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  • Somerset, Charles Seymour, 6th duke of (British statesman)

    Charles Seymour, 6th duke of Somerset, British statesman during the reign of Queen Anne, who helped to secure the accession of George I of Hanover. His brother, Francis Seymour, inherited the dukedom on the death of a cousin (the 4th duke) but was shot in 1678 at age 20 by a Genoese gentleman named

  • Somerset, Charles Seymour, 6th duke of, Baron Seymour of Trowbridge (British statesman)

    Charles Seymour, 6th duke of Somerset, British statesman during the reign of Queen Anne, who helped to secure the accession of George I of Hanover. His brother, Francis Seymour, inherited the dukedom on the death of a cousin (the 4th duke) but was shot in 1678 at age 20 by a Genoese gentleman named

  • Somerset, Edmund Beaufort, 2nd Duke of (English noble)

    Edmund Beaufort, 2nd duke of Somerset, English nobleman and Lancastrian leader whose quarrel with Richard, duke of York, helped precipitate the Wars of the Roses (1455–85) between the houses of Lancaster and York. He was a member of the Beaufort family, which in the 1430s obtained control—with

  • Somerset, Edmund Beaufort, 2nd Duke of, 1st Earl of Dorset (English noble)

    Edmund Beaufort, 2nd duke of Somerset, English nobleman and Lancastrian leader whose quarrel with Richard, duke of York, helped precipitate the Wars of the Roses (1455–85) between the houses of Lancaster and York. He was a member of the Beaufort family, which in the 1430s obtained control—with

  • Somerset, Edward (English Royalist)

    Edward Somerset, 2nd marquess of Worcester, prominent Royalist during the English Civil Wars. His father, Henry Somerset, 5th Earl of Worcester, advanced large sums of money to Charles I at the outbreak of the wars and was created Marquess of Worcester in 1643. In the following year, Edward was

  • Somerset, Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of (Protector of England)

    Edward Seymour, 1st duke of Somerset, the Protector of England during part of the minority of King Edward VI (reigned 1547–53). While admiring Somerset’s personal qualities and motives, scholars have generally blamed his lack of political acumen for the failure of his policies. After the marriage

  • Somerset, Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of, Baron Seymour of Hache (Protector of England)

    Edward Seymour, 1st duke of Somerset, the Protector of England during part of the minority of King Edward VI (reigned 1547–53). While admiring Somerset’s personal qualities and motives, scholars have generally blamed his lack of political acumen for the failure of his policies. After the marriage

  • Somerset, FitzRoy James Henry (British field marshal)

    FitzRoy James Henry Somerset, 1st Baron Raglan, field marshal, first British commander in chief during the Crimean War. His leadership in the war has usually been criticized. During the Napoleonic Wars and afterward, Somerset served as the Duke of Wellington’s military secretary. In 1852 he became

  • Somerset, Henry Beaufort, 2nd Earl of Dorset, 3rd Duke of (English noble)

    Henry Beaufort, 3rd duke of Somerset, leading Lancastrian in the English Wars of the Roses. He was the eldest son of Edmund Beaufort, the 2nd duke. As duke of Somerset, marquess of Dorset, and titular count of Mortain, he was the victorious Lancastrian commander at the battles of Wakefield (1460)

  • Somerset, Henry Beaufort, 3rd Duke of (English noble)

    Henry Beaufort, 3rd duke of Somerset, leading Lancastrian in the English Wars of the Roses. He was the eldest son of Edmund Beaufort, the 2nd duke. As duke of Somerset, marquess of Dorset, and titular count of Mortain, he was the victorious Lancastrian commander at the battles of Wakefield (1460)

  • Somerset, Robert Carr, earl of (English noble)

    Robert Carr, earl of Somerset, favourite of King James I of England from 1607 to 1615. His influence on governmental policy was slight, but he brought discredit on James’s court by his involvement in a scandal. Son of a Scottish nobleman, the handsome Carr first attracted James’s interest in 1607.

  • Somerset, Robert Ker, earl of (English noble)

    Robert Carr, earl of Somerset, favourite of King James I of England from 1607 to 1615. His influence on governmental policy was slight, but he brought discredit on James’s court by his involvement in a scandal. Son of a Scottish nobleman, the handsome Carr first attracted James’s interest in 1607.

  • Somersets (American baseball team)

    Boston Red Sox, American professional baseball team based in Boston. One of the most-storied franchises in American sports, the Red Sox have won nine World Series titles and 14 American League (AL) pennants. Founded in 1901, the franchise (then unofficially known as the Boston Americans) was one of

  • Somersett case (Great Britain [1772])

    William Murray, 1st earl of Mansfield: Judicial decisions.: …his judgment in the so-called Somersett case (1772), involving the slave James Somersett, who was bought in Virginia and attempted to run away after arriving in London, decided only that an escaping slave could not be forcibly removed from England for retributive punishment in a colony.

  • Somersworth (New Hampshire, United States)

    Somersworth, city, Strafford county, southeastern New Hampshire, U.S., on the Salmon Falls River. With Dover and Rochester it forms a tri-city area. The site was settled before 1700 as part of Dover. The parish of Summersworth, organized in 1729, was separately incorporated as a town in 1754.

  • Somervile, William (English writer)

    William Somerville, British writer who, after studies directed toward a career at law, lived the life of a country gentleman, indulging in the field sports that were to make up the subject matter of his best-known poems, especially The Chace (1735). That poem, written in Miltonic blank verse,

  • Somerville (Massachusetts, United States)

    Somerville, city, Middlesex county, eastern Massachusetts, U.S. It lies along the Mystic River and is surrounded by Cambridge, Arlington, Medford, and the Boston neighbourhood of Charlestown. Settled in 1630, it was originally known as the Cow Commons and was entirely fenced in until 1685. In the

  • Somerville (New Jersey, United States)

    Somerville, borough (town), seat (1784) of Somerset county, north-central New Jersey, U.S. It lies along the Raritan River, 10 miles (16 km) northwest of New Brunswick. Settled by Dutch farmers in the 1680s, it took its present name in 1801. The Wallace House (a state historic site) was

  • Somerville and Ross (Irish writers)

    Somerville and Ross, Irish cousins and writers who collaborated on a series of novels and short stories that wittily and sympathetically portrayed Irish society in the late 19th century. Edith Somerville continued to use their joint pseudonym after her cousin’s death, claiming that she was still

  • Somerville, E. ?. (Irish writer)

    Somerville and Ross: Edith Somerville’s father was a British army lieutenant colonel serving in Corfu who retired a year after her birth and returned the family to Drishane House in rural County Cork, where Somerville spent all her childhood. She studied briefly at Alexandra College and studied painting…

  • Somerville, Edith (Irish writer)

    Somerville and Ross: Edith Somerville’s father was a British army lieutenant colonel serving in Corfu who retired a year after her birth and returned the family to Drishane House in rural County Cork, where Somerville spent all her childhood. She studied briefly at Alexandra College and studied painting…

  • Somerville, Edith Anna Oenone (Irish writer)

    Somerville and Ross: Edith Somerville’s father was a British army lieutenant colonel serving in Corfu who retired a year after her birth and returned the family to Drishane House in rural County Cork, where Somerville spent all her childhood. She studied briefly at Alexandra College and studied painting…

  • Somerville, Mary (British science writer)

    Mary Somerville, British science writer whose influential works synthesized many different scientific disciplines. As a child, Fairfax had a minimal education. She was taught to read (but not write) by her mother. When she was 10 years old, she attended a boarding school for girls for one year in

  • Somerville, William (English writer)

    William Somerville, British writer who, after studies directed toward a career at law, lived the life of a country gentleman, indulging in the field sports that were to make up the subject matter of his best-known poems, especially The Chace (1735). That poem, written in Miltonic blank verse,

  • Some? River (river, Europe)

    Some? River, river, one of the most important in Transylvania, northwestern Romania. It has two headstreams: the Great Some?, which rises in the Rodnei Mountains and flows southwest, and the Little Some?, which rises in the Apuseni Mountains as the Some?u Cald and Some?u Rece and flows northeast.

  • Somes, Michael (British dancer)

    Michael Somes, English dancer, premier danseur and assistant director of the Royal (formerly Sadler’s Wells) Ballet. His extensive repertoire included leading roles, frequently as Margot Fonteyn’s partner, in both classical and contemporary ballets. In 1934 Somes received the first scholarship

  • Somes, Michael George (British dancer)

    Michael Somes, English dancer, premier danseur and assistant director of the Royal (formerly Sadler’s Wells) Ballet. His extensive repertoire included leading roles, frequently as Margot Fonteyn’s partner, in both classical and contemporary ballets. In 1934 Somes received the first scholarship

  • Someshvara Bhatta (Indian philosopher)

    Indian philosophy: Principal texts and relation to Shabara: …his Kashika (“The Shining”), by Someshvara Bhatta in his Nyayasudha (“The Nectar of Logic”), and by Parthasarathi Mishra in Nyayaratnakara (“The Abode of Jewels of Logic”). Parthasarathi’s Shastradipika (“Light on the Scripture”) is a famous independent Mimamsa treatise belonging to Kumarila’s school.

  • Some?vara (temple, Kirā?u, India)

    South Asian arts: Medieval temple architecture: North Indian style of Rājasthān: The Some?vara temple (c. 1020) is the most important and clearly shows the movement toward increasing elaboration and ornamentation. Each of the constituent parts became more complex; the moldings of the plinth, for example, are multiplied to include bands of elephants, horses, and soldiers. The walls…

  • Some?vara I (king of Cālukya)

    India: The tripartite struggle: …turn during the reign of Someshvara I (reigned 1043–68), with alternating defeat and victory. The Later Calukyas, however, by and large retained control over the western Deccan despite the hostility of the Colas and of their own feudatories. In the middle of the 12th century, however, a feudatory, Bijjala (reigned…

  • Some?vara IV (king of Cālukya)

    India: The tripartite struggle: …last of the Calukya rulers, Someshvara IV (reigned 1181–c. 1189), regained the throne for a short period, after which he was overthrown by a feudatory of the Yadava dynasty.

  • Something (Daoism)

    Daoism: Cosmology: …Nothing (wu) and Something (you), are interdependent and “grow out of one another.”

  • Something (song by Harrison)

    George Harrison: …the Sun” (1969), and “Something” (1969). In 1965 Harrison studied the sitar with Ravi Shankar and first featured his skills in “Norwegian Wood” (1965). Harrison’s interest in Indian culture grew, and in 1968 he and the Beatles, as well as a number of other celebrities, explored transcendental meditation with…

  • Something Else!!!! (album by Coleman)

    Ornette Coleman: …Coleman recorded his first album, Something Else!!!!, which notably featured trumpeter Don Cherry and drummer Billy Higgins. The three musicians, along with bassist Charlie Haden, later formed a band, and the quartet’s classic recordings included The Shape of Jazz to Come (1959) and

  • Something in Disguise (novel by Howard)

    Elizabeth Jane Howard: … (1959), After Julius (1965), and Something in Disguise (1969). The last two were later adapted as television plays for which Howard wrote the scripts. She was perhaps best known for the semiautobiographical novels known as the Cazalet Chronicles—The Light Years (1990), Marking Time (1991), Confusion (1993), Casting Off (1995), and…

  • Something to Be Desired (novel by McGuane)

    Thomas McGuane: (1978), Nobody’s Angel (1981), Something to Be Desired (1984), Keep the Change (1989), and Nothing but Blue Skies (1992). After a hiatus from writing novels, McGuane returned with The Cadence of Grass (2002), which depicts a Montana clan’s colourfully tangled lives. It was followed by Driving on the Rim…

  • Something to Live For (film by Stevens [1952])

    George Stevens: Postwar films: Sun, Shane, and Giant: Next was Something to Live For (1952), a pedestrian melodrama in which an alcoholic actress (Fontaine) is aided in her recovery by an Alcoholics Anonymous member (Ray Milland); the two become increasingly close, causing his wife (Teresa Wright) to question their relationship.

  • Something Unspoken (play by Williams)

    Suddenly Last Summer: …another one-act play by Williams, Something Unspoken; the production was titled Garden District. In 1959 a film adaptation was released.

  • Something Wicked This Way Comes (novel by Bradbury)

    Ray Bradbury: Fahrenheit 451, Dandelion Wine, and scripts: …once again the setting of Something Wicked This Way Comes (1962), in which a carnival comes to town run by the mysterious and evil Mr. Dark. The next year, he published his first collection of short plays, The Anthem Sprinters and Other Antics.

  • Something Wild (film by Demme [1986])

    Jonathan Demme: …cult classic romantic road film Something Wild (1986), whose tone shifts from mirthful to menacing; and the quirky comedy Married to the Mob (1988).

  • Something Wonderful (album by Terfel)

    Bryn Terfel: His recording Something Wonderful (1997), an album of the music of Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein II, won accolades from both critics and listeners. The recording featured such favourites as “There Is Nothin’ like a Dame” and “The Surrey with the Fringe on Top.” Terfel’s later albums…

  • Something’s Gotta Give (film by Meyers [2003])

    Nancy Meyers: Meyers’s next effort, Something’s Gotta Give (2003), starred Diane Keaton as a successful middle-aged playwright who finds herself pursued by a much-younger doctor (Keanu Reeves) and a 60ish playboy bachelor (Jack Nicholson). Another hit, the film also received attention for its stylish sets, a trademark of Meyers’s productions.…

  • Something’s Gotten Hold of My Heart (song)

    Gene Pitney: …1989 a rerecording of “Something’s Gotten Hold of My Heart” (duet with Marc Almond) became his first number one song in England. Pitney was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2002. A tireless performer, he died while on tour in 2006.

  • Sometimes a Great Notion (film by Newman [1971])

    Paul Newman: Directing: …sprawling novel about Oregon loggers, Sometimes a Great Notion (1971). Although a disappointment at the box office, the film received generally positive reviews. In 1972 Newman helmed The Effect of Gamma Rays on Man-in-the-Moon Marigolds, which was based on Paul Zindel’s Pulitzer Prize-winning play. Woodward starred as an overbearing mother…

  • Somewhere (film by Coppola [2010])

    Sofia Coppola: …2010 she released the film Somewhere, which won the Venice Film Festival’s Golden Lion prize for best film, and in 2013 she released The Bling Ring. In May 2016 she staged her first opera, Giuseppe Verdi’s La traviata, in collaboration with fashion designer Valentino at the Teatro dell’Opera in Rome.…

  • Somewhere I’ll Find You (film by Ruggles [1942])

    Lana Turner: … in Honky Tonk (1941) and Somewhere I’ll Find You (1942) and Robert Taylor in Johnny Eager (1942). Her most memorable role, however, was that of a murderous adulteress in the film noir classic The Postman Always Rings Twice (1946). Her later box office hits included Vincente Minnelli’s The Bad and…

  • Somewhere in the Night (film by Mankiewicz [1946])

    Joseph L. Mankiewicz: Directing: …was then assigned to direct Somewhere in the Night (1946), a passable film noir that suffered somewhat from uncharismatic leads John Hodiak and Nancy Guild and from its complicated but formulaic plot. The Late George Apley (1947) was a more typical Mankiewicz project, a comedy of manners that preserves the…

  • Somhlohlo (king of Eswatini)

    Sobhuza I, Southern African king (reigned from about 1815) who developed the chieftaincy that under his son, Mswati II, was to become the Swazi nation (now Swaziland). Sobhuza was the son of the Ngwane chief Ndvungunye (of the Dlamini clan), whose chieftaincy was situated somewhere near the Pongola

  • Somima (Mauritanian company)

    Mauritania: Resources and power: …in 1969 by Somima (Société Minière de Mauritanie). The firm was nationalized in 1975, but operations were suspended in 1978. Subsequent reactivation of the mine has been to work tailings to extract gold. There are substantial gypsum deposits near Nouakchott. Other mineral resources are minor, and salt output has…

  • somite (germ layer)

    Somite, in embryology, one of a longitudinal series of blocklike segments into which the mesoderm, the middle layer of tissue, on either side of the embryonic spine becomes divided. Collectively, the somites constitute the vertebral plate. Out of the somites arise the sclerotome, forerunner of the

  • somite (body segment)

    somite: The term somite is also used more generally to refer to a body segment, or metamere, of a segmented animal.

  • somma volcano (geology)

    volcano: Other volcanic structures and features: A somma volcano, named for Mount Somma, a ridge on the slopes of Mount Vesuvius in Italy, is a caldera partially filled by a new central cone. In some areas, magma or still-hot igneous rocks at shallow depth leak gases through gas vents or interact with…

  • Somma, Antonio (Italian writer)

    Un ballo in maschera: Antonio Somma) that premiered at the Teatro Apollo in Rome on February 17, 1859. The Italian libretto was hastily adapted from French dramatist Eugène Scribe’s libretto Gustave III; ou, le bal masqué, which was set to music both by French composer Daniel-Fran?ois-Esprit Auber in 1833…

  • Sommarnattens leende (film by Bergman)

    Ingmar Bergman: Life: …success with Sommernattens leende (Smiles of a Summer Night), a bittersweet romantic comedy-drama in a period setting. In the next few years, a kind of Bergman fever swept over the international film scene: concurrently with the succession of his new films, which included two masterpieces—The Seventh Seal, a medieval…

  • Somme (department, France)

    Picardy: …the northern départements of Oise, Somme, and Aisne. In 2016 Picardy was joined with the région of Nord–Pas-de-Calais to form the new administrative entity of Hauts-de-France.

  • Somme River (river, France)

    Somme River, river, northern France. It rises in the hills at Fonsommes, near Saint-Quentin in the Aisne département, and flows generally westward for 152 miles (245 km) to the English Channel, crossing Somme département and the ancient province of Picardy. From Amiens, near which its headstreams

  • Somme, First Battle of the (World War I [1916])

    First Battle of the Somme, (July 1–November 13, 1916), costly and largely unsuccessful Allied offensive on the Western Front during World War I. The horrific bloodshed on the first day of the battle became a metaphor for futile and indiscriminate slaughter. On July 1, 1916, after a week of

  • Somme, Second Battle of the (World War I [1918])

    Second Battle of the Somme, (March 21–April 5, 1918), partially successful German offensive against Allied forces on the Western Front during the later part of World War I. The German commander, General Erich Ludendorff, believed that it was essential for Germany to use the troops freed from the

  • Sommeil du Juste, Le (work by Mammeri)

    Mouloud Mammeri: With Le Sommeil du Juste (1955; “The Sleep of the Just”), the scene shifts from Kabyle society to the larger world, where the protagonist is shocked at the confrontation of Berber and French culture, discovering hostility and indifference abroad and eventually suffering the trauma of World…

  • Sommeiller, Germain (French engineer)

    Germain Sommeiller, French engineer who built the Mount Cenis (Fréjus) Tunnel in the Alps, the world’s first important mountain tunnel. While working at the University of Turin on the construction of a compressed-air ram to supply extra power to locomotives on steep grades, Sommeiller conceived the

  • Sommer, Ein (work by Christian Morgenstern)

    Christian Morgenstern: … (1898; “I and the World”); Ein Sommer (1900; “One Summer”), which was written in Norway and celebrates physical beauty; and Einkehr (1910; “Introspection”) and Wir fanden einen Pfad (1914; “We Found a Path”), poems written under the influence of Buddhism and the anthroposophist Rudolf Steiner.

  • Sommer, Elke (actress)

    A Shot in the Dark: …a housemaid named Maria (Elke Sommer). While Clouseau spends more time clearing her name than investigating, other murders occur. The film introduces two characters that became mainstays in the Pink Panther series: Clouseau’s long-suffering boss, Commissioner Dreyfus (Herbert Lom), and the loyal but inept manservant Cato (Burt Kwouk), who…

  • Sommer, Ferdinand (German linguist)

    Ferdinand Sommer, German historical linguist known primarily for his scholarship concerning Hittite and the classical languages. During his academic career, Sommer held professorships at the universities of Basel (1902–09), Rostock (1909–13), Jena (1913–24), Bonn (1924–26), and Munich (1926–51).

  • Sommerfeld, Arnold Johannes Wilhelm (German physicist)

    Arnold Sommerfeld, German physicist whose atomic model permitted the explanation of fine-structure spectral lines. After studying mathematics and science at K?nigsberg University, Sommerfeld became an assistant at the University of G?ttingen and then taught mathematics at Clausthal (1897) and

  • Sommerfelt, Aimée (Norwegian author)

    children's literature: Norway: …adventures; the prolific, widely translated Aimée Sommerfelt, whose works range from “puberty novels” to faraway stories set in Mexico City and northern India; Thorbj?rn Egner, who is the author of, among other books, a tiny droll fantasy, Karius and Baktus (1958; Eng. trans. 1962), which will actually persuade small children…

  • Sommerlath, Silvia Renate (queen consort of Sweden)

    Silvia, queen consort of Sweden (1976– ), wife of King Carl XVI Gustaf. Silvia was born in Heidelberg, Ger., to a Brazilian mother and German father. When she was three years old, her family moved to S?o Paulo, where she spent much of her childhood. After they returned to West Germany in 1957,

  • Sommermüd (work by Schoenberg)

    vocal music: The 17th–20th centuries: …portion of Arnold Schoenberg’s “Sommermüd” (“Weary of Summer”), Opus 48, the pitches in the vocal melody are entirely determined by the 12-tone row (the composer’s ordering of the 12 notes of the chromatic scale) chosen for the whole song; yet the rhythm generally follows that of the poem.

  • Sommernattens leende (film by Bergman)

    Ingmar Bergman: Life: …success with Sommernattens leende (Smiles of a Summer Night), a bittersweet romantic comedy-drama in a period setting. In the next few years, a kind of Bergman fever swept over the international film scene: concurrently with the succession of his new films, which included two masterpieces—The Seventh Seal, a medieval…

  • Sommers, Bill (American musician)

    Grateful Dead: …1940, Berkeley, California), and drummer Bill Kreutzmann (also called Bill Sommers; b. May 7, 1946, Palo Alto, California). Later members included drummer Mickey Hart (b. September 11, 1943, Long Island, New York, U.S.), keyboard player Tom Constanten (b. March 19, 1944, Longbranch, New Jersey, U.S.), keyboard player Keith Godchaux (b.…

  • Sommo, Judah Leone ben Isaac (Italian writer)

    Judah Leone ben Isaac Sommo, Italian author whose writings are a primary source of information about 16th-century theatrical production in Italy. Sommo wrote the first known Hebrew drama, Tza?ut bedi?uta de-qiddushin (1550; “An Eloquent Comedy of a Marriage”), in which characters such as the pining

  • somnambulism (psychology)

    Sleepwalking, a behavioral disorder of sleep in which a person sits up and performs various motor actions, such as standing, walking about, talking, eating, screaming, dressing, going to the bathroom, or even leaving the house. The episode usually ends with the sleepwalker’s returning to sleep,

  • Somnath (ancient city, India)

    Somnath, ancient ruined city, southwestern Gujarat state, west-central India. It is the site of the temple of Shiva as Somanatha (“Lord of the Soma,” a sacred intoxicating drink, and, by extension, “Lord of the Moon”). The temple was sacked by the Turkic Muslim invader Ma?mūd of Ghazna in 1024–25

  • Somnath-Patan (ancient city, India)

    Somnath, ancient ruined city, southwestern Gujarat state, west-central India. It is the site of the temple of Shiva as Somanatha (“Lord of the Soma,” a sacred intoxicating drink, and, by extension, “Lord of the Moon”). The temple was sacked by the Turkic Muslim invader Ma?mūd of Ghazna in 1024–25

  • Somnāthpur (India)

    Mysuru: Somnathpur, to the east, has a temple built (1268) under the Hoysala dynasty. Bandipur Sanctuary, part of the Venugopal Wildlife Park (1941), is usually approached from Mysore; it is noted for herds of gaur (Indian bison) and spotted deer, has a network of roads for…

  • Somni, Lo (work by Metge)

    Bernat Metge: …and prose writer whose masterpiece, Lo Somni (1398; “The Dream”), initiated a classical trend in Catalan literature.

  • somniloquy

    sleep: Behavioral variables: …or a substitute for them, sleep talking and sleepwalking occur primarily in NREM sleep. Episodes of NREM sleepwalking generally do not seem to be associated with any remembered dreams, nor is NREM sleep talking consistently associated with reported dreams of related content.

  • Somniosus (fish)

    chondrichthyan: Sharks: Sleeper sharks (Somniosus), which occur mainly in polar and subpolar regions, are known to feed on fishes, small whales, squid, crabs, seals, and carrion from whaling stations. Many bottom-dwelling sharks, such as the smooth dogfishes (Triakis and Mustelus), take crabs, lobsters, and other crustaceans, as…

  • Somniosus microcephalus (fish)

    Greenland shark, (Somniosus microcephalus), member of the sleeper shark family Somniosidae (order Squaliformes, which also includes the dogfish family, Squalidae) that is the longest-living vertebrate known. The species is primarily found in the cold-water environments of the Arctic Ocean and North

  • Somnium (work by Buchanan)

    George Buchanan: …bitter attacks on the Franciscans—Somnium (1535) and Franciscanus et fratres (1527)—he was jailed as a heretic. He escaped and accepted a position as teacher at the Collège de Guyenne in Bordeaux, Fr. There Montaigne was one of his pupils. Buchanan found diversion in translating Euripides’ Medea and Alcestis into…

  • Somnium (work by Kepler)

    Moon: Early studies: …remarkable work of science fiction, Somnium (“The Dream”), that describes the life of imagined inhabitants of the Moon and correctly portrays such facts as the high temperature of the Moon’s sunlit side. In 1609–10 Galileo began his telescopic observations that forever changed human understanding of the Moon. Most effort hitherto…

  • somnolence (physiology)

    sleep: Neural theories: …from sensory input, demonstrated chronic somnolence. It has been reasoned that a similar cutting off of sensory input, functional rather than structural, must characterize natural states of sleep. Other supporting observations for the stimulus-deficiency theory of sleep included presleep rituals such as turning out the lights, regulation of stimulus input,…

  • Somnus (Greco-Roman god)

    Hypnos, Greco-Roman god of sleep. Hypnos was the son of Nyx (Night) and the twin brother of Thanatos (Death). In Greek myth he is variously described as living in the underworld or on the island of Lemnos ( according to Homer) or (according to Book XI of Ovid’s Metamorphoses) in a dark, musty cave

  • Somogy (county, Hungary)

    Somogy, megye (county), southwestern Hungary. It is bordered by Lake Balaton and Veszprém county to the north, by the counties of Fejér to the northeast and Tolna and Baranya to the east, by Croatia to the south, and by Zala county to the west. It is Hungary’s most sparsely populated county.

  • Somogyvár (Hungary)

    Somogy: The town of Somogyvár was one of the most important religious and secular centres of Hungary in the Middle Ages. It also has a tradition of fierce independence. Indeed, Koppány, the prince of Somogy—who made a claim to the throne of the fledgling Hungarian state based upon seniority…

  • Somolu (Nigeria)

    Shomolu, town, Lagos state, southwestern Nigeria, just north of Lagos city. A residential suburb of Lagos, the town is plagued by problems of overcrowding, poor housing, and inadequate sanitation. Most of its inhabitants are Yoruba. The town’s local activities include work in leather handicrafts

  • somoni (currency)

    Tajikistan: Finance: …regulating the nation’s currency, the somoni. The currency is vulnerable to fluctuations in Russia’s economy, since about one-third of Tajikistan’s GDP comes from remittances from Tajik workers in Russia. Tajikistan experienced a banking crisis in 2016, for example, as a result of sanctions leveled against Russia after its annexation of…

  • Somoto (Nicaragua)

    Somoto, city, northwestern Nicaragua. It is situated in the central highlands near the upper Coco River. It serves as a commercial centre for the hinterland, in which dairying (particularly butter production), the manufacturing of hammocks, and the gathering of pine pitch are the principal economic

  • Somoza Debayle, Anastasio (president of Nicaragua)

    Anastasio Somoza Debayle, third member of the Somoza dynasty to be president of Nicaragua (1967–79), who was also commander in chief of the armed forces. A West Point graduate, Anastasio Somoza rose rapidly to power in the Nicaraguan military establishment during his father’s (1933–56) and

  • Somoza Debayle, Luis (president of Nicaragua)

    Luis Somoza Debayle, president of Nicaragua (1956–63), successor to his father, Anastasio Somoza Debayle, who had been assassinated. Luis Somoza also chose and controlled his successors, Rene Schick Gutiérrez (served 1963–66) and Lorenzo Guerrero Guitérrez (1966–67). The elder son of his father,

  • Somoza family (Nicaraguan family)

    Somoza family, family that maintained political control of Nicaragua for 44 years. The founder of the dynasty, Anastasio Somoza García (b. Feb. 1, 1896, San Marcos, Nicaragua—d. Sept. 29, 1956, Ancón, Panama Canal Zone [now Panama]), was the son of a wealthy coffee planter and was educated in

  • Somoza, Anastasio (president of Nicaragua)

    Anastasio Somoza, soldier-politician who was dictator of Nicaragua for 20 years. Preferring the use of patronage and bribery to violence, he established a family dynasty in which he was succeeded by his son Luis Somoza Debayle as president (1956–63) and by another son, Anastasio Somoza Debayle, as

  • Somoza, Salgado de (Spanish jurist)

    bankruptcy: Early developments: …jurist of the 17th century, Salgado de Somoza, elaborated detailed rules for the initiation and conduct of voluntary liquidation proceedings, which were styled “concourse of creditors.” His tract, entitled Labyrinthus Creditorum, influenced the course of Spanish law and also had great impact on the common law of the German states.…

  • Somoza, Tachito (president of Nicaragua)

    Anastasio Somoza Debayle, third member of the Somoza dynasty to be president of Nicaragua (1967–79), who was also commander in chief of the armed forces. A West Point graduate, Anastasio Somoza rose rapidly to power in the Nicaraguan military establishment during his father’s (1933–56) and

  • Somoza, Tacho (president of Nicaragua)

    Anastasio Somoza, soldier-politician who was dictator of Nicaragua for 20 years. Preferring the use of patronage and bribery to violence, he established a family dynasty in which he was succeeded by his son Luis Somoza Debayle as president (1956–63) and by another son, Anastasio Somoza Debayle, as

  • Somrai languages

    Chad: Languages: …and central Chad, (10) the Somrai group, spoken in western and central Chad, and (11) Mimi and (12) Fur, both spoken in the extreme east.

  • son (Mexican dance)

    Latin American dance: Dances of national identity (1800–1940): …sonecitos del país developed into sones and jarabes, the most famous of which was the jarabe nacional (which became Mexico’s official national dance in 1921). This is the dance known to many North Americans as the “Mexican hat dance,” but its name is properly translated as the “national dance of…

  • son (Cuban dance)

    Latin American dance: Cuba: …20th centuries Cuba’s habanera, danzón, son (not to be confused with the Mexican son), cha-cha-chá, and mambo would continue the island’s influence on dance throughout Latin America.

  • S?n (Buddhism)

    Zen, important school of East Asian Buddhism that constitutes the mainstream monastic form of Mahayana Buddhism in China, Korea, and Vietnam and accounts for approximately 20 percent of the Buddhist temples in Japan. The word derives from the Sanskrit dhyana, meaning “meditation.” Central to Zen

  • Son Byeong-Hui (Korean independence activist and religious leader)

    Son Py?ng-Hi, Korean independence activist who was the third leader of the apocalyptic, antiforeign Tonghak (or Donghak; later, Ch’ondogyo) religious sect. Born the illegitimate son of a low-echelon government official, Son grew up in poverty, suffering much discrimination. In 1897 he was elected

  • son del corazón, El (work by López Velarde)

    Ramón López Velarde: El son del corazón (1932; “The Sound of the Heart”) collected the poems not published at the time of López Velarde’s death.

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