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  • son et lumière (entertainment)

    Son et lumière, nighttime entertainment conceived by Paul Robert-Houdin, curator of the Chateau de Chambord on the Cosson River, France, where the first one was presented in 1952. Multicoloured lights of changing intensity are directed against the facade of a historic building or ruin. The changes

  • Son Excellence Eugène Rougon (work by Zola)

    Rougon-Macquart cycle: Son Excellence Eugène Rougon (1876; His Excellency Eugène Rougon) traces the machinations and maneuverings of cabinet officials in Napoleon III’s government.

  • Son Kitei (Korean athlete)

    Sohn Kee-Chung: The Defiant One: Officially known at the 1936 Berlin Games as Son Kitei, marathon runner Sohn Kee-Chung symbolized the fierce nationalistic tensions of the era. A native Korean, Sohn lived under the rule of Japan, which had annexed Korea in 1910. From an early age Sohn had chafed…

  • Son La Plateau (plateau, Vietnam)

    Vietnam: Relief: …River are the Ta P’ing, Son La, and Moc Chau plateaus, which are separated by deep valleys.

  • Son Makara (story by Korolenko)

    Vladimir Korolenko: …best-known story, Son Makara (1885; Makar’s Dream), which conveys with sympathetic insight the world of a Yakut peasant. During his editorship (c. 1900) of the influential review Russkoe Bogatstvo, Korolenko championed minorities and befriended younger writers, including Maxim Gorky. Unwilling to cooperate with the Bolshevik government, he retired after the…

  • Son Masayoshi (Japanese entrepreneur)

    Son Masayoshi, Japanese entrepreneur who served as chairman and CEO of Softbank Corp, a media and telecommunications company he founded in 1981. Son was a third-generation Korean with Japanese citizenship. Before traveling to the United States to study in 1973, he repeatedly tried to meet Fujita

  • Son Ngoc Thanh (Cambodian leader)

    Cambodia: World War II and its aftermath: …the government was led by Son Ngoc Thanh, a former editor of Nagara Vatta, who had been forced into exile in Japan in 1942.

  • Son of a Preacher Man (song by Hurley and Wilkins)

    Dusty Springfield: …an international hit with “Son of a Preacher Man.”

  • Son of a Servant, The (work by Strindberg)

    August Strindberg: Early years: …remarkable autobiography Tj?nstekvinnans son (1886–87; The Son of a Servant, 1913). He studied intermittently at the University of Uppsala, preparing in turn for the ministry and a career in medicine but never taking a degree. To earn his living, he worked as a free-lance journalist in Stockholm, as well as…

  • Son of David (religion)

    messiah: In some sects, the “son of David” messianism, with its political implications, was overshadowed by apocalyptic notions of a more mystical character. Thus some believed that a heavenly being called the “Son of Man” (the term is derived from the Book of Daniel) would descend to save his people.…

  • Son of Dracula (film by Siodmak [1943])

    Robert Siodmak: …directed the stylish horror film Son of Dracula, in which Lon Chaney, Jr., starred as Count Alucard (the name spelled backward is Dracula).

  • Son of Flubber (film by Stevenson [1963])

    Robert Stevenson: Films for Disney: …Stevenson also directed the sequel, Son of Flubber (1963). In Search of the Castaways, an adaptation of the Jules Verne novel, was one of 1962’s top-grossing films. Also successful was The Misadventures of Merlin Jones (1964), with Tommy Kirk as a brilliant teenaged inventor; it spawned a sequel, The Monkey’s…

  • Son of Frankenstein (film by Lee [1939])

    Son of Frankenstein, American horror film, released in 1939, that featured Boris Karloff in his final role as the fabled monster. Following Frankenstein (1931) and Bride of Frankenstein (1935), it was the third film in Universal Pictures’ Frankenstein series. In the film, Basil Rathbone portrayed

  • Son of God (Christianity)

    Jesus: God’s only Son: …that Jesus Christ is the Son of God is one of the most universal in the New Testament, in which most of the books refer to him that way. The Gospels do not quote him as using the title for himself in so many words, although sayings like verse 27…

  • Son of Kong, The (film by Schoedsack [1933])

    Ernest B. Schoedsack: King Kong and other films of the early 1930s: …Cooper-Schoedsack expeditions; six months later The Son of Kong (1933) was completed. More modest in every way than the original, primarily because of its much smaller budget, The Son of Kong relied on some whimsical comedy to make up for its relative lack of sheer thrills.

  • Son of Man (Christianity)

    Kingdom of God: …endowed, intermediary (the Messiah or Son of Man), whose functions would include a judgment to decide who was worthy to “inherit the Kingdom,” an expression which emphasizes that the Kingdom was thought of as a divine gift, not a human achievement.

  • Son of Man (work by Roa Bastos)

    Augusto Roa Bastos: …novel Hijo de hombre (1960; Son of Man) was an overwhelming critical and popular success. It recreates Paraguay’s history from the dictatorship of José Gaspar de Francia early in the 19th century through the Chaco War. By carefully juxtaposing alternate narrative voices, Roa Bastos creates a tension that signals the…

  • Son of Man (work by Yi Muny?l)

    Yi Muny?l: In Saram-?i Ade?l (1979; Son of Man), he explored numerous Western and East Asian theologies in the course of tracing a young man’s determined quest for transcendence. Ch?lm?n nal ?i ch’osang (1981; A Portrait of My Youth), a trilogy of novellas, recorded a young man’s Herculean efforts to overcome…

  • Son of My Father (recording by Chicory Tip)

    Europop: …Chicory Tip’s 1972 hit, “Son of My Father,” the English-language version of a German-Italian song originally recorded by one of its writers, Giorgio Moroder. Moroder went on to produce Donna Summer, a Europop star who, atypically, became equally successful in the United States. Her 1975 hit “Love to Love…

  • Son of Sam (American serial killer)

    David Berkowitz, American serial killer who murdered six people in New York City in 1976–77. His crimes plunged the city into a panic and unleashed one of the largest manhunts in New York history. Berkowitz was a difficult and occasionally violent child. His erratic behaviour, which began after the

  • Son of Saul (film by Nemes [2015])

    László Nemes: Holocaust drama Saul fia (2015; Son of Saul), won an Academy Award for best foreign-language film.

  • Son of the Chosen People, A (work by Isra?ls)

    Jozef Isra?ls: , A Son of the Chosen People, 1889). His son Isaac (1865–1934), also a painter, adopted an Impressionist technique and subject matter and had some influence on his father’s later work.

  • Son of the Circus, A (novel by Irving)

    John Irving: A Son of the Circus (1994), an unevenly received amalgam of crime novel conceits and identity politics set in India, was followed by A Widow for One Year (1998; adapted as the film The Door in the Floor, 2008) and The Fourth Hand (2001).

  • Son of the Middle Border, A (work by Garland)

    Hamlin Garland: …a mellow autobiographical mood wrote A Son of the Middle Border, in which he described his family background and childhood as the son of pioneer farmers. This book won immediate and deserved acclaim. Its sequel, A Daughter of the Middle Border (1921), won a Pulitzer Prize. Less successful were Trail-Makers…

  • Son of the Morning Star: Custer and the Little Bighorn (novel by Connell)

    Evan S. Connell: Son of the Morning Star: Custer and the Little Bighorn (1984; television film 1991) examines the ill-fated last stand in Montana Territory of U.S. Lieut. Col. George Armstrong Custer and his 263-member contingent against more than a thousand Cheyenne and Lakota warriors. It was a…

  • Son of the Pink Panther (film by Edwards [1993])

    Blake Edwards: Later films: Son of the Pink Panther (1993), Edwards’s final film, was yet another unsuccessful attempt to find a replacement for Sellers, with Roberto Benigni taking on the role of Clouseau’s son. Although Edwards was finished directing motion pictures, he was not done directing, and in 1995…

  • Son of the Sheik, The (film by Fitzmaurice [1926])

    The Son of the Sheik, American silent film, released in 1926, that was a sequel to the hit film The Sheik (1921), which gave actor Rudolph Valentino perhaps his most memorable role and ensured his status as a legendary heartthrob of Hollywood. In the deserts of Algeria, Ahmed (played by Valentino)

  • Son Py?ng-Hi (Korean independence activist and religious leader)

    Son Py?ng-Hi, Korean independence activist who was the third leader of the apocalyptic, antiforeign Tonghak (or Donghak; later, Ch’ondogyo) religious sect. Born the illegitimate son of a low-echelon government official, Son grew up in poverty, suffering much discrimination. In 1897 he was elected

  • Son Py?ng-Hui (Korean independence activist and religious leader)

    Son Py?ng-Hi, Korean independence activist who was the third leader of the apocalyptic, antiforeign Tonghak (or Donghak; later, Ch’ondogyo) religious sect. Born the illegitimate son of a low-echelon government official, Son grew up in poverty, suffering much discrimination. In 1897 he was elected

  • Son River (river, India)

    Son River, principal southern tributary of the Ganges (Ganga) River, rising in Madhya Pradesh state, central India. It flows north past Manpur and then turns northeast. The river cuts through the Kaimur Range and joins the Ganges above Patna, after a 487-mile (784-km) course. The Son valley is

  • Son Sann (Cambodian politician)

    Son Sann, Cambodian politician (born Oct. 5, 1911, Phnom Penh, Cambodia—died Dec. 19, 2000, Paris, France), served as Cambodia’s prime minister under Prince Norodom Sihanouk from 1967 to 1968 but went into exile in Paris when Sihanouk was overthrown in 1970; during the brutal rule of the Khmer Ro

  • Son Sen (Cambodian government official)

    Son Sen, Cambodian Khmer Rouge official who supervised some of the worst brutality perpetrated while the radical Khmer Rouge movement held power from 1975 to 1979; factional infighting led to his execution by movement leader Pol Pot’s loyalists, and Pol Pot was himself arrested shortly thereafter (

  • Son smeshnogo cheloveka (short story by Dostoyevsky)

    The Dream of a Ridiculous Man, short story by Fyodor Dostoyevsky, published in Russian in 1877 as “Son smeshnogo cheloveka.” It addresses questions about original sin, human perfectibility, and the striving toward an ideal society. The inability of the rationalist to provide answers to all of

  • Son Valley (valley, India)

    Son River: The Son valley is geologically almost a continuation of that of the Narmada River to the southwest. It is largely forested and sparsely populated. The valley is bordered by the Kaimur Range to the north and the Chota Nagpur plateau to the south. The river’s flow…

  • Son, The (film by Jean-Pierre and Luc Dardenne [2002])

    Dardenne brothers: …2002 by Le Fils (The Son). In 2005, with L’Enfant (The Child), the brothers for the second time in six years won the Palme d’Or. Only filmmakers Emir Kusturica and Imamura Shohei had previously won twice. L’Enfant explores life in a poverty-stricken, gritty, industrial region of French-speaking southern Belgium.…

  • Sonam Gyatso (Dalai Lama)

    Dalai Lama: His successor, Bsod-nams-rgya-mtsho (1543–88), while on a visit to the Mongol chief Altan Khan, received from that ruler the honorific title ta-le (Anglicized as “dalai”), the Mongolian equivalent of the Tibetan rgya-mtsho, meaning “ocean” and presumably suggesting breadth and depth of wisdom. The title was subsequently applied…

  • sonar

    Sonar, (from “sound navigation ranging”), technique for detecting and determining the distance and direction of underwater objects by acoustic means. Sound waves emitted by or reflected from the object are detected by sonar apparatus and analyzed for the information they contain. Sonar systems may

  • sonata (music)

    Sonata, type of musical composition, usually for a solo instrument or a small instrumental ensemble, that typically consists of two to four movements, or sections, each in a related key but with a unique musical character. Deriving from the past participle of the Italian verb sonare, “to sound,”

  • sonata da camera (musical form)

    Sonata da camera, (Italian: “chamber sonata”) a type of solo or trio sonata intended for secular performance; the designation is usually found in the late 17th century, especially in the works of Arcangelo Corelli. In that model, an opening prelude is followed by a succession of dance movements.

  • sonata da chiesa (musical form)

    Sonata da chiesa, (Italian: “church sonata”) a type of sonata, most commonly a Baroque instrumental work with several (often four) movements, originally thought appropriate for church. The designation was not universal; such works were often labeled simply sonata. Compare sonata da

  • Sonata for Bassoon and Piano in G Major (work by Saint-Sa?ns)

    Woodwind Sonatas: 167, and the Sonata for Bassoon and Piano in G Major, Op. 168. Saint-Sa?ns used these works to showcase instruments until then rarely featured. The oboe and bassoon, for example, had been heard often in the Baroque era but had received little attention thereafter. The clarinet too had…

  • Sonata for Clarinet and Piano in E-flat Major (work by Saint-Sa?ns)

    Woodwind Sonatas: 166, the Sonata for Clarinet and Piano in E-flat Major, Op. 167, and the Sonata for Bassoon and Piano in G Major, Op. 168. Saint-Sa?ns used these works to showcase instruments until then rarely featured. The oboe and bassoon, for example, had been heard often in the…

  • Sonata for Oboe and Piano in D Major (work by Saint-Sa?ns)

    Woodwind Sonatas: …three complementary works are the Sonata for Oboe and Piano in D Major, Op. 166, the Sonata for Clarinet and Piano in E-flat Major, Op. 167, and the Sonata for Bassoon and Piano in G Major, Op. 168. Saint-Sa?ns used these works to showcase instruments until then rarely featured. The…

  • Sonata for Two Pianos and Percussion (work by Bartók)

    Sonata for Two Pianos and Percussion, musical composition by Hungarian pianist and ethnomusicologist Béla Bartók in which the composer combined the folk rhythms of Hungary and his mastery of classical structures with an unusual scoring for two pianos and percussion. This sonata, one of many by

  • Sonata for Violin and Piano (work by Corigliano)

    John Corigliano: …1964 Corigliano’s first major work, Sonata for Violin and Piano, won the chamber music competition at the Festival of Two Worlds in Spoleto, Italy. It received its premiere two years later at New York City’s Carnegie Hall. Among his other compositions are Concerto for Clarinet and Orchestra (1977); Pied Piper…

  • sonata form (musical form)

    Sonata form, musical structure that is most strongly associated with the first movement of various Western instrumental genres, notably, sonatas, symphonies, and string quartets. Maturing in the second half of the 18th century, it provided the instrumental vehicle for much of the most profound

  • Sonata in A Major for Piano and Violin (work by Beethoven)

    Ludwig van Beethoven: Approaching deafness: … or the andante of the Kreutzer Sonata can be seen emerging from trivial and characterless beginnings into their final forms. It seems, too, that Beethoven worked on more than one composition at a time and that he was rarely in a hurry to finish anything that he had on hand.…

  • Sonata pian’ e forte (music by Gabrieli)

    wind instrument: The Baroque period: His Sonata pian’ e forte (1597), the first musical composition for which instrumentation is specified, employs two ensembles of equal size—three trombones and cornett; and three trombones and a viola da braccio (early violin)—sometimes playing together, sometimes separately.

  • Sonata Tragica (music by Macdowell)

    Doris Humphrey: …major work, to Edward MacDowell’s Sonata Tragica, was presented in 1925. The piece possessed such strong choreographic rhythms that Humphrey’s mentor, Ruth St. Denis, later presented it as the first American modern dance performed without music. After a two-year tour of Asia, Humphrey and another Denishawn dancer, Charles Weidman, directed…

  • sonata-allegro form (musical form)

    Sonata form, musical structure that is most strongly associated with the first movement of various Western instrumental genres, notably, sonatas, symphonies, and string quartets. Maturing in the second half of the 18th century, it provided the instrumental vehicle for much of the most profound

  • Sonatas (work by Valle-Inclán)

    Ramón María del Valle-Inclán: …four novelettes known as the Sonatas (1902–05), feature a beautifully evocative prose and a tone of refined and elegant decadence. They narrate the seductions and other doings of a Galician womanizer who is partly an autobiographical figure. In his subsequent works Valle-Inclán developed a style that is rich in both…

  • Sonatas and Interludes for Prepared Piano (work by Cage)

    Sonatas and Interludes for Prepared Piano, a cycle of 20 short pieces for prepared piano (a piano modified by inserting nuts and bolts and other objects between the piano strings in order to produce percussive and otherworldly sound effects) by American composer John Cage. Created in 1946–48 after

  • Sonatas and Partitas for Solo Violin (musical compositions by Bach)

    Sonatas and Partitas for Solo Violin, six compositions by Johann Sebastian Bach that date from the early 18th century. They are unusual in being totally solo with no accompaniment of any kind; the most famous movement from the Bach sonatas and partitas is the Chaconne that concludes the Partita No.

  • Sonatas of III Parts (work by Purcell)

    Henry Purcell: Posthumous publications: The principal works were the Sonatas of III Parts (1683); “Welcome to all the pleasures,” an ode for St. Cecilia’s Day, written in 1683 (published in 1684); and Dioclesian, composed in 1690 (1691). After his death his widow published a collection of his harpsichord pieces (1696), instrumental music for the…

  • Sonate (work by Dukas)

    Paul Dukas: His Sonate (1901) is one of the last great works for piano that prolong the tradition of Ludwig van Beethoven, Robert Schumann, and Franz Liszt; his Variations, interlude et final pour piano sur un thème de Rameau (1903) represent an elegant translation into French musical idiom…

  • Sonate concertate in stilo moderno (work by Castello)

    chamber music: Sources and instruments: …Venice, published a set of Sonate da camera cioè Sinfonie . . . (Chamber Sonatas, that is, Symphonies . . .), each consisting of four to six dance movements with an introductory movement (sinfonia) not in dance style. The development of chamber music for the remainder of the century centred…

  • sonatina (music)

    Sonatina, in music, a shorter and often lighter form of the sonata, usually in three short movements (i.e., independent sections). The first movement normally follows the sonata form with respect to the exposition and recapitulation of the musical materials but not necessarily the development

  • Sonatina (work by Berkeley)

    Sir Lennox Berkeley: …of his later works, including Sonatina (1962) and his Symphony No. 4 (1978), use atonality.

  • Sonatine (work by Boulez)

    Pierre Boulez: In his Sonatine for flute and piano (1946), the 12-tone imitations and canons progress so quickly as to leave an impression merely of movement and texture. In Structures, Book I for two pianos (1952), the actual 12-tone series is simply taken from a work of Messiaen’s; but…

  • Sonatorrek (poem by Egill Skallagrímsson)

    Egill Skallagrímsson: 961) the deeply personal lament Sonatorrek (“Loss of Sons,” or “Revenge Denied”). The poem is also a family portrait in which he recalls the deaths of his parents as well; in it the desire for revenge and hatred of Odin overwhelms him, but gradually he bows his head in resignation…

  • Sonatrach (Algerian organization)

    Algeria: Hydrocarbons: …de Commercialisation des Hydrocarbures (Sonatrach), which had been set up in 1963–64. Sonatrach undertook its own exploitation and production activities, with some success, although much of this was made possible by Soviet assistance and, more recently, by the establishment of joint service companies with help from American specialists. State…

  • Sonbhander (cave, Rajgir Hills, India)

    Rajgir Hills: The Sonbhandar cave is now believed to have been excavated by the Jains in the 3rd or 4th century ce. In the valley’s centre, excavations at the Maniyar Math site have revealed a circular shrine associated with the worship of Mani-naga, a serpent deity of the…

  • Sonchus (plant)

    thistle: …more than 10 species of sow thistle (Sonchus) are widespread throughout Europe. Some species of globe thistle (Echinops) are cultivated as ornamentals. The thistle is the national emblem of Scotland.

  • Sonck, Lars (Finnish architect)

    Finland: Art, architecture, and design: …the Helsinki railway station, and Lars Sonck, whose churches in Helsinki and Tampere are particularly notable. Finnish women were also early innovators as architects, including Wiwi L?nn and Signe Hornborg, the latter one of the first formally trained female architects in the world.

  • sondage (archaeology)

    excavation: …by sampling cuts known as sondages. Large sites are not usually dug out entirely, although a moderate-sized round barrow may be completely moved by excavation. Whatever the site and the extent of the excavation, discovery or location is typically followed by surveying and mapping, site sampling, and the development of…

  • S?nderborg (Denmark)

    S?nderborg, port and seaside resort, Denmark, lying on both sides of the narrow Als Sound. It was founded in the mid-13th century around S?nderborg Castle and chartered in 1461. King Christian II was a prisoner at the castle 1532–49. The city was razed in 1864 during a Prussian assault on Danish

  • Sonderbund (Swiss political organization)

    Sonderbund, (German: Separatist League) league formed on Dec. 11, 1845, by the seven Catholic Swiss cantons (Luzern, Uri, Schwyz, Unterwalden, Zug, Fribourg, and Valais) to oppose anti-Catholic measures by Protestant liberal cantons. The term Sonderbund also refers to the civil war that resulted

  • Sondergaard, Edith Holm (American actress)
  • Sondergaard, Gale (American actress)
  • Sonderkommando (prison unit)

    Holocaust: Jewish resistance: …true at Auschwitz, where the Sonderkommando (“Special Commando”), the prisoner unit that worked in the vicinity of the gas chambers, destroyed a crematorium just as the killing was coming to an end in 1944.

  • Sondes of Lees Court, Viscount (British military officer)

    Louis de Durfort, 2nd earl of Feversham, French-born soldier who played a notable role in military and diplomatic affairs in England under Charles II and James II. Durfort (known as the marquis de Blanquefort in France) met James, then duke of York, in 1650 and went to England in 1665, where he was

  • Sondheim, Stephen (American composer and lyricist)

    Stephen Sondheim, American composer and lyricist whose brilliance in matching words and music in dramatic situations broke new ground for Broadway musical theatre. Precocious as a child, Sondheim showed an early musical aptitude among other wide-ranging interests. He studied piano and organ, and at

  • Sondheim, Stephen Joshua (American composer and lyricist)

    Stephen Sondheim, American composer and lyricist whose brilliance in matching words and music in dramatic situations broke new ground for Broadway musical theatre. Precocious as a child, Sondheim showed an early musical aptitude among other wide-ranging interests. He studied piano and organ, and at

  • Sondheimer, Franz (German-born scientist)

    Franz Sondheimer, German-born scientist who, with Robert Burns Woodward, was the first to completely synthesize a nonaromatic steroid. His procedure was later used in the preparation of cholesterol and cortisone. Sondheimer obtained a Ph.D. in chemistry in 1948 from Imperial College London, writing

  • sondo (wind)

    Zonda, winter foehn (that is, a warm dry wind blowing down the side of a mountain) in Argentina, where it blows from the west across the Andes Mountains. The name zonda in Argentina also refers to a hot humid wind that blows from the north over the plains and precedes a low-pressure

  • S?ndre Str?mfjord (fjord, Greenland)

    Kangerlussuaq, fjord in southwestern Greenland, located just north of the Arctic Circle and 60 miles (95 km) southeast of Sisimiut (Holsteinsborg). About 120 miles (190 km) long and 1–5 miles (1.5–8 km) wide, the fjord extends northeastward from Davis Strait to the edge of the inland ice cap, where

  • Sondrio (Italy)

    Sondrio, city, Lombardia (Lombardy) regione, northern Italy; it is the chief town of the Valtellina (the upper Adda River valley), near the mouth of the Mallero River, and lies at an elevation of 1,017 feet (310 m), north of Bergamo. It has an archaeological museum, and its old castle, Castello

  • sone (unit of measurement)

    Sone, unit of loudness. Loudness is a subjective characteristic of a sound (as opposed to the sound-pressure level in decibels, which is objective and directly measurable). Consequently, the sone scale of loudness is based on data obtained from subjects who were asked to judge the loudness of pure

  • Sone River (river, India)

    Son River, principal southern tributary of the Ganges (Ganga) River, rising in Madhya Pradesh state, central India. It flows north past Manpur and then turns northeast. The river cuts through the Kaimur Range and joins the Ganges above Patna, after a 487-mile (784-km) course. The Son valley is

  • sonecitos del país (dance)

    Latin American dance: Folk and popular dances: … (“dances of the land”) or sonecitos del país (“little country dances”).

  • Sonepat (India)

    Sonipat, city, east-central Haryana state, northern India. It is situated about 25 miles (40 km) north of Delhi. The city was probably founded by early Aryan settlers about 1500 bce and flourished on the banks of the Yamuna River, which now has receded 9 miles (14 km) to the east. Mentioned in the

  • SONET

    telephone: Optical-fibre cable: …transmission rates known as the synchronous optical network (SONET) or optical carrier (OC) in the United States and as the synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH) elsewhere, as shown in the table.

  • Sonetni venec (work by Pre?eren)

    France Pre?eren: In 1834 he published Sonetni venec (“A Wreath of Sonnets”), an artistic and technical tour de force that nonetheless scandalized the prudish readers of his day because he had dared to spell out in an acrostic the name of a well-to-do young woman whom he hoped, quite unrealistically, to…

  • Sonette an Orpheus, Die (work by Rilke)

    Sonnets to Orpheus, series of 55 poems in two linked cycles by Rainer Maria Rilke, published in German in 1923 as Die Sonette an Orpheus. The Sonnets to Orpheus brought Rilke international fame. The Sonnets to Orpheus are concerned with the relationship of art and poetry to life. In them Rilke

  • Sonetti lussuriosi (work by Aretino)

    Pietro Aretino: …and his 1524 collection of Sonetti lussuriosi (“Lewd Sonnets”). From Rome he went to Venice (1527), where he became the object of great adulation and lived in a grand and dissolute style for the rest of his life. One of Aretino’s closest friends in Venice was the painter Titian, for…

  • Sonezaki shinjū (work by Chikamatsu)

    Chikamatsu Monzaemon: Sonezaki shinjū (1703; The Love Suicides at Sonezaki), for example, was written within a fortnight of the actual double suicide on which it is based. The haste of composition is not at all apparent even in this first example of Chikamatsu’s double-suicide plays, the archetype of his other…

  • song (vocal music)

    Song, piece of music performed by a single voice, with or without instrumental accompaniment. Works for several voices are called duets, trios, and so on; larger ensembles sing choral music. Speech and music have been combined from earliest times; music heightens the effect of words, allowing them

  • Song at the Year’s Turning: Poems 1942–1954 (work by Thomas)

    R.S. Thomas: …of the Field (1946) and Song at the Year’s Turning: Poems 1942–1954 (1955), contained a harshly critical but increasingly compassionate view of the Welsh people and their stark homeland. In Thomas’s later volumes, starting with Poetry for Supper (1958), the subjects of his poetry remained the same, yet his questions…

  • Song Cuu Long (river, Southeast Asia)

    Mekong River, river that is the longest river in Southeast Asia, the 7th longest in Asia, and the 12th longest in the world. It has a length of about 2,700 miles (4,350 km). Rising in southeastern Qinghai province, China, it flows through the eastern part of the Tibet Autonomous Region and Yunnan

  • song cycle

    Australian literature: Aboriginal narrative: the oral tradition: A sequence of stories or songs—a story track or song line—identifies the precise route taken by an Ancestor figure. Knowledge and recitation of the journey of each totemic figure are the responsibility of that figure’s totemic clan. (Members of an immediate biological family belong to different totems, or Dreamings. Totem…

  • Song Dong Nai (river, Vietnam)

    Dong Nai River, river rising in the central highlands (Annamese Cordillera) of southern Vietnam, northwest of Da Lat. Near its source the river has rapids and is known as the Da Dung River. It flows west and southwest for about 300 miles (480 km), joining the Saigon River southwest of Bien Hoa. At

  • Song dynasty (Chinese history)

    Song dynasty, (960–1279), Chinese dynasty that ruled the country during one of its most brilliant cultural epochs. It is commonly divided into Bei (Northern) and Nan (Southern) Song periods, as the dynasty ruled only in South China after 1127. The Bei Song was founded by Zhao Kuangyin, the military

  • Song family (Chinese family)

    Soong family, influential Chinese family that was heavily involved in the political fortunes of China during the 20th century. Among its best-known members were Charlie, the founder of the family, and his children T.V. Soong, financier and politician; Soong Mei-ling, who became Madame Chiang

  • Song for the Harvest Season (work by Ives)

    Charles Ives: …or 1894 he composed “Song for the Harvest Season,” in which the four parts—for voice, trumpet, violin, and organ—were in different keys. That year he began studying at Yale University under Horatio Parker, then the foremost academic composer in the United States. His unconventionality disconcerted Parker, for whom Ives…

  • song form (music)

    Ternary form, in music, a form consisting of three sections, the third section normally either a literal or a varied repeat of the first. The symmetrical construction of this scheme (aba) provides one of the familiar shapes in Western music; ternary form can be found in music from the Middle Ages

  • Song Huizong (emperor of Song dynasty)

    Huizong, temple name (miaohao) of the eighth and penultimate emperor (reigned 1100–1125/26) of the Bei (Northern) Song dynasty (960–1127). He is best remembered both as a patron of the arts and as a painter and calligrapher. The Huizong emperor sought escape from affairs of state through the

  • Song Is Born, A (film by Hawks [1948])

    Howard Hawks: Films of the 1940s: A Song Is Born (1948) was Hawks’s musical remake of his own Ball of Fire, with Danny Kaye and Virginia Mayo substituting for Cooper and Stanwyck. It was followed by the riotously funny I Was a Male War Bride (1949), set in the aftermath of…

  • Song Jiaoren (Chinese politician)

    Song Jiaoren, founder of the Nationalist Party (Kuomintang), whose assassination blighted hopes for democratic government in China in the early 20th century. Expelled from middle school in China for revolutionary activities, in 1904, Song began studies in Japan. In Tokyo the following year, he

  • Song Lian (Chinese historian)

    China: Literature and scholarship: The historians Song Lian and Wang Shizhen and the philosopher-statesman Wang Yangming were among the dynasty’s most noted prose stylists, producing expository writings of exemplary lucidity and straightforwardness. Perhaps the most admired master was Gui Youguang, whose most famous writings are simple essays and anecdotes about everyday…

  • Song lun (work by Wang Fuzhi)

    Wang Fuzhi: …of Sima Guang) and the Song lun (“Commentary on the Song”), in which he clearly demonstrated the differences between the institutions of ancient China that were sanctified in the Confucian Classics and the institutions of the Chinese dynasties that followed the feudal period in which those classics were written.

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