).

  • salad (dish)

    Salad, any of a wide variety of dishes that fall into the following principal categories: green salads; vegetable salads; salads of pasta, legumes, or grains; mixed salads incorporating meat, poultry, or seafood; and fruit salads. Most salads are traditionally served cold, although some, such as

  • salad burnet (plant)

    burnet: …garden, or salad, burnet (Sanguisorba minor) and the great burnet (S. officinalis)—are eaten in salads or used as an ingredient in fines herbes, a mixture of herbs commonly used in French cuisine. The dried leaves are also used to make tea.

  • salad dressing (sauce)

    salad: The simplest salad dressings are mixtures of oil and vinegar (the usual proportion is three parts oil to one part vinegar); to this is added salt and pepper, herbs, and frequently Dijon mustard. In France a spoonful of the juices from a roast is sometimes added to…

  • salad rocket (herb)

    Arugula, (subspecies Eruca vesicaria sativa), annual herb of the mustard family (Brassicaceae), grown for its pungent edible leaves. Native to the Mediterranean, arugula is a common salad vegetable in many parts of southern Europe and has grown in popularity around the world for its peppery, nutty

  • salada (geology)

    Playa, (Spanish: shore or beach) flat-bottom depression found in interior desert basins and adjacent to coasts within arid and semiarid regions, periodically covered by water that slowly filtrates into the ground water system or evaporates into the atmosphere, causing the deposition of salt, sand,

  • salade ni?oise (food)

    salad: The salade ni?oise of France combines lettuce with potatoes, green beans, olives, tuna, tomatoes, and anchovies, all dressed with olive oil and vinegar. A Scandinavian specialty is a herring salad of finely chopped pickled herring, potatoes, beetroot, cold meats such as tongue or roast veal, onions,…

  • salade russe (food)

    salad: Salade russe is a variety of chopped cooked vegetables and potatoes bound with mayonnaise. Although they are sometimes served as hors d’oeuvres, salads of this type usually take the place of hot or cold vegetable side dishes. A similar function is served by salads based…

  • Saladin (Ayyūbid sultan)

    Saladin, Muslim sultan of Egypt, Syria, Yemen, and Palestine, founder of the Ayyūbid dynasty, and the most famous of Muslim heroes. In wars against the Christian Crusaders, he achieved great success with the capture of Jerusalem (October 2, 1187), ending its nearly nine decades of occupation by the

  • Saladin Tithe (tax)

    United Kingdom: Richard I (1189–99): …a development of the so-called Saladin Tithe raised earlier for the Crusade); and a seizure of the wool crop of Cistercian and Gilbertine houses. The ransom, although never paid in full, caused Richard’s government to become highly unpopular. Richard also faced some unwillingness on the part of his English subjects…

  • Salado (people)

    Casa Grande Ruins National Monument: Built by Salado Indians, a Pueblo people, in the early 14th century, it is the only pre-Columbian building of its type in existence. The monument has a museum in its visitor centre that displays local artifacts.

  • Salado Formation (geological formation, Texas, United States)

    Salado Formation, evaporite deposit that occurs in the region of the Guadalupe Mountains of western Texas, U.S., and is a major world source for potassium salts. In the Delaware Basin it reaches a maximum thickness of about 2,400 feet (720 metres). The Salado Formation is a division of the Ochoan

  • Salado River (river, Buenos Aires, Argentina)

    Salado River, river in northeastern Buenos Aires province, Argentina. It rises at Lake El Cha?ar, which lies at an elevation of 130 feet (40 metres) above sea level on the border of Santa Fe province. The river flows through the Pampas generally southeastward for approximately 400 miles (640 km) to

  • Salado River (river, Mexico)

    Salado River, river in northeastern Mexico. It rises in the Sierra Madre Oriental in Coahuila state and flows generally east-northeastward for some 175 miles (280 km) into the lake created by the Venustiano Carranza Dam at Don Martín. Leaving the reservoir, the Salado, joined by the Sabinas River,

  • Salado River (river, Salta-Santa Fe, Argentina)

    Río de la Plata: Physiography of the lower Paraná basin: …its last major tributary, the Salado River. Between Santa Fe and Rosario, however, the right bank begins to rise as the river skirts the edge of the undulating plain, which flanks it down to the delta, and reaches altitudes ranging from about 30 to 65 feet. The left bank, meanwhile,…

  • Salado, Battle of the (Spain [1340])

    Spain: Granada: …of Abū al-?asan at the Battle of the Salado. The defeat of the Maghribians and the lack of interest in reconquest on the part of Alfonso’s successors created a favourable climate for Granada, which found itself free from political pressures of both Maghribians and Castilians. During the reign of Mu?ammad…

  • Salafist Group for Preaching and Combat (militant group)

    Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghrib, Algeria-based Islamic militant group, active in North Africa and the Sahel region. The organization was founded as the GSPC in 1998 by a former member of the Armed Islamic Group (Groupe Islamique Armé; GIA), an Islamic militant group that participated in Algeria’s

  • salah (Islam)

    Salat, the daily ritual prayer enjoined upon all Muslims as one of the five Pillars of Islam (arkān al-Islām). There is disagreement among Islamic scholars as to whether some passages about prayer in the Muslim sacred scripture, the Qur?ān, are actually references to the salat. Within Muhammad’s

  • ?alā? al-Dīn Yūsuf ibn Ayyūb (Ayyūbid sultan)

    Saladin, Muslim sultan of Egypt, Syria, Yemen, and Palestine, founder of the Ayyūbid dynasty, and the most famous of Muslim heroes. In wars against the Christian Crusaders, he achieved great success with the capture of Jerusalem (October 2, 1187), ending its nearly nine decades of occupation by the

  • ?ālā? al-Dīn Zarkūb (Turkish goldsmith)

    Rūmī: The influence of Shams al-Dīn: …acquaintance with an illiterate goldsmith, ?ālā? al-Dīn Zarkūb. It is said that one day, hearing the sound of a hammer in front of ?alā? al-Dīn’s shop in the bazaar of Konya, Rūmī began his dance. The shop owner had long been one of Rūmī’s closest and most loyal disciples, and…

  • Salah Bey (bey of Constantine)

    Constantine: Salah Bey, who ruled Constantine from 1770 to 1792, greatly embellished the city and was responsible for the construction of most of its existing Muslim buildings. Since his death in 1792, the women of the locality wear a black haik (a tentlike garment) in mourning,…

  • Salah, Ahmed (Djiboutian athlete)

    Djibouti: Sports and recreation: Ahmed Salah, the most accomplished Djiboutian marathoner, won several international events, including the first world marathon championship in 1985.

  • ?ala?i, Ibrāhīm a?- (Sudanese artist)

    Sudan: The arts: …have achieved international recognition—for example, Ibrāhīm al-?ala?i, who became proficient in all three mediums.

  • Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Shah (king of Malaysia)

    Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Shah, (Tuanku Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Shah ibni al-Marhum Sultan Hisamuddin Alam Shah), Malaysian monarch (born March 8, 1926, Klang, Malaya—died Nov. 21, 2001, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia), was the ceremonial head of state, or yang di-pertuan agong (paramount ruler), of Malaysia f

  • Salair Ridge (mountains, Russia)

    Ob River: Physiography: …the Chumysh River, from the Salair Ridge. The valley there is 3 to 6 miles (5 to 10 km) wide, with steeper ground on the left than on the right; the floodplain is extensive and characterized by diversionary branches of the river and by lakes; the bed is still full…

  • Salaire de la peur, Le (film by Clouzot [1953])

    The Wages of Fear, French thriller film, released in 1953, that was directed by Henri-Georges Clouzot. It was based on a 1950 novel by Georges Arnaud and is considered one of the seminal films of French cinema. A fire is raging in a South American oil well that is owned by an American company, and

  • Salaire de la peur, Le (novel by Arnaud)

    Georges Arnaud: …salaire de la peur (1950; The Wages of Fear), a story about truck drivers who carried loads of nitroglycerine across treacherous mountain terrain in South America. The novel sold an estimated two million copies worldwide and inspired a suspenseful motion picture of the same name which was released in 1953.

  • salaire minimum interprofessionel de croissance (French law)

    France: Wages and the cost of living: …a provision known as the salaire minimum interprofessionel de croissance (SMIC; general and growth-indexed minimum wage), which has increased the lowest salaries faster than the inflation rate. Its level is set annually, and all employers must abide by it. Women are, in general, paid less well than men. A worker…

  • S?laj (county, Romania)

    S?laj, jude? (county), northwestern Romania. The Western Carpathian Mountains of Romania, including the ?es Mountains, rise above settlement areas in the valleys. The county is drained northwestward by the Some? River and its tributaries. Zal?u is the county capital. Metal products, building

  • salaj (building)

    Hungary: Traditional regions: …its isolated farmsteads, known as tanyák. Several interesting groups live there, including the people of Kalocsa and the Matyó, who occupy the northern part of the plain around Mez?k?vesd and are noted for folk arts that include handmade embroidery and the making of multicoloured apparel.

  • ?alākāpuru?a (Indian religion)

    Mahāpuru?a, (Sanskrit: “great man”, ) in Hindu, Jaina, and Buddhist belief, an individual of extraordinary destiny, distinguished by certain physical traits or marks (lak?anas). Such men are born to become either universal rulers (cakravartins) or great spiritual leaders (such as buddhas or the

  • salal (plant)

    Gaultheria: Salal (G. shallon), or lemonleaf in the floral industry, is a diffuse slender shrub of the Pacific Northwest; it grows 0.3–1.8 metres (1–6 feet) tall and has dark purple edible fruits. Wintergreen (G. procumbens), also called checkerberry or teaberry, is a creeping shrub with white…

  • ?alālah (coastal plain, Oman)

    Dhofar: The ?alālah coastal plain, about 40 miles (64 km) long and ranging from 1 to 6 miles (1.5 to 9.5 km) wide, facing the Arabian Sea, is considered one of the most beautiful in Arabia, particularly in its southwestern part, because of its monsoon climate and…

  • ?alālah (Oman)

    ?alālah, town in southern Oman, situated on the coast of the Arabian Sea. The town is located in the only part of the Arabian Peninsula touched by the Indian Ocean monsoon and thus is verdant during the summer. ?alālah is the historic centre of Dhofar, famous in ancient times as a source of

  • Salam, Abdus (Pakistani physicist)

    Abdus Salam, Pakistani nuclear physicist who was the corecipient with Steven Weinberg and Sheldon Lee Glashow of the 1979 Nobel Prize for Physics for their work in formulating the electroweak theory, which explains the unity of the weak nuclear force and electromagnetism. Salam attended the

  • Salam, Saeb Salim (Lebanese politician and statesman)

    Saeb Salim Salam, Lebanese politician and statesman (born Jan. 17, 1905, Beirut, Lebanon—died Jan. 21, 2000, Beirut), was a prominent Sunni Muslim and Arab nationalist who served as his nation’s prime minister six times between 1952 and 1973 (once for only four days) and worked for M

  • Salam-Weinberg theory (physics)

    Electroweak theory, in physics, the theory that describes both the electromagnetic force and the weak force. Superficially, these forces appear quite different. The weak force acts only across distances smaller than the atomic nucleus, while the electromagnetic force can extend for great distances

  • Salamá (Guatemala)

    Salamá, city, central Guatemala. It lies between the Chuacús Mountains and the Minas Mountains on the Salamá River, a tributary of the Chixoy, at 3,084 feet (940 metres) above sea level. Salamá is a commercial and manufacturing centre for its agricultural and pastoral hinterland. The city suffered

  • Salama, Abba (metropolitan of Ethiopia)

    Ethiopian literature: Abba Salama, an Egyptian Copt who became metropolitan of Ethiopia in 1350, was not only responsible for a revision of the text of the Bible but translated or induced others to translate several books popular among the Ethiopian faithful. The rhapsodical Weddase Mariam (“Praise of…

  • Salama, Abba (Ethiopian bishop)

    Saint Frumentius, ; feast day October 27 in the Roman Catholic Church; November 30 in Eastern Orthodox churches; December 18th in the Coptic Church), Syrian apostle who worked to spread Christianity throughout Ethiopia. As first bishop of its ancient capital, Aksum, he structured the emerging

  • Salama, Hannu (Finnish author)

    Finnish literature: The 1960s and beyond: …novel of the 1970s was Hannu Salama’s Siin? n?kij? miss? tekij? (1972; “Where There’s a Crime There’s a Witness”), which explored a communist resistance movement during the War of Continuation. Salama had made literary history already with an earlier novel, Juhannustanssit (1964; “Midsummer Dance”), for which he was charged with…

  • Salāmah ibn ?Abd al-Wahhāb as-Sāmirrī (Druze leader)

    al-?udūd: …Wing [al-Janā? al-Ayman]), embodied in Salāmah ibn ?Abd al-Wahhāb as-Sāmirrī; and the fifth is the Succeeder (at-Tālī, or Left Wing [al-Janā? al-Aysar]), personified by al-Muqtanā Bahā? ad-Dīn. Each of these principles, the true ?udūd, also had false counterparts, in turn embodied by various contemporaries of al-?ākim. The tension between the…

  • Salaman, Brenda Z. (British anthropologist)

    C.G. Seligman: In 1904 Seligman married Brenda Z. Salaman, who collaborated with him on his later expeditions and writings. Their field trip to Ceylon (1907–08) to examine the vestiges of remaining aboriginal culture there resulted in the publication of a standard work, The Veddas (1911). While serving in the Royal Army…

  • Salamanca (Mexico)

    Salamanca, city, south-central Guanajuato estado (state), central Mexico. It lies on the Lerma River at an elevation of 5,647 feet (1,721 metres) above sea level. Salamanca is an important agricultural and commercial centre, and its central location in the fertile Bajío region led to its being

  • Salamanca (Spain)

    Salamanca, city, capital of Salamanca provincia (province), in the comunidad autónoma (autonomous community) of Castile-León, western Spain. The city lies at an elevation of 2,552 feet (778 metres) above sea level on the north bank of the Tormes River. It is one of Spain’s greatest historical and

  • Salamanca (province, Spain)

    Salamanca, provincia (province) in the comunidad autónoma (autonomous community) of Castile-León, western Spain. Salamanca is bounded by the provinces of Zamora and Valladolid to the north, ávila to the east, and Cáceres to the south; Portugal lies to the west. Its northwestern boundary with

  • Salamanca, Battle of (Napoleonic wars)

    Arthur Wellesley, 1st duke of Wellington: Victory in the Napoleonic Wars: …Frenchmen in 40 minutes” at Salamanca (July 22), he entered Madrid (August 12). His siege of Burgos failed and his army retreated again to Portugal, from which it was launched for the last time into Spain in May 1813. After a dash across the peninsula, he brought the French to…

  • Salamanca, Daniel (president of Bolivia)

    Bolivia: The Republican Party: …from 1921 to 1925, and Daniel Salamanca, a Cochabamba landowner who took his following into a separate party, the so-called Genuine Republican Party, which was often supported in its activities by the Liberals. The rivalry between these two men became the dominant theme in Bolivian politics for the next decade,…

  • Salamanca, Universidad de (university, Salamanca, Spain)

    University of Salamanca, state institution of higher learning at Salamanca, Spain. It was founded in 1218 under Alfonso IX, but its real beginnings date from 1254, when, under Alfonso X, grandson of the founder, three chairs in canon law and one each in grammar, arts, and physics were established.

  • Salamanca, University of (university, Salamanca, Spain)

    University of Salamanca, state institution of higher learning at Salamanca, Spain. It was founded in 1218 under Alfonso IX, but its real beginnings date from 1254, when, under Alfonso X, grandson of the founder, three chairs in canon law and one each in grammar, arts, and physics were established.

  • salamander (amphibian)

    Salamander, (order Caudata), any member of a group of about 740 species of amphibians that have tails and that constitute the order Caudata. The order comprises 10 families, among which are newts and salamanders proper (family Salamandridae) as well as hellbenders, mud puppies, and lungless

  • Salamandra (amphibian genus)

    Caudata: Annotated classification: …21 genera (including Triturus and Salamandra in Europe, Notophthalamus and Taricha in North America, and Cynops in Japan) and about 120 species. There is disagreement concerning the classification of salamanders below the ordinal level. Some

  • Salamandra atra (amphibian)

    Caudata: Life cycle and reproduction: In the alpine salamander (S. atra) and Mertensiella, fully metamorphosed individuals are born. One individual develops from the first egg in each oviduct, the tube leading from the ovary to the outside. Initially, the young salamander lives on its own yolk supply; later it eats the yolk…

  • Salamandra salamandra (amphibian)

    Caudata: Life cycle and reproduction: The fire salamander (Salamandra salamandra) deposits relatively advanced larvae in the water. In the alpine salamander (S. atra) and Mertensiella, fully metamorphosed individuals are born. One individual develops from the first egg in each oviduct, the tube leading from the ovary to the outside. Initially, the…

  • Salamandridae (amphibian)

    Newt, (family Salamandridae), generic name used to describe several partially terrestrial salamanders. The family is divided informally into newts and “true salamanders” (that is, all non-newt species within Salamandridae regardless of genus). Since there is little distinction between the two

  • Salamandroidea (amphibian suborder)

    Caudata: Annotated classification: Suborder Salamandroidea Fertilization internal; angular bone fused with prearticular bone in lower jaw; 2 pairs of limbs; external gills in a few species that remain permanently aquatic; aquatic, semiaquatic, and terrestrial. Family Ambystomatidae (mole salamanders) Small to moderate size, to 35 cm; usually with well-developed lungs;…

  • Salamanes Hermeios Sozomenos (Christian lawyer)

    Sozomen, Christian lawyer in Constantinople whose church history, distinguished for its classical literary style, its favouring of monasticism, and its greater use of western European sources, rivaled that of his elder contemporary Socrates Scholasticus. Dedicating the project to the reigning

  • Salamat (river, Africa)

    Chari River: …by the Aouk, Kéita, and Salamat rivers, parallel streams that mingle in an immense floodplain. The Salamat, which rises in Darfur in Sudan, in its middle course is fed by the waters of Lake Iro. The river then divides into numerous branches that spread into a delta and end in…

  • Salamaua (historical town, Papua New Guinea)

    World War II: The Southwest and South Pacific, June–October 1943: …New Guinea toward Lae and Salamaua, while other Australian forces simultaneously advanced from Wau in the hinterland; and in the night of June 29–30, U.S. forces secured Nassau Bay as a base for further advances against the same positions.

  • Salambo (work by Flaubert)

    Salammb?, historical novel by Gustave Flaubert, published in 1862. Although the titular heroine is a fictional character, the novel’s setting of ancient Carthage and many characters are historically accurate, if highly romanticized. Set after the First Punic War (264–241 bce), Salammb? is the story

  • Salameh, Ali Hassan (Palestinian militant)

    Operation Wrath of God: …target in Lillehammer had been Ali Hassan Salameh, a Fatah and Black September operations chief known to Mossad as the “Red Prince.” The Wrath of God program was reactivated for a final mission in 1979, when the squad assassinated Salameh in Beirut with a car bomb placed along a route…

  • salami (food)

    sausage: Salami (named for the salting process, salare, Italian: “to salt”) is a popular sausage with many varieties.

  • Salamis (Greece)

    Salamis: The town is a port on the west coast of the island. On the east, between the island and the mainland, are the straits in which the Greeks won a decisive naval victory over the Persians in 480 bce. Pop. (2001) town, 24,446; municipality, 34,975; (2011)…

  • Salamis (ancient city, Cyprus)

    Salamis, principal city of ancient Cyprus, located on the east coast of the island, north of modern Famagusta. According to the Homeric epics, Salamis was founded after the Trojan War by the archer Teucer, who came from the island of Salamis, off Attica. This literary tradition probably reflects

  • Salamís (island, Greece)

    Salamis, island, town, and dímos (municipality), Attica (Modern Greek: Attikí) periféreia (region), eastern Greece. The island lies in the Saronikós Gulf of the Aegean Sea, west of the city of Piraeus. The town is a port on the west coast of the island. On the east, between the island and the

  • Salamis (island, Greece)

    Salamis, island, town, and dímos (municipality), Attica (Modern Greek: Attikí) periféreia (region), eastern Greece. The island lies in the Saronikós Gulf of the Aegean Sea, west of the city of Piraeus. The town is a port on the west coast of the island. On the east, between the island and the

  • Salamis, Battle of (ancient Greece-Persia)

    Battle of Salamis, (480 bc), battle in the Greco-Persian Wars in which a Greek fleet defeated much larger Persian naval forces in the straits at Salamis, between the island of Salamis and the Athenian port-city of Piraeus. By 480 the Persian king Xerxes and his army had overrun much of Greece, and

  • Salammb? (work by Flaubert)

    Salammb?, historical novel by Gustave Flaubert, published in 1862. Although the titular heroine is a fictional character, the novel’s setting of ancient Carthage and many characters are historically accurate, if highly romanticized. Set after the First Punic War (264–241 bce), Salammb? is the story

  • Salan, Raoul-Albin-Louis (French general)

    Raoul Salan, French military officer who sought to prevent Algeria from gaining independence from France. In 1961–62 he led an organization of right-wing extremists, the Organisation de l’Armée Secrète (OAS; Secret Army Organization), in a campaign of terror against the government of Charles de

  • Salandra, Antonio (premier of Italy)

    Antonio Salandra, Italian statesman who was premier at the beginning of World War I (1914–16). Salandra was educated in law and taught public administration at the University of Rome before entering politics. A member of a wealthy family and a conservative, he rose to become minister of agriculture

  • Salanter, Israel (Lithuanian rabbi)

    Musar: Rabbi Israel Salanter, later Israel Lipkin, who initiated the movement as head of the yeshiva at Vilnius, thus drew a distinction between intellectual knowledge and personal behaviour.

  • Salanx (fish)

    Icicle fish, (Salanx), any of several semitransparent fishes, family Salangidae, found in freshwaters and salt waters of eastern Asia and considered a delicacy by the Chinese. The numerous species are slender and troutlike in form, scaleless or finely scaled, and seldom more than 15 centimetres (6

  • salar (geology)

    Playa, (Spanish: shore or beach) flat-bottom depression found in interior desert basins and adjacent to coasts within arid and semiarid regions, periodically covered by water that slowly filtrates into the ground water system or evaporates into the atmosphere, causing the deposition of salt, sand,

  • Salar de Uyuni (salt flat, Bolivia)

    Uyuni Salt Flat, arid, windswept salt flat in southwestern Bolivia. It lies on the Altiplano, at 11,995 feet (3,656 metres) above sea level. The Uyuni Salt Flat is Bolivia’s largest salt-encrusted waste area (about 4,085 square miles [10,582 square km]) and is separated from the Coipasa Salt Flat,

  • Sālār Mas?ūd, Sayyid (Afghan warrior-saint)

    Bahraich: …was invaded in 1033 by Sayyid Sālār Mas?ūd, an Afghan warrior-saint. It subsequently changed hands several times before becoming part of British India. Bahraich is a centre of trade (agricultural products and timber) with Nepal; there is also some sugar processing. The tomb of Sayyid Sālār Mas?ūd, who died there…

  • Salaria, Via (Roman road)

    salt: History of use: …is the Via Salaria (Salt Route) over which Roman salt from Ostia was carried into other parts of Italy. Herodotus tells of a caravan route that united the salt oases of the Libyan Desert. The ancient trade between the Aegean and the Black Sea coast of southern Russia was…

  • salary cap (economics)

    baseball: Rise of the players: …bargaining agreement that included a salary cap (a limit on a team’s payroll), elimination of salary arbitration, and a revised free agency plan. The proposal was a dramatic shift from the previous contract and was promptly rejected by the players’ union. The negotiations that followed were inconclusive, and on August…

  • Salas, Antonio (Ecuadorian artist)

    Latin American art: Neoclassicism: In 1829 the Salas patriarch, Antonio, took time away from his usual subject matter (saints) to paint the bust of the liberator Simón Bolívar in sharp, linear detail against a neutral background. His son Rafael depicted the general Mariano Castillo standing in his gilt-braided black military uniform against…

  • Salas, Rafael (Ecuadorian artist)

    Latin American art: Neoclassicism: His son Rafael depicted the general Mariano Castillo standing in his gilt-braided black military uniform against a golden background. Rafael’s older half-brother, Ramón Salas, created a series of crisply linear watercolours depicting the common people of Ecuador, showing individuals such as an indigenous water carrier.

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