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  • Soissons, battle of (European history)

    France: Charles Martel: …Amblève (716), Vincy (717), and Soissons (719), he made himself master of northern Francia. He then reestablished Frankish authority in southern Gaul, where the local authorities could not cope with the Islamic threat; he stopped the Muslims near Poitiers (Battle of Tours; 732) and used this opportunity to subdue Aquitaine…

  • Soissons, Charles de Bourbon, comte de (French count and soldier)

    Charles de Bourbon, count de Soissons, major figure in France’s Wars of Religion and in the ultimate succession of Henry IV of Bourbon. Louis I de Bourbon, the first prince de Condé, had acquired the countship of Soissons in 1557, and upon his death in 1569 it passed to his youngest son, Charles.

  • Soissons, House of (Bourbon dynastic line)

    house of Bourbon: Origins: …Condé, with its ramifications of Soissons and of Conti, was descended from Louis, prince de Condé, one of Henry IV’s uncles.

  • Soissons, Louis de Bourbon, comte de (French courtier and soldier)

    Louis de Bourbon, comte de Soissons, courtier and soldier in the intrigues between Marie de Médicis, Louis XIII, and Cardinal Richelieu. The only son of Charles de Bourbon, he inherited his father’s Soissons title in 1612. After taking the side of Marie de Médicis, the queen mother, in 1620, he

  • Soissons, Olimpia Mancini, comtesse de (Italian-French noble)

    Olympe Mancini, comtesse de Soissons, niece of Cardinal Mazarin and wife from 1657 of the Comte de Soissons (Eugène-Maurice of Savoy). Olympe Mancini had a brief affair with the young king Louis XIV when she was in her teens and took part in the amorous intrigues of the French court up to 1680,

  • soja bean (plant)

    Soybean, (Glycine max), annual legume of the pea family (Fabaceae) and its edible seed. The soybean is economically the most important bean in the world, providing vegetable protein for millions of people and ingredients for hundreds of chemical products. The origins of the soybean plant are

  • Sōji Temple (temple, Yokohama, Japan)

    Keizan Jōkin: …Zen Buddhism, who founded the Sōji Temple (now in Yokohama), one of the two head temples of the sect.

  • S?jos?n-man (bay, Yellow Sea)

    Korea Bay, inlet that forms the northeastern arm of the Yellow Sea between the Liao-tung Peninsula (in Liaoning province), China, and western North Korea. Korea Bay receives three of the major rivers of North Korea—the Yalu (which rises on Mount Paektu and forms much of the China–North Korea

  • Sojourner (United States spacecraft)

    Mars Pathfinder: The rover was named Sojourner in honour of the 19th-century African American civil rights advocate Sojourner Truth.

  • Sojourners (American magazine)

    Jim Wallis: …and editor in chief of Sojourners magazine. He also founded Call to Renewal, a religious ecumenical organization committed to overcoming poverty and racism. A prolific writer about religion and American politics, he was often viewed as the voice of the religious left.

  • Sojourners (American organization)

    Jim Wallis: …where they adopted the name Sojourners and the magazine was likewise renamed. They lived and worshipped communally and were active in neighbourhood and national activism, ranging from after-school programs to antiwar and antipoverty protests.

  • Sojuz Sovetskich Socialisticeskich Respublik (historical state, Eurasia)

    Soviet Union, former northern Eurasian empire (1917/22–1991) stretching from the Baltic and Black seas to the Pacific Ocean and, in its final years, consisting of 15 Soviet Socialist Republics (S.S.R.’s): Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belorussia (now Belarus), Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kirgiziya (now

  • Sōka (Japan)

    Sōka, city, Saitama ken (prefecture), Honshu, Japan, on the Ayase River, north of Tokyo. During the Tokugawa period (1603–1867) Sōka was a post station, noted for its leather and dyes. The Tōbu Line (railway) arrived in 1899. Because of its proximity to Tokyo and available water and land, the city

  • Sōka Gakkai (Japanese religion)

    Sōka-gakkai, (Japanese: “Value-Creation Society”) lay Nichiren Buddhist movement that arose within the Japanese Buddhist group Nichiren-shō-shū; the two organizations split from each other in 1991. Sōka-gakkai has had rapid growth since the 1950s and is the most successful of the new religious

  • Soka Gakkai International–USA (American Buddhist organization)

    Sōka-gakkai: …the equivalent organization is called Soka Gakkai International–USA (SGI-USA).

  • Sōka-gakkai (Japanese religion)

    Sōka-gakkai, (Japanese: “Value-Creation Society”) lay Nichiren Buddhist movement that arose within the Japanese Buddhist group Nichiren-shō-shū; the two organizations split from each other in 1991. Sōka-gakkai has had rapid growth since the 1950s and is the most successful of the new religious

  • Sōka-kyōiku-gakkai (Japanese religion)

    Sōka-gakkai, (Japanese: “Value-Creation Society”) lay Nichiren Buddhist movement that arose within the Japanese Buddhist group Nichiren-shō-shū; the two organizations split from each other in 1991. Sōka-gakkai has had rapid growth since the 1950s and is the most successful of the new religious

  • sokah (music)

    Soca, Trinidadian popular music that developed in the 1970s and is closely related to calypso. Used for dancing at Carnival and at fetes, soca emphasizes rhythmic energy and studio production—including synthesized sounds and electronically mixed ensemble effects—over storytelling, a quality more

  • Sokal border (historical region, Eastern Europe)

    Ukraine: Western Ukraine under Polish rule: …special administrative frontier, the so-called Sokal border, was established between Galicia and Volhynia to prevent the spread of Ukrainian publications and institutions from Galicia to the northeast. In 1924 the Ukrainian language was eliminated from use in state institutions and government agencies. In the face of economic stagnation, scant industrial…

  • Sōkan (Japanese poet)

    Sōchō, Japanese renga (“linked-verse”) poet and chronicler of the late Muromachi period (1338–1573) who, along with two other renga poets, wrote Minase sangin hyakuin (1488; Minase Sangin Hyakuin: A Poem of One Hundred Links Composed by Three Poets at Minase). Little is known of Sōchō’s early

  • Sokch’o (South Korea)

    Sokch’o, city, Kangw?n (Gangwon) do (province), northeastern South Korea, on the East Sea (Sea of Japan). Ch’?ngch’o Lagoon is in the southern part of the city. The coastal waters provide good fishing grounds for cuttlefish, pollack, and mackerel. Linked with Seoul by air and road, the city became

  • Sokcho (South Korea)

    Sokch’o, city, Kangw?n (Gangwon) do (province), northeastern South Korea, on the East Sea (Sea of Japan). Ch’?ngch’o Lagoon is in the southern part of the city. The coastal waters provide good fishing grounds for cuttlefish, pollack, and mackerel. Linked with Seoul by air and road, the city became

  • Sokcho Hall (building, T?ksu Palace, Seoul, South Korea)

    Korean architecture: Modern period: …the Renaissance revival architecture called Sokcho Hall (Stone-built Hall) in T?ksu Palace in Seoul. The stone building, which is now an annex of the National Museum of Contemporary Art, was completed in 1909. With the construction of Western-style buildings in Seoul came the need for European furnishings. Glass was used…

  • Sokhnut ha-Yehudit el-Eretz Yisra?el, ha- (Israeli history)

    Jewish Agency, international body representing the World Zionist Organization, created in 1929 by Chaim Weizmann, with headquarters in Jerusalem. Its purpose is to assist and encourage Jews worldwide to help develop and settle Israel. Zionists needed financial backing for their project of c

  • Sokhra (Persian leader)

    Balāsh: Supported by Zarmihr, a feudal chief, Balāsh suppressed an uprising by his rebel brother Zareh. Later, however, he was abandoned by Zarmihr, and shortly afterward he was deposed and blinded. The crown was given to a son of Fīrūz, Kavadh I.

  • Sokhumi (Georgia)

    Sokhumi, city, capital of Abkhazia, Georgia. It lies on the site of the ancient Greek colony of Dioscurias on the Black Sea coast. Sokhumi’s seaside location, beaches, and warm climate made it a popular Black Sea resort, with many sanatoriums and holiday camps. Local industries include fruit

  • Sokile (people)

    Nyakyusa, Bantu-speaking people living in Mbeya region, Tanzania, immediately north of Lake Nyasa, and in Mala?i. Their country comprises alluvial flats near the lake and the mountainous country beyond for about 40 miles (65 km). Those living in Mala?i are called Ngonde (or Nkonde). Plantains are

  • S?kkuram (cave temple, South Korea)

    S?kkuram, Buddhist artificial-cave temple on the crest of Mount T’oham, near the Pulguk Temple, Ky?ngju, South Korea. Built in the 8th century, S?kkuram is a domed circular structure of granite blocks. A square anteroom houses eight guardian figures in relief. On an elevated lotus pedestal a large

  • Sokodé (Togo)

    Sokodé, town, central Togo. A historically important trading centre because of its location in a gap of the Togo Mountains, Sokodé is Togo’s second largest town and a major centre for commercial trade. Industrial activities there include cotton ginning and sugar processing. Sokodé has road links

  • Sokol (Russia)

    Sokol, city and river port, centre of Sokol rayon (sector), Vologda oblast (region), northwestern Russia. The port lies along the Sukhona River. Before the Russian Revolution of October 1917 it was the site of only two small factories, but it grew rapidly in the early Soviet period and was

  • Sokol (gymnastic society)

    Sokol , (Czech: “Hawk,” or “Falcon”), gymnastic society, originating in Prague in 1862 to develop strength, litheness, alertness, and courage. Originally patterned after the German turnverein, the Sokol traditionally emphasized mass calisthenics as a means of promoting communal spirit and physical

  • Sokollu, Mehmed Pa?a (Ottoman vizier)

    Mehmed Pa?a Sokollu, Ottoman grand vizier (chief minister) from June 1565, under the sultans Süleyman the Magnificent and Selim II, and perhaps the real ruler of the empire until the death of Selim in 1574. During his tenure, a war was fought with Venice (1570–73), in which the Ottoman navy was

  • Sokolnikov, G. Y. (Russian revolutionary)

    Great Purge: Pyatakov, G.Y. Sokolnikov, L.P. Serebryakov, and Karl Radek, all prominent figures in the Soviet regime. They and their 17 codefendants were accused of forming an “anti-Soviet Trotskyite centre,” which had allegedly collaborated with Trotsky to conduct sabotage, wrecking, and terrorist activities that would ruin the Soviet…

  • Sokolof, Phil (American businessman)

    Phil Sokolof, American businessman (born Dec. 15, 1921, Omaha, Neb.—died April 15, 2004, Omaha), launched a personal mission to combat high cholesterol. He had already amassed a small fortune as a construction supplies manufacturer when, in 1965, a near-fatal heart attack alerted him to the i

  • Sokoloff, Louis (American neurophysicist)

    Louis Sokoloff, American neurophysicist (born Oct. 14, 1921, Philadelphia, Pa.—died July 30, 2015, Washington, D.C.), developed a method that made it possible to visualize simultaneous biochemical activity in neural pathways in the brain, a breakthrough that contributed greatly to the understanding

  • Sokolovsky, Vasily (Soviet marshal)

    20th-century international relations: Renewed U.S.–Soviet cooperation: Marshal Sokolovsky’s volumes on military strategy in the 1960s, while granting that nuclear war would be an unprecedented disaster for all, still committed the U.S.S.R. to a war-winning capability.

  • Sokolow, Anna (American choreographer and dancer)

    Anna Sokolow, American dancer, choreographer, and teacher noted for her socially and politically conscious works and her unique blend of dance and theatre choreography. She is also recognized for her instrumental role in the development of modern dance in Israel and Mexico. The daughter of Russian

  • Sokolow, Nahum (British writer)

    Nahum Sokolow, Jewish journalist and Zionist leader. The descendant of an ancient Polish rabbinical family, Sokolow became well known for his contributions to the Jewish press in Hebrew and other languages. At 24 he became assistant editor of the Hebrew scientific weekly ha-Zefirah in Warsaw;

  • Sokolsky, Joseph (Bulgarian bishop)

    Bulgarian Catholic Church: Joseph Sokolsky was consecrated the first Bulgarian Catholic prelate in 1859; and, although he was soon afterward abducted by the Russians and interned for 18 years, the Bulgarian Catholic Church grew to number 80,000 faithful. By 1872, however, 60,000 of these returned to Orthodoxy, and…

  • Sokora (people)

    Niger: Settlement patterns: …the Niger the Buduma and Sorko peoples are fishermen. Sedentary peoples live in dwellings that vary from those made of straw to those made of banco (hardened mud), although the Wogo people live in tents of delicate matting.

  • Sokoto (Nigeria)

    Sokoto, capital and largest town of Sokoto state, northwestern Nigeria. It lies along the Sokoto (Kebbi) River just east of the latter’s junction with the Rima River. The town, some 50 miles (80 km) south of the Niger border, lies on a traditional caravan route that leads northward across the

  • Sokoto (state, Nigeria)

    Sokoto, state, northwestern Nigeria. Bordering the Republic of Niger to the north, it also shares boundaries with Kebbi state to the west and south, and Zamfara to the south and east. Sokoto state occupies an area of short-grass savanna vegetation in the south and thorn scrub in the north. A

  • Sokoto River (river, Nigeria)

    Sokoto River, river in northwestern Nigeria, rising just south of Funtua on the northern plateau. It flows northwestward in a wide arc for 200 miles (320 km) to Sokoto town, west of which the Rima River joins it in its lower course to its confluence with the Niger River east of Illo. The alluvial

  • Sokotra (island, Yemen)

    Socotra, island in the Indian Ocean about 210 miles (340 km) southeast of Yemen, to which it belongs. The largest of several islands extending eastward from the Horn of Africa, it has an area of about 1,400 square miles (3,600 square km). The Hajīr (Hajhir) Mountains occupy Socotra’s interior, with

  • Sokrates (Byzantine historian)

    Socrates, Byzantine church historian whose annotated chronicle, Historia ecclesiastica (“Ecclesiastical History”), is an indispensable documentary source for Christian history from 305 to 439. Through excerpts from the 6th-century Latin translation ascribed to Cassiodorus and Epiphanius, it

  • Sokurov, Aleksandr (Russian filmmaker)

    Russia: Motion pictures: In the late 1990s Aleksandr Sokurov emerged as a director of exceptional talents, gaining international acclaim for Mother and Son (1997) and Russian Ark (2002), the first feature film ever to be shot in a single take. (For further discussion, see motion picture, history of the.)

  • sokutai (Japanese dress)

    Sokutai, Japanese emperor’s court dress, worn for coronations and other important ceremonies. The costume, which has many Chinese characteristics, has changed little since the 12th century. It consists of baggy white damask trousers (ue-no-hakama) and a voluminous yellow outer robe (hō) cut in the

  • sol (colloid)

    Sol, in physical chemistry, a colloid (aggregate of very fine particles dispersed in a continuous medium) in which the particles are solid and the dispersion medium is fluid. If the dispersion medium is water, the colloid may be called a hydrosol; and if air, an aerosol. Lyophobic (Greek:

  • sol (astronomy)

    day: The apparent solar day is the time between two successive transits of the Sun over the same meridian. Because the orbital motion of the Earth makes the Sun seem to move slightly eastward each day relative to the stars, the solar day is about four minutes longer…

  • s?l (red algae)

    Dulse, (Palmaria palmata), edible red alga (Rhodophyta) found along the rocky northern coasts of the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Dulse can be eaten fresh or dried. In traditional dishes, it is boiled with milk and rye flour or made into a relish and is commonly served with fish and butter. The

  • Sol (Roman god)

    Sol, in Roman religion, name of two distinct sun gods at Rome. The original Sol, or Sol Indiges, had a shrine on the Quirinal, an annual sacrifice on August 9, and another shrine, together with Luna, the moon goddess, in the Circus Maximus. Although the cult appears to have been native, the Roman

  • S?l Ch’ong (Korean writer)

    Korean literature: The Three Kingdoms period and unification: 57 bce–935 ce: Of this group, S?l Ch’ong was the author of “Hwawanggye” (“Admonition to the King of Flowers”), in which he personifies flowers in order to satirize the king. Another member of the group, Ch’oe Ch’i-W?n, who had studied in Tang China and passed the civil service examination there, contributed…

  • Sol Indiges (Roman god)

    Roman religion: The Sun and stars: …a sacred grove at Lavinium, Sol Indiges was regarded as one of the divine ancestors of Rome. During the last centuries before the Christian era, worship of the Sun spread throughout the Mediterranean world and formed the principal rallying point of paganism’s last years. Closely associated with the sun cult…

  • Sol Invictus (Roman god)

    church year: Formation of the church year: …age brought by the “Unconquered Sun.” Later the Western churches created a preparatory season for the Christmas festival, known as Advent. Many new days were gradually added to the roster of martyr anniversaries to commemorate distinguished leaders, the dedication of buildings and shrines in honour of the saints, and…

  • Sól ziemi (work by Wittlin)

    Józef Wittlin: …literature is Sól ziemi (1936; Salt of the Earth). The book is a tale of a “patient infantryman,” an illiterate Polish peasant who is unwillingly drafted into the Austrian army to fight a war he does not understand. The novel treats not war itself but the bewilderment of a man…

  • Sol, Isla del (island, South America)

    Isla del Sol, island in the Bolivian (eastern) sector of Lake Titicaca, just northwest of the Copacabana peninsula. The island, whose name is Spanish for “Island of the Sun,” was an important centre of pre-Columbian settlement in the eastern part of the Andes mountain ranges. It has an area of 5.5

  • sol-fa (music)

    solmization: …the most prominent being tonic sol-fa, developed about 1850 in England by John Curwen. Tonic sol-fa emphasizes the relation of the notes to one another and to the tonic, or key note (do in major scales, la in minor scales). If the key changes, do (or la) shifts to a…

  • sol-gel microsphere pelletization (technology)

    nuclear ceramics: Nuclear fuel: …in an advanced process called sol-gel microsphere pelletization. The sol-gel route (described in the article advanced ceramics) achieves homogeneous distribution of uranium and plutonium in solid solution, enables sintering to occur at lower temperature, and ameliorates the toxic dust problem associated with the powder-pellet method.

  • sol-gel processing (materials processing)

    advanced ceramics: The sol-gel route: …for producing ceramic powders is sol-gel processing. Stable dispersions, or sols, of small particles (less than 0.1 micrometre) are formed from precursor chemicals such as metal alkoxides or other metalorganics. By partial evaporation of the liquid or addition of a suitable initiator, a polymer-like, three-dimensional bonding takes place within the…

  • sol-gel route (materials processing)

    advanced ceramics: The sol-gel route: …for producing ceramic powders is sol-gel processing. Stable dispersions, or sols, of small particles (less than 0.1 micrometre) are formed from precursor chemicals such as metal alkoxides or other metalorganics. By partial evaporation of the liquid or addition of a suitable initiator, a polymer-like, three-dimensional bonding takes place within the…

  • sol-gel synthesis (materials processing)

    advanced ceramics: The sol-gel route: …for producing ceramic powders is sol-gel processing. Stable dispersions, or sols, of small particles (less than 0.1 micrometre) are formed from precursor chemicals such as metal alkoxides or other metalorganics. By partial evaporation of the liquid or addition of a suitable initiator, a polymer-like, three-dimensional bonding takes place within the…

  • Sola, ma chérie (work by Philombe)

    René Philombe: His other published works include Sola, ma chérie (1966; “Sola, My Darling”), a novel about seemingly unjust marriage customs; Un Sorcier blanc à Zangali (1970; “A White Sorcerer in Zangali”), a novel about the effect of a missionary’s clash with the colonial administration in a small village; Choc anti-choc (1978),…

  • Solace (film by Poyart [2015])

    Anthony Hopkins: Later movie and television roles: …starred in the crime drama Solace, playing a doctor who is assisting in the hunt for a serial killer. After playing a string of villainous characters, Hopkins appeared in Transformers: The Last Knight in 2017. Hopkins later portrayed the eponymous hero in a televised adaptation (2018) of Shakespeare’s King Lear.…

  • Solace of Pilgrims (work by Capgrave)

    John Capgrave: …which are described in his Solace of Pilgrims (ed. C.A. Mills, 1911).

  • solan goose (bird)

    gannet: …species is the 100-cm (40-inch) northern gannet, Morus bassanus (or Sula bassana), sometimes called solan goose; it breeds on islands in Canada, Greenland, Iceland, and northeastern Europe, wintering to the Gulf of Mexico, Morocco, and the Mediterranean. The two slightly smaller southern species are the Cape gannet (M. capensis), which…

  • Solana Madariaga, Francisco Javier (Spanish politician)

    Javier Solana, Spanish politician who served as the ninth secretary-general (1995–99) of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). He subsequently became a high-level official of the European Union (EU). As a student in the early 1960s, Solana joined the Spanish Socialist Workers’ Party

  • Solana, Javier (Spanish politician)

    Javier Solana, Spanish politician who served as the ninth secretary-general (1995–99) of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). He subsequently became a high-level official of the European Union (EU). As a student in the early 1960s, Solana joined the Spanish Socialist Workers’ Party

  • Solanaceae (plant family)

    Solanaceae, the nightshade, or potato, family of flowering plants (order Solanales), with 102 genera and nearly 2,500 species, many of considerable economic importance as food and drug plants. Among the most important of those are potato (Solanum tuberosum); eggplant (S. melongena); tomato (S.

  • Solanales (plant order)

    Solanales, potato order of flowering plants, including five families with 165 genera and more than 4,080 species. Two of the families are large and contain some of the most highly cultivated plants: Solanaceae (nightshades) and Convolvulaceae (morning glories). Solanales belongs to the core asterid

  • Solanas, Valerie (American writer)

    Andy Warhol: …shot and nearly killed by Valerie Solanas, one of an assemblage of underground film and rock music stars, assorted hangers-on, and social curiosities who frequented his studio, known as the Factory. (The incident is depicted in the 1996 film I Shot Andy Warhol.) Warhol had by this time become a…

  • solanine (chemical compound)

    tomato: History: …poisonous and contain the neurotoxin solanine.

  • Solanki dynasty (Indian history)

    Gujarat: History: …followed shortly afterward by the Solanki dynasty. The boundaries of Gujarat reached their farthest limits during the reign of the Solankis, when remarkable progress was made in the economic and cultural fields. Siddharaja Jayasimha and Kumarapala are the best-known Solanki kings. Karnadeva Vaghela, of the subsequent Vaghela dynasty, was defeated…

  • solano (wind)

    Spain: Climate: …from the same sector, the solano, carries unbearably hot, dry, suffocating weather over the Andalusian plain. Northern Spain, from Galicia to northern Catalonia (Catalunya, or Catalu?a), is characterized by a temperate humid or maritime type of climate, having high rainfall and an average temperature in January of 43 °F (6…

  • Solanum (plant genus)

    Nightshade, (genus Solanum), genus of about 2,300 species of flowering plants in the nightshade family (Solanaceae). The term nightshade is often associated with poisonous species, though the genus also contains a number of economically important food crops, including tomato (Solanum lycopersicum),

  • Solanum dulcamara (plant)

    bittersweet: ) or woody nightshade (Solanum dulcamara), belongs to the family Solanaceae. It is an herbaceous vine, up to 4.5 m long; the violet and yellow star-shaped flowers are followed by shiny green berries that gradually turn bright red.

  • Solanum esculentum (fruit)

    Tomato, (Solanum lycopersicum), flowering plant of the nightshade family (Solanaceae), cultivated extensively for its edible fruits. Labelled as a vegetable for nutritional purposes, tomatoes are a good source of vitamin C and the phytochemical lycopene. The fruits are commonly eaten raw in salads,

  • Solanum lycopersicum (fruit)

    Tomato, (Solanum lycopersicum), flowering plant of the nightshade family (Solanaceae), cultivated extensively for its edible fruits. Labelled as a vegetable for nutritional purposes, tomatoes are a good source of vitamin C and the phytochemical lycopene. The fruits are commonly eaten raw in salads,

  • Solanum maritimum (plant)

    Central Valley: …with altitude: near sea level Solanum maritimum, a relative of the potato, is common; up to 2,500 feet (760 metres) characteristic plants include a treelike lily (Crinodendron patagua), Bellota miersii, and low trees such as Acacia. The original dry forest, however, has gradually succumbed to urban and agricultural encroachment.

  • Solanum melongena (plant)

    Eggplant, (Solanum melongena), tender perennial plant of the nightshade family (Solanaceae), grown for its edible fruits. Eggplant requires a warm climate and has been cultivated in its native Southeast Asia since remote antiquity. A staple in cuisines of the Mediterranean region, eggplant figures

  • Solanum nigrum (plant)

    nightshade: The black nightshade (S. nigrum) is also generally considered poisonous, but its fully ripened fruit and foliage are cooked and eaten in some areas.

  • Solanum rostratum (plant)

    Buffalo bur, (Solanum rostratum), plant of the nightshade family (Solanaceae), native to high plains east of the Rocky Mountains from North Dakota to Mexico. Buffalo bur, named for its prickly berries that were commonly entangled in the fur of American bison (Bison bison), is an aggressive weed in

  • Solanum tuberosum (plant)

    Potato, (Solanum tuberosum), annual plant in the nightshade family (Solanaceae), grown for its starchy edible tubers. The potato is native to the Peruvian-Bolivian Andes and is one of the world’s main food crops. Potatoes are frequently served whole or mashed as a cooked vegetable and are also

  • Solapur (India)

    Solapur, city, southern Maharashtra state, western India. It is situated in an upland region on the Sina River. In early centuries the city belonged to the Hindu Chalukyas and Devagiri Yadavas but later became part of the Muslim Bahmani and Bijapur kingdoms. Located on major road and rail routes

  • solar (architecture)

    Solar, in architecture, private room located on the floor above the great hall in a late medieval English manor house. The solar served as a kind of parlour to which the family of the owner of the manor house or castle could retire from the bustling communal living of the hall below. In fact, by

  • solar activity

    Sun: Solar activity: A wonderful rhythm in the ebb and flow of sunspot activity dominates the atmosphere of the Sun. Sunspots, the largest of which can be seen even without a telescope, are regions of extremely strong magnetic field found on the Sun’s surface. A…

  • Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (satellite)

    Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), satellite managed jointly by the European Space Agency (ESA) and the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) that is equipped with a battery of novel instruments to study the Sun. SOHO was launched by NASA on an Atlas rocket on Dec. 2,

  • solar apex (astronomy)

    Milky Way Galaxy: Solar motion calculations from space motions: …reference frame is called the apex of solar motion. In addition, the calculation of the solar motion provides dispersion in velocity. Such dispersions are as intrinsically interesting as the solar motions themselves because a dispersion is an indication of the integrity of the selection of stars used as a reference…

  • solar array

    International Space Station: …four units that held large solar-power arrays and thermal radiators. Aside from the United States and Russia, station construction involved Canada, Japan, Brazil, and 11 ESA members. Russian modules were carried into space by Russian expendable launch vehicles, after which they automatically rendezvoused with and docked to the ISS. Other…

  • Solar Barque (novel by Nin)

    Ana?s Nin: …House of Love (1954), and Solar Barque (1958).

  • solar calendar (chronology)

    Solar calendar, any dating system based on the seasonal year of approximately 365 14 days, the time it takes the Earth to revolve once around the Sun. The Egyptians appear to have been the first to develop a solar calendar, using as a fixed point the annual sunrise reappearance of the Dog

  • solar cell (electronics)

    Solar cell, any device that directly converts the energy of light into electrical energy through the photovoltaic effect. The overwhelming majority of solar cells are fabricated from silicon—with increasing efficiency and lowering cost as the materials range from amorphous (noncrystalline) to

  • Solar Challenger (American aircraft)

    Paul Beattie MacCready: On July 7, 1981, the Solar Challenger, a solar-powered plane designed by MacCready, flew from the Pointoise Cormeilles airport, near Paris, to the Manston Royal Air Force Base, in Kent, Eng., a distance of 160 miles (258 km), in 5 hr 23 min at an average speed of about 30…

  • solar compass

    Solar compass, type of navigational instrument that uses the position of the Sun to establish bearing. The solar compass operates somewhat like a sundial. It indicates direction by employing the angle of the shadow cast by the Sun in conjunction with a compass card, a flat disk marked with points a

  • solar constant

    Solar constant, the total radiation energy received from the Sun per unit of time per unit of area on a theoretical surface perpendicular to the Sun’s rays and at Earth’s mean distance from the Sun. It is most accurately measured from satellites where atmospheric effects are absent. The value of

  • solar cooker

    Solar oven, a device that harnesses sunlight as a source of heat for cooking foodstuffs. The solar oven is a simple, portable, economical, and efficient tool. Especially in the developing world, solar ovens are much to be preferred over other methods of cooking. Of the many advantages of solar

  • solar corona (Sun)

    Corona, outermost region of the Sun’s atmosphere, consisting of plasma (hot ionized gas). It has a temperature of approximately two million kelvins and an extremely low density. The corona continually varies in size and shape as it is affected by the Sun’s magnetic field. The solar wind, which

  • solar cycle (astronomy)

    Solar cycle, period of about 11 years in which fluctuations in the number and size of sunspots and solar prominences are repeated. Sunspot groups have a magnetic field with a north and a south pole, and, in each 11-year rise and fall, the same polarity leads in a given hemisphere, while the

  • solar day (astronomy)

    day: The apparent solar day is the time between two successive transits of the Sun over the same meridian. Because the orbital motion of the Earth makes the Sun seem to move slightly eastward each day relative to the stars, the solar day is about four minutes longer…

  • solar day rhythm (biology)

    Circadian rhythm, the cyclical 24-hour period of human biological activity. Within the circadian (24-hour) cycle, a person usually sleeps approximately 8 hours and is awake 16. During the wakeful hours, mental and physical functions are most active and tissue cell growth increases. During sleep,

  • solar deity (religion)

    Sun worship, veneration of the sun or a representation of the sun as a deity, as in Atonism in Egypt in the 14th century bce. Although sun worship has been used frequently as a term for “pagan” religion, it is, in fact, relatively rare. Though almost every culture uses solar motifs, only a

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