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  • Solomón, Islas de (islands and nation, Pacific Ocean)

    Solomon Islands, country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. It consists of a double chain of volcanic islands and coral atolls in Melanesia. The country comprises most of the Solomons chain, with the exception of Buka and Bougainville, two islands at the northwestern end that form an autonomous

  • Solomon, Psalms of (biblical literature)

    Psalms of Solomon, a pseudepigraphal work (not in any biblical canon) comprising 18 psalms that were originally written in Hebrew, although only Greek and Syriac translations survive. Like the canonical Psalms, the Psalms of Solomon contains hymns, poems of admonition and instruction, and songs of

  • Solomon, Song of (biblical canticle)

    Song of Solomon, an Old Testament book that belongs to the third section of the biblical canon, known as the Ketuvim, or “Writings.” In the Hebrew Bible the Song of Solomon stands with Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes, and Esther and with them makes up the Megillot, five scrolls that are read on

  • Solomon, Stuart (American film director and producer)

    Mel Stuart, (Stuart Solomon), American film director and producer (born Sept. 2, 1928, New York, N.Y.—died Aug. 9, 2012, Los Angeles, Calif.), won acclaim for numerous documentaries, notably the Emmy Award-winning The Making of the President 1960 (1963) and the Oscar-nominated Four Days in November

  • Solomon, Temple of (ancient temple, Jerusalem)

    Dome of the Rock: …the Rock to be the Temple of Solomon (Templum Domini). The Knights Templar were quartered there following the conquest of Jerusalem by a Crusader army in 1099, and Templar churches in Europe imitated its design. The Dome was used as church until a Muslim army recaptured Jerusalem in 1187.

  • Solomon, Wisdom of (biblical literature)

    Wisdom of Solomon, an example of the “wisdom” genre of religious literature, which commends a life of introspection and reflection on human existence, especially from an ethical perspective. It is an apocryphal work (noncanonical for Jews and Protestants) but is included in the Septuagint (Greek

  • Solomonian, Solomon (Armenian composer)

    Komitas, ethnomusicologist and composer who created the basis for a distinctive national musical style in Armenia. Orphaned at age 11, he was sent to study liturgical singing at a seminary in Vagarshapat (now Ejmiadzin) in Armenia. He graduated in 1893 and adopted the name Komitas, that of a

  • Solomonic dynasty (Ethiopian history)

    Solomonid Dynasty, line of Ethiopian emperors who, according to tradition, were descended from Menilek I, the son of Solomon and the Queen of Sheba (Makeda). Until Haile Selassie I was deposed in 1974, their rule was supposed to have been continuous but for two periods, the reign of the Zagwe d

  • Solomonid dynasty (Ethiopian history)

    Solomonid Dynasty, line of Ethiopian emperors who, according to tradition, were descended from Menilek I, the son of Solomon and the Queen of Sheba (Makeda). Until Haile Selassie I was deposed in 1974, their rule was supposed to have been continuous but for two periods, the reign of the Zagwe d

  • Solomons, Ikey (British author)

    William Makepeace Thackeray, English novelist whose reputation rests chiefly on Vanity Fair (1847–48), a novel of the Napoleonic period in England, and The History of Henry Esmond, Esq. (1852), set in the early 18th century. Thackeray was the only son of Richmond Thackeray, an administrator in the

  • Solomós, Dhionísios, Count (Greek poet)

    Dhionísios, Count Solomós, first poet of modern Greece to show the capabilities of Demotic Greek when inspired by wide culture and first-rate lyrical gifts. Solomós’ earliest poems were written in Italian, but in 1822 he determined to write in the spoken tongue of Greece. His ímnos is tín

  • Solon (Greek statesman and poet)

    Solon, Athenian statesman, known as one of the Seven Wise Men of Greece (the others were Chilon of Sparta, Thales of Miletus, Bias of Priene, Cleobulus of Lindos, Pittacus of Mytilene, and Periander of Corinth). Solon ended exclusive aristocratic control of the government, substituted a system of

  • Solon Islandus (novel by Stefánsson)

    Davíe Stefánsson: He wrote a powerful novel, Sólon Islandus (1940), about a daydreaming 19th-century vagabond whose intellectual ambitions are smothered by society; a successful play, Gullna hlieie (1941; The Golden Gate, 1967, in Fire and Ice: Three Icelandic Plays); and other prose works, but they are overshadowed by his verse.

  • Solon’s laws (Greek history)

    Solon’s laws, constitutional and judicial reforms instituted by the Athenian statesman and poet Solon probably 20 years after he served as archon (annual chief ruler) in 594 bce. Responding to the early 6th-century Athenian conflict between the landed aristocracy and peasantry, Solon was called

  • Solon, Marc-Louis (French artist)

    pate-sur-pate: …where it was perfected by Marc-Louis Solon, who later worked for Minton. The technique was also used in the United States, at the Rookwood factory in Cincinnati, Ohio.

  • Solonchak (FAO soil group)

    Solonchak, one of the 30 soil groups in the classification system of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Solonchaks are defined by high soluble salt accumulation within 30 cm (1 foot) of the land surface and by the absence of distinct subsurface horizonation (layering), except possibly for

  • Solonetz (FAO soil group)

    Solonetz, one of the 30 soil groups in the classification system of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Solonetz soils are defined by an accumulation of sodium salts and readily displaceable sodium ions bound to soil particles in a layer below the surface horizon (uppermost layer). This

  • Solor (people)

    Solorese, tribe inhabiting the Lesser Sunda Islands in Indonesia, specifically Solor, Adonara, Lomblen, and eastern Flores. The Solorese speak three Malayo-Polynesian dialects in the Ambon-Timor language group. They are divided into two opposing groups, the Demon and the Padzi, who have different

  • Solor Islands (islands, Indonesia)

    Solor Islands, group of three major and several smaller islands, East Nusa Tenggara propinsi (province), Indonesia. They lie west of the Alor Islands, with which they share population characteristics. The area of the group is 804 square miles (2,082 square km). The largest island of the group is

  • Solor, Kepulauan (islands, Indonesia)

    Solor Islands, group of three major and several smaller islands, East Nusa Tenggara propinsi (province), Indonesia. They lie west of the Alor Islands, with which they share population characteristics. The area of the group is 804 square miles (2,082 square km). The largest island of the group is

  • Solorese (people)

    Solorese, tribe inhabiting the Lesser Sunda Islands in Indonesia, specifically Solor, Adonara, Lomblen, and eastern Flores. The Solorese speak three Malayo-Polynesian dialects in the Ambon-Timor language group. They are divided into two opposing groups, the Demon and the Padzi, who have different

  • Solot (people)

    Solorese, tribe inhabiting the Lesser Sunda Islands in Indonesia, specifically Solor, Adonara, Lomblen, and eastern Flores. The Solorese speak three Malayo-Polynesian dialects in the Ambon-Timor language group. They are divided into two opposing groups, the Demon and the Padzi, who have different

  • Solotaroff, Ted (American literary critic)

    Ted Solotaroff, (Theodore Solotaroff), American literary critic (born Oct. 9, 1928, Elizabeth, N.J.—died Aug. 8, 2008, East Quogue, N.Y.), founded (1967) the New American Review (later American Review), a literary journal that appeared three times a year in paperback form and featured fiction and

  • Solothurn (canton, Switzerland)

    Solothurn, canton, northwestern Switzerland. It is bounded by the cantons of Bern to the west and south, Jura to the west, Aargau to the east, and Basel-Landschaft (demicanton) to the north. It is drained by the Aare River and its tributaries. Consisting of territories acquired by Solothurn (q.v.),

  • Solothurn (Switzerland)

    Solothurn, capital of Solothurn canton, northwestern Switzerland. It lies along the Aare River, south of Basel. It originated as the Celtic and Roman stronghold of Salodurum, occupying a strategic position at the approach to the Rhine from the southwest. The medieval town grew around the remains of

  • Soloukhin, Vladimir Alekseyevich (Soviet writer)

    Vladimir Alekseyevich Soloukhin, Soviet writer who penned nonfiction and nostalgic novels, poetry, and short stories but was perhaps best known for his campaign to preserve prerevolutionary Russian art and architecture, most notably historic Russian Orthodox churches and icons (b. June 14, 1924--d.

  • Solouque, Faustin-élie (emperor of Haiti)

    Faustin-élie Soulouque, Haitian slave, president, and later emperor of Haiti, who represented the black majority of the country against the mulatto elite. Soulouque was born a slave while Haiti was still under French rule. He participated in a successful revolt in 1803 that expelled the French, and

  • Solovets Islands (islands, Russia)

    Solovets Islands, group of islands, Arkhangelsk oblast (province), northwestern Russia. The group lies in the White Sea at its junction with the Onega Bay. The archipelago consists of three large islands, Solovets, Bolshoy (Great) Muksalma, and Anzersky, as well as several smaller ones; it has a

  • Solovetskiye Osstrova (islands, Russia)

    Solovets Islands, group of islands, Arkhangelsk oblast (province), northwestern Russia. The group lies in the White Sea at its junction with the Onega Bay. The archipelago consists of three large islands, Solovets, Bolshoy (Great) Muksalma, and Anzersky, as well as several smaller ones; it has a

  • Solovetsky Island (prison, Siberia, Russia)

    Solovetsky Island, prison island located in Siberian Russia, part of a system of prisons and labour camps that came to be known as the Gulag Archipelago through the writings of Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, who spent eight years as a political prisoner of the Soviet regime. The name Solovetsky refers

  • Soloviev, Sergey Mikhaylovich (Russian historian)

    Sergey Mikhaylovich Solovyov, one of the greatest Russian historians. The son of a clergyman, Solovyov graduated from Moscow University in 1842 and joined the faculty of that institution as an assistant professor of Russian history in 1845. He became a full professor in 1850 and served in that

  • Soloviev, Vladimir Sergeyevich (Russian philosopher)

    Vladimir Sergeyevich Solovyov, Russian philosopher and mystic who, reacting to European rationalist thought, attempted a synthesis of religious philosophy, science, and ethics in the context of a universal Christianity uniting the Orthodox and Roman Catholic churches under papal leadership. He was

  • Solovox (musical instrument)

    electronic instrument: Post-World War II electronic instruments: The Hammond Solovox, Constant Martin’s Clavioline, and Georges Jenny’s Ondioline are examples of commercially produced monophonic (capable of generating only one note at a time) electronic instruments. These instruments used small keyboards and were designed to mount immediately under the keyboard of a piano. They were capable…

  • Solovyov, Anatoly Yakovlevich (Soviet cosmonaut)

    Anatoly Yakovlevich Solovyov, Soviet cosmonaut who flew into space five times and holds the record for the most time spent on space walks. Solovyov, a fighter pilot who had served in the Soviet Far East, joined the Soviet cosmonaut squad as a trainee in 1976. He flew into space for the first time

  • Solovyov, Sergey Mikhaylovich (Russian historian)

    Sergey Mikhaylovich Solovyov, one of the greatest Russian historians. The son of a clergyman, Solovyov graduated from Moscow University in 1842 and joined the faculty of that institution as an assistant professor of Russian history in 1845. He became a full professor in 1850 and served in that

  • Solovyov, Vladimir A. (Soviet cosmonaut)

    Mir: …1986, cosmonauts Leonid Kizim and Vladimir Solovyov were sent aloft aboard a Soyuz T spacecraft to rendezvous with Mir and become its first occupants. Between March 1987 and April 1996, five expansion modules were added to the core unit—Kvant 1 (1987), an astrophysics observatory; Kvant 2 (1989), containing supplementary life-support…

  • Solovyov, Vladimir Sergeyevich (Russian philosopher)

    Vladimir Sergeyevich Solovyov, Russian philosopher and mystic who, reacting to European rationalist thought, attempted a synthesis of religious philosophy, science, and ethics in the context of a universal Christianity uniting the Orthodox and Roman Catholic churches under papal leadership. He was

  • Solow residual (economics)

    Robert Solow: …unaccounted-for portion—now called the “Solow residual”—to technological innovation. From the 1960s on, Solow’s studies helped persuade governments to channel funds into technological research and development to spur economic growth. A Keynesian, Solow was a witty critic of economists ranging from interventionists such as John Kenneth Galbraith to free marketers…

  • Solow, Robert (American economist)

    Robert Solow, American economist who was awarded the 1987 Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences for his important contributions to theories of economic growth. Solow received a B.A. (1947), an M.A. (1949), and a Ph.D. (1951) from Harvard University. He began teaching economics at the Massachusetts

  • Solow, Robert Merton (American economist)

    Robert Solow, American economist who was awarded the 1987 Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences for his important contributions to theories of economic growth. Solow received a B.A. (1947), an M.A. (1949), and a Ph.D. (1951) from Harvard University. He began teaching economics at the Massachusetts

  • Solpugida (arachnid)

    Sunspider, (order Solifugae), any of more than 1,000 species of the arthropod class Arachnida whose common name refers to their habitation of hot dry regions as well as to their typically golden colour. They are also called wind scorpions because of their swiftness, camel spiders because of their

  • Solstad, Dag (Norwegian writer)

    Dag Solstad, novelist, short-story writer, and dramatist, one of the most significant Norwegian writers to emerge during the 1960s. Solstad began his career as a writer of short experimental fictions that investigated the themes of identity and alienation: Spiraler (1965; “Spirals”) and Svingstol

  • solstice (astronomy)

    Solstice, either of the two moments in the year when the Sun’s apparent path is farthest north or south from Earth’s Equator. In the Northern Hemisphere the summer solstice occurs on June 20 or 21 and the winter solstice on December 21 or 22. The situation is exactly the opposite in the Southern

  • Solt, Mary Ellen (American poet)

    Mary Ellen Solt, (Mary Ellen Bottom), American poet (born July 8, 1920, Gilmore City, Iowa—died June 21, 2007, Santa Clarita, Calif.), was a leading figure in the concrete poetry movement, which flourished during the 1960s and featured words arranged on a page to create a visual graphic. For her

  • Sol?ān Mo?ammad Shah (?afavid ruler)

    ?Abbās I: Life: The third son of Sol?ān Mo?ammad Shah, ?Abbās came to the throne in October 1588, at a critical moment in the fortunes of the ?afavid dynasty. The weak rule of his semiblind father had allowed usurpation by the amīrs, or chiefs, of the Turkmen tribes, who had brought the…

  • Sol?ānābād (Iran)

    Arāk, city, capital of Markazī province, northwestern Iran. It was founded as Sol?ānābād in 1808 by the Qājār ruler Fat? ?Alī Shāh. By the end of the century, it had become an important centre of carpet production. During the reign of Reza Shah Pahlavi (1925–41), the local name Arāk was adopted as

  • Sol?ānābād (ancient site, Iran)

    pottery: 11th to 15th century: Both the original site of Sol?ānābād and the nature of the wares that may have been made there are extremely uncertain. Principally associated with it are wares decorated with relief molding under a turquoise or dark-blue glaze or painted in black slip under a clear turquoise glaze. They date from…

  • Sol?āniyyeh (Iran)

    Islamic arts: Mongol Iran: Il-Khanid and Timurid periods: northeastern Iran, especially Tabrīz and Sol?ānīyeh, became the main creative centres of the new Mongol regime. At Tabrīz, for example, the Rashīdīyeh (a sort of academy of sciences and arts to which books, scholars, and ideas from all over the world were collected) was established in the early 14th century.

  • Solti, Gy?rgy (British conductor)

    Sir Georg Solti, Hungarian-born British conductor and pianist, one of the most highly regarded conductors of the second half of the 20th century. He was especially noted for his interpretations of Romantic orchestral and operatic works. Solti studied at the Liszt Academy of Music in Budapest with

  • Solti, Gy?rgy Stern (British conductor)

    Sir Georg Solti, Hungarian-born British conductor and pianist, one of the most highly regarded conductors of the second half of the 20th century. He was especially noted for his interpretations of Romantic orchestral and operatic works. Solti studied at the Liszt Academy of Music in Budapest with

  • Solti, Sir Georg (British conductor)

    Sir Georg Solti, Hungarian-born British conductor and pianist, one of the most highly regarded conductors of the second half of the 20th century. He was especially noted for his interpretations of Romantic orchestral and operatic works. Solti studied at the Liszt Academy of Music in Budapest with

  • Soltis, Andrew (American chess player)
  • Solu-Khumbu (district, Nepal)

    Sherpa: …of Nepal live in the Solu-Khumbu district, in the environs of the Himalayas. This area consists of two regions connected by the Sun Kosi River (a major tributary of the Kosi River): the Khumbu region, at an elevation of 12,000 to 14,000 feet (about 3,700 to 4,300 metres), with still…

  • solubility (chemistry)

    Solubility, degree to which a substance dissolves in a solvent to make a solution (usually expressed as grams of solute per litre of solvent). Solubility of one fluid (liquid or gas) in another may be complete (totally miscible; e.g., methanol and water) or partial (oil and water dissolve only

  • solubilization (metallurgy)

    platinum group: Individual solubilization: The classical procedure for separating the platinum metals begins with a mineral concentrate obtained as described above. This concentrate is leached with aqua regia, which dissolves the platinum and palladium and leaves the other metals as solids in the leach residue. The platinum is…

  • soluble coffee

    coffee: Instant coffee: In the manufacture of instant coffee (called soluble coffee in the industry), a liquid concentration of coffee prepared with hot water is dehydrated. This can be done by spray drying (by drying with a hot gas) or by freeze drying (a dehydration process known…

  • soluble fibre (nutrition)

    therapeutics: General requirements: Only the soluble fibres found in oats, fruit, and legumes lower blood cholesterol and benefit individuals with diabetes by delaying the absorption of glucose.

  • soluble glass (chemical compound)

    Water glass, a compound containing sodium oxide (Na2O) and silica (silicon dioxide, SiO2) that forms a glassy solid with the very useful property of being soluble in water. Water glass is sold as solid lumps or powders or as a clear, syrupy liquid. It is used as a convenient source of sodium for

  • soluble nitrocellulose (chemical compound)

    nitrocellulose: Chronology of development and use: …composition eventually found use as collodion, employed through the 19th century as a photographic carrier and antiseptic wound sealant.

  • soluble oil (industry)

    machine tool: Cutting fluids: For sawing and grinding operations, soluble oil, which is an oily emulsion freely miscible in water, is commonly used.

  • soluble repair factor (biochemistry)

    regenerative medicine: Tissue scaffolds and soluble repair factors: Scaffolds and soluble factors, such as proteins and small molecules, have been used to induce tissue repair by undamaged cells at the site of injury. These agents protect resident fibroblasts and adult stem cells and stimulate the migration of these cells into…

  • soluble ribonucleic acid (chemical compound)

    Transfer RNA (tRNA), small molecule in cells that carries amino acids to organelles called ribosomes, where they are linked into proteins. In addition to tRNA there are two other major types of RNA: messenger RNA (mRNA) and ribosomal RNA (rRNA). By 1960 the involvement of tRNAs in the assembly of

  • solum (pedology)

    soil: Soil horizons: …horizon sequence is called the solum (Latin: “floor”). The solum is the true seat of soil-forming processes and is the principal habitat for soil organisms. (Transitional layers, having intermediate properties, are designated with the two letters of the adjacent horizons, as shown in the table of soil horizon letter designations.)

  • Solus Rex (novel by Nabokov)

    Vladimir Nabokov: Novels: The Defense, Lolita, and The Gift: …Gift and present also in Solus Rex, a Russian novel that began to appear serially in 1940 but was never completed. Lolita (1955), with its antihero, Humbert Humbert, who is possessed by an overpowering desire for very young girls, is yet another of Nabokov’s subtle allegories: love examined in the…

  • solute (chemistry)

    fluid: …acids, phosphate, and proteins), and solutes (e.g., proteins and glucose) of the body are not dispersed evenly throughout bodily fluids. Intracellular fluid contains relatively large quantities of potassium, phosphate, and proteins, and extracellular fluid contains relatively large quantities of sodium and chloride ions and smaller concentrations of proteins than found…

  • solution (chemistry)

    Solution, in chemistry, a homogenous mixture of two or more substances in relative amounts that can be varied continuously up to what is called the limit of solubility. The term solution is commonly applied to the liquid state of matter, but solutions of gases and solids are possible. Air, for

  • solution (mathematics)

    mathematics: Differential equations: …that one should prove that solutions do indeed exist; it is not a priori obvious that every ordinary differential equation has solutions. The methods that Cauchy proposed for these problems fitted naturally into his program of providing rigorous foundations for all the calculus. The solution method he preferred, although the…

  • solution by radicals (mathematics)

    évariste Galois: …degree can be solved by radicals. His method was to analyze the “admissible” permutations of the roots of the equation. His key discovery, brilliant and highly imaginative, was that solvability by radicals is possible if and only if the group of automorphisms (functions that take elements of a set to…

  • solution cave (geology)

    cave: Solution caves: As previously noted, the largest and most common caves are those formed by dissolution of limestone or dolomite. Limestone is composed mostly of calcium carbonate in the form of the mineral calcite. Dolomite rock consists of calcium magnesium carbonate, the mineral dolomite. Both…

  • solution chimney (geology)

    cave: Geomorphic characteristics of solution caves: …the unsaturated zone to form solution chimneys and vertical shafts. Solution chimneys develop along vertical fractures or along bedding planes of vertically bedded limestones. In cross section, they tend to be irregular and elongated along the controlling fracture or bedding plane. Solution chimneys follow the fracture and may be offset…

  • solution hardening (industrial process)

    metallurgy: Increasing strength: …(a procedure known as solid solution hardening). The atoms of the alloying metals may substitute for matrix atoms on regular sites (in which case they are known as substitutional elements), or, if they are appreciably smaller than the matrix atoms, they may take up places between regular sites (where they…

  • solution mining

    mining: Solution mining: Natural brine wells are the source of a large percentage of the world’s bromine, lithium, and boron and lesser amounts of potash, trona (sodium carbonate), Glauber’s salt

  • solution pit (geology)

    lake: Basins formed by fluvial and marine processes: Solution lakes in Florida (e.g., Deep Lake) are also of this origin, as are Lünersee and Seewlisee in the Alps. Other rock types susceptible to solution basin formation include gypsum and halite. Mansfeldersee in Saxony was formed in this manner.

  • solution polymerization (chemistry)

    chemistry of industrial polymers: Solution polymerization: The conducting of polymerization reactions in a solvent is an effective way to disperse heat; in addition, solutions are much easier to stir than bulk polymerizations. Solvents must be carefully chosen, however, so that they do not undergo chain-transfer reactions with the polymer.…

  • solution spinning (technology)

    man-made fibre: Spinning: …gel spinning (a variant on solution spinning), and emulsion spinning (another variation of solution spinning).

  • Solutrean industry (prehistoric technology)

    Solutrean industry, short-lived style of toolmaking that flourished approximately 17,000 to 21,000 years ago in southwestern France (e.g., at Laugerie-Haute and La Solutré) and in nearby areas. The industry is of special interest because of its particularly fine workmanship. The Solutrean i

  • solvability (logic and mathematics)

    history of logic: Effective computability: One of the starting points of recursion theory was the decision problem for first-order logic—i.e., the problem of finding an algorithm or repetitive procedure that would mechanically (i.e., effectively) decide whether a given formula of first-order logic is logically true. A positive solution to…

  • solvated electron (physics)

    radiation: Excitation states: ” A solvated electron (an electron associated with a particular molecule or group of molecules) is an example of this.

  • solvation (chemistry)

    acid–base reaction: Nonaqueous solvents: Finally, the specific solvation (or close association with the solvent) of particular ions (excluding the solvation of the proton to give SH2+, which is already included in the basicity of the solvent) may be important. It is usually not easy to separate these three effects and, in particular,…

  • Solvay Conferences (physics and chemistry)

    Solvay Conferences, conferences on physics and chemistry held in Brussels by the International Solvay Institutes for Physics and Chemistry. Belgian chemist and industrialist Ernest Solvay founded the conferences, with the first in physics occurring in 1911 and the first in chemistry in 1922. They

  • Solvay process (chemical process)

    Ammonia-soda process, modern method of manufacturing the industrial alkali sodium carbonate, also known as soda ash. The process was devised and first put to commercial use by Ernest Solvay, who built a plant in 1865 in Couillet, Belg., and was improved in the 1870s by the German-born British c

  • Solvay Process Company (American company)

    AlliedSignal: …coke and its by-products; and Solvay Process Company (founded 1881), producing alkalies and nitrogen materials. In the 1940s these companies were transformed into “divisions” of Allied Chemical. There were further reorganizations and acquisitions of companies and plants during the 1950s, ’60s, and ’70s, and Allied became a conglomerate. Taking the…

  • Solvay, Ernest (Belgian chemist)

    Ernest Solvay, Belgian industrial chemist, best known for his development of a commercially viable ammonia-soda process for producing soda ash (sodium carbonate), widely used in the manufacture of such products as glass and soap. After attending local schools, Solvay entered his father’s

  • solvent (chemistry)

    Solvent, substance, ordinarily a liquid, in which other materials dissolve to form a solution. Polar solvents (e.g., water) favour formation of ions; nonpolar ones (e.g., hydrocarbons) do not. Solvents may be predominantly acidic, predominantly basic, amphoteric (both), or aprotic (neither).

  • solvent extraction (chemistry)

    actinoid element: Oxidation states +3 and +4: …used to effect separation, and solvent extraction, in which specific nonaqueous solvents and complexing reagents are used to withdraw the desired element from aqueous solution.

  • Solventil (lighting)

    Nils Dalén: …for his invention of the automatic sun valve, or Solventil, which regulates a gaslight source by the action of sunlight, turning it off at dawn and on at dusk or at other periods of darkness. It rapidly came into worldwide use for buoys and unmanned lighthouses.

  • solvolysis (chemistry)

    Solvolysis, a chemical reaction in which the solvent, such as water or alcohol, is one of the reagents and is present in great excess of that required for the reaction. Solvolytic reactions are usually substitution reactions—i.e., reactions in which an atom or a group of atoms in a molecule is

  • Solway Firth (inlet, Great Britain, United Kingdom)

    Solway Firth, Inlet of the Irish Sea. On the border between northwestern England and southwestern Scotland, it extends inland for 38 mi (61 km). It is a traditional boundary between the two countries. Hadrian’s Wall terminates on its southern

  • Solway Moss, Battle of (English history)

    Henry VIII: Physical and mental decline: The Scots were routed at Solway Moss (1542), and their king died soon after: this opened the possibility of subjugating that country permanently by means of a marriage alliance between the infant heirs to the two thrones. But the Scottish dream quickly collapsed as Henry’s crude handling of that nation…

  • Solyom, Laszlo (president of Hungary)

    Laszlo Solyom, Hungarian academic, lawyer, and politician who was president of Hungary (2005–10). Solyom studied at the University of Pécs, graduating in 1965 with a degree in law and political science. He taught at the Institute of Civil Law in Jena, East Germany, while earning his doctorate

  • Solzhenitsyn, Aleksandr Isayevich (Russian author)

    Aleksandr Isayevich Solzhenitsyn, Russian novelist and historian, who was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1970. Solzhenitsyn was born into a family of Cossack intellectuals and brought up primarily by his mother (his father was killed in an accident before his birth). He attended the

  • soma (cell)

    Soma, in biology, all the living matter of an animal or a plant except the reproductive, or germ, cells. The distinction between the soma and the germ cells was propounded by the 19th-century German biologist August Weismann in the “germ plasm” theory that emphasized the role of the immortal,

  • soma (Hinduism)

    Soma, in ancient India, an unidentified plant the juice of which was a fundamental offering of the Vedic sacrifices. The stalks of the plant were pressed between stones, and the juice was filtered through sheep’s wool and then mixed with water and milk. After it was offered as a libation to the

  • Soma Cubes (game)

    Soma Cube, irregular shape formed by combining three or four similar cubes along several faces. There are seven different Soma Cubes, though two of them are mirror images of each other. The Danish mathematician Piet Hein, also known for his invention of the mathematical games known as hex and tac

  • soma sacrifice

    diksha: In the soma sacrifices of the Vedic period, the patron of the sacrifice, after bathing, kept a daylong (in some cases up to a yearlong) silent vigil inside a special hut in front of a fire. The patron was dressed in garments of black antelope skin, which…

  • Somachandra (Jaina author)

    Hemachandra, teacher of the Shvetambara (“White-Robed”) sect of Jainism who gained privileges for his religion from Siddharaja Jayasimha, one of the greatest kings of Gujarat. Eloquent and erudite, Hemachandra also succeeded in converting the next king, Kumarapala, thus firmly entrenching Jainism

  • somada (lacquerwork)

    lacquerwork: Japan: …same source, and the so-called somada ware of shell inlay of black, different in character from the Chinese laque burgauté already mentioned above.

  • Somadeva (Hindu poet)

    Somadeva, Kashmiri Brahman of the ?aiva sect and Sanskrit writer who preserved much of India’s ancient folklore in the form of a series of tales in verse. The court poet to King Ananta of Kashmir, Somadeva apparently was commissioned to compose a cycle of stories to amuse and calm the queen

  • Somahallie (American Indian leader)

    Smohalla, North American Indian prophet, preacher, and teacher, one of a series of such leaders who arose in response to the menace presented to Native American life and culture by the encroachment of white settlers. He founded a religious cult, the Dreamers, that emphasized traditional Native

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    Niger: Industry: …des Mines de l’A?r (SOMAIR). The second major mining concern, the Compagnie Minière d’Akouta (COMINAK), is owned partly by the government of Niger and partly by foreign interests. The Tassa mine opened in 1986 and is operated by SOMAIR. The uranium industry was seriously affected by the fall in…

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