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  • Sorbus (plant)

    Mountain ash, (genus Sorbus), genus of several shrubs or trees in the rose family (Rosaceae), native to the Northern Hemisphere. Unrelated to true ashes (genus Fraxinus, family Oleaceae), mountain ashes are widely cultivated as ornamentals for their flower clusters and brightly coloured fruits.

  • Sorbus americana (plant)

    mountain ash: Common species: …noteworthy mountain ashes are the American mountain ash (Sorbus americana), also called dogberry, and the European mountain ash (S. aucuparia), also called rowan-berry, or quickbeam. Both are handsome trees, the European growing to 18 metres (60 feet), twice the height of the American species, and yielding several cultivated varieties popular…

  • Sorbus aucuparia (plant)

    mountain ash: Common species: …also called dogberry, and the European mountain ash (S. aucuparia), also called rowan-berry, or quickbeam. Both are handsome trees, the European growing to 18 metres (60 feet), twice the height of the American species, and yielding several cultivated varieties popular in landscaping.

  • Sorby, Henry Clifton (British geologist)

    Henry Clifton Sorby, English geologist whose microscopic studies of thin slices of rock earned him the title “father of microscopical petrography.” Sorby’s early investigations were concerned with agricultural chemistry, but his interests soon turned to geology. He published works dealing with the

  • Sorcerer (prehistoric art figure)

    Trois Frères: …and engraved, known as the Horned God, or the Sorcerer. It depicts a human with the features of several different animals, and it dominates the mass of animal figures from a height of 13 feet (4 metres) above the cave floor. Its significance is unknown, but it is usually interpreted…

  • sorcerer

    witchcraft: Sorcery: A sorcerer, magician, or “witch” attempts to influence the surrounding world through occult (i.e., hidden, as opposed to open and observable) means. In Western society until the 14th century, “witchcraft” had more in common with sorcery in other cultures—such as those of India or Africa—than it…

  • Sorcerer (film by Friedkin [1977])

    William Friedkin: The thriller Sorcerer (1977)—which took years to complete because of the arduous and expensive on-location filming in the jungles of Central America—failed both critically and commercially. He rebounded slightly with the modest The Brink’s Job (1978), a caper starring Peter Falk, Peter Boyle, and Gena Rowlands. However,…

  • Sorcerer’s Apprentice, The (work by Dukas)

    Paul Dukas: …dazzling, ingenious L’Apprenti sorcier (1897; The Sorcerer’s Apprentice).

  • Sorcerer, The (operetta by Gilbert and Sullivan)

    Arthur Sullivan: The first of these, The Sorcerer (1877), was followed by H.M.S. Pinafore (1878), whose eventual success was phenomenal, and The Pirates of Penzance (1879, New York City; 1880, London).

  • sorcery (occult practice)

    Sorcery, the practice of malevolent magic, derived from casting lots as a means of divining the future in the ancient Mediterranean world. Some scholars distinguish sorcery from witchcraft by noting that it is learned rather than intrinsic. Other scholars, noting that modern witches claim to learn

  • Sorcier blanc à Zangali, Un (work by Philombe)

    René Philombe: …about seemingly unjust marriage customs; Un Sorcier blanc à Zangali (1970; “A White Sorcerer in Zangali”), a novel about the effect of a missionary’s clash with the colonial administration in a small village; Choc anti-choc (1978), “a novel made of poems”; and Africapolis (1978), a tragedy. The latter two are…

  • Sorcière, La (work by Michelet)

    Jules Michelet: Also thus distorted is La Sorcière (1862), an apology for witches considered as godforsaken souls, victims of the antinatural interdictions of the church.

  • Sordariales (order of fungi)

    fungus: Annotated classification: Order Sordariales Mainly saprotrophic in soil and dung; ascomata solitary and perithecial; includes species commonly used in genetics research; included in subclass Sordariomycetidae; examples of genera include Sordaria, Podospora, Neurospora, Lasiosphaeria, and Chaetomium. Order Xylariales Saprotrophic; inoperculate

  • Sordariomycetes (class of fungi)

    Sordariomycetes, class of several thousand species of sac fungi in the phylum Ascomycota (kingdom Fungi) characterized by a flask-shaped fruiting body (perithecium) that bears saclike structures (asci) and usually has a pore (ostiole) through which ascospores are discharged. Genera that parasitize

  • Sordello (poem by Browning)

    Sordello, poem by Robert Browning, published in 1840. The much-revised work is densely written, with multilayered meanings and many literary and historical allusions. On publication the work was considered obscure and was a critical failure. “Sordello” is a study in the psychology of genius and the

  • Sordello (Proven?al troubadour)

    Sordello, most renowned Proven?al troubadour of Italian birth, whose planh, or lament, on the death of his patron Blacatz (Blacas), in which he invites all Christian princes to feed on the heart of the hero so that they might absorb his virtues, is one of the masterpieces of Proven?al poetry.

  • Sordi, Alberto (Italian actor)

    Alberto Sordi, Italian film actor (born June 15, 1919, Rome, Italy—died Feb. 24/25, 2003, Rome), depicted the vices, virtues, and foibles of post-World War II Italy in a long career of mostly comic films and was regarded as a national icon. Sordi began his career dubbing the voice of Oliver Hardy i

  • sordone (musical instrument)

    Sordone, rare double-reed wind instrument of the 16th and 17th centuries, an early precursor of the bassoon. It differs from the curtal, the bassoon’s direct predecessor, in having a cylindrical bore (a bassoon bore is conical). The bore, cut into a single piece of wood, doubled in a narrow U-shape

  • sore mouth (animal disease)

    Sore mouth, viral disease of sheep and goats. Blisters, pustules, ulcers, and scabs form on the lips especially but also on the face and ears. In severe cases sores form inside the mouth. Infections occur in the spring and summer and heal in about a month. Humans who work around the sheep sometimes

  • sore throat (pathology)

    Sore throat, painful inflammation of the passage from the mouth to the pharynx or of the pharynx itself. A sore throat may be a symptom of influenza or of other respiratory infections, a result of irritation by foreign objects or fumes, or a reaction to certain drugs. Infections caused by a strain

  • Sore, Martin (German composer)

    Martin Agricola, composer, teacher, and writer on music, one of the first musicians to concern himself with the needs of the Reformed churches and to publish musical treatises in the vernacular. Agricola was self-taught, called to music “from the plough,” as his chosen surname suggests. He worked

  • Soredemo boku wa yattenai (film by Suo [2006])

    Suo Masayuki: Soredemo boku wa yattenai (I Just Didn’t Do It). Whereas Suo’s earlier films were comedies, Soredemo boku wa yattenai is the story of a young man who proclaims his innocence after being arrested and tried for having sexually molested a young girl on a train.…

  • soredium (lichen structure)

    fungus: Form and function of lichens: A soredium, consisting of one or several algal cells enveloped by threadlike fungal filaments, or hyphae, may develop into a thallus under suitable conditions. Lichens without soredia may propagate by fragmentation of their thalli. Many lichens develop small thalloid extensions, called isidia, that also may serve…

  • Sorel (Quebec, Canada)

    Sorel-Tracy, city, Montérégie region, southern Quebec province, Canada. It lies at the mouth of the Richelieu River, on the south bank of the St. Lawrence River. Fort-Richelieu (marked by a monument) was erected on the site in 1642. In 1672 a land grant was obtained by the fort commandant, Pierre

  • Sorel, Agnès (French courtesan)

    Agnès Sorel, mistress (1444–50) of King Charles VII of France, sometimes known as “Dame de Beauté” from the estate at Beauté-sur-Marne, which he gave her. Born of a family of the lesser nobility at Fromenteau in Touraine, Sorel was attached at an early age to the service of Isabel of Lorraine,

  • Sorel, Albert (French historian)

    Marcel Proust: Life and works: …Desjardins and by the historian Albert Sorel. Meanwhile, via the bourgeois salons of Madames Straus, Arman de Caillavet, Aubernon, and Madeleine Lemaire, he became an observant habitué of the most exclusive drawing rooms of the nobility.

  • Sorel, Georges (French revolutionary)

    Georges Sorel, French Socialist and revolutionary syndicalist who developed an original and provocative theory on the positive, even creative, role of myth and violence in the historical process. Sorel was born of a middle-class family and trained as a civil engineer. Not until he reached age 40

  • Sorel, Georges-Eugène (French revolutionary)

    Georges Sorel, French Socialist and revolutionary syndicalist who developed an original and provocative theory on the positive, even creative, role of myth and violence in the historical process. Sorel was born of a middle-class family and trained as a civil engineer. Not until he reached age 40

  • Sorel, Jean (French actor)

    Belle de jour: …with her husband (played by Jean Sorel). When she hears about a brothel that employs housewives to ply their skills in secret, she makes the ominous decision to fulfill her fantasies by serving as a prostitute. The film’s shocking denouement, involving an encounter between Séverine’s husband and a jealous customer,…

  • Sorel, Julien (fictional character)

    Julien Sorel, fictional character, the ambitious young protagonist of Stendhal’s novel Le Rouge et le noir (1830; The Red and the

  • Sorel-Tracy (Quebec, Canada)

    Sorel-Tracy, city, Montérégie region, southern Quebec province, Canada. It lies at the mouth of the Richelieu River, on the south bank of the St. Lawrence River. Fort-Richelieu (marked by a monument) was erected on the site in 1642. In 1672 a land grant was obtained by the fort commandant, Pierre

  • Sorell, Walter (American writer)

    Walter Sorell, Austrian-born American writer who was the author of more than 25 books, including The Dance Through the Ages (1967) and Dance in Its Time (1981); contributed to a number of dance publications; and taught theatre and dance history at several colleges and universities (b. May 2,

  • Sorelle Materassi (work by Palazzeschi)

    Italian literature: The return to order: …and Sorelle Materassi (1934; The Sisters Materassi), reached the height of his storytelling powers. Meanwhile, the Florentine literary reviews Solaria, Frontespizio, and Letteratura, while having to tread carefully with the authorities, provided an outlet for new talent. Carlo Emilio Gadda had his first narrative work (

  • Soren, Shibu (Indian politician)

    Shibu Soren, Indian politician and government official who was a cofounder and then longtime president of the Jharkhand Mukti Morcha (JMM; Jharkhand Liberation Front). He also served three terms as the chief minister (head of government) of Jharkhand (2005; 2008–09; and 2009–10) state in

  • Sorenarwa Island (island, Indonesia)

    Sorenarwa Island, island, in Cenderawasih Bay, off the northwest coast of Papua province, Indonesia. It has an area of 936 square miles (2,424 square km) and an elevated central ridge that rises to 4,907 feet (1,496 metres). The chief settlement is Serui on the central southern

  • Sorensen, Philip (Swedish businessman)

    security and protection system: Development of security systems.: …organizations such as those of Philip Sorensen in Sweden and Allan Pinkerton in the United States had also begun to build efficient large-scale security services. Pinkerton’s organization offered intelligence, counterintelligence, internal security, investigative, and law enforcement services to private business and government. Until the advent of collective bargaining in the…

  • S?rensen, Rasmus M?ller (Danish politician)

    Rasmus M?ller S?rensen, teacher and politician who was a leading agitator for agrarian reform and for the establishment of representative government in Denmark. In the 1820s and 1830s S?rensen, serving as tutor on the estates of several progressive landowners, developed his ideas of peasant reform.

  • S?rensen, S. P. L. (Danish biochemist)

    pH: …used by the Danish biochemist S.P.L. S?rensen to represent the hydrogen ion concentration, expressed in equivalents per litre, of an aqueous solution: pH = ?log[H+] (in expressions of this kind, enclosure of a chemical symbol within square brackets denotes that the concentration of the symbolized species is the quantity being…

  • Sorensen, Ted (American lawyer and presidential speechwriter)

    Ted Sorensen, (in full Theodore Chaikin Sorensen), American lawyer and presidential speechwriter (born May 8, 1928, Lincoln, Neb., U.S.—died Oct. 31, 2010, New York, N.Y.), had a profound role in the administration of U.S. Pres. John F. Kennedy (1961–63), serving as an influential inner-circle

  • Sorensen, Theodore Chaikin (American lawyer and presidential speechwriter)

    Ted Sorensen, (in full Theodore Chaikin Sorensen), American lawyer and presidential speechwriter (born May 8, 1928, Lincoln, Neb., U.S.—died Oct. 31, 2010, New York, N.Y.), had a profound role in the administration of U.S. Pres. John F. Kennedy (1961–63), serving as an influential inner-circle

  • S?rensen, Villy (Danish writer and critic)

    Villy S?rensen, influential writer of modernist short stories and a leading literary critic in Denmark after World War II. S?rensen’s first collection of short stories, Saere historier (Tiger in the Kitchen and Other Strange Stories), appeared in 1953; it was followed in 1955 by Ufarlige historier

  • S?renstam, Annika (Swedish-born American golfer)

    Annika S?renstam, Swedish-born American golfer who was one of the most successful golfers in the history of the Ladies Professional Golf Association (LPGA). S?renstam began playing golf at age 12, and she was a member of the Swedish national team from 1987 to 1992. She attended the University of

  • Sorex (mammal genus)

    marsupial mouse: …to the true shrews (Sorex). The Red Data Book lists the eastern jerboa marsupial, or kultarr (Antechinomys laniger), of Australia as endangered; several other marsupial mice are considered rare.

  • Sorex palustris (mammal)

    water shrew: The North American water shrew (S. palustris) is found throughout much of the western United States and Canada, from the plains to the mountains. It is the smallest and least specialized species of water shrew, weighing up to 18 grams, with a body 6 to 9…

  • S?rgande turturdufwan, Den (work by Nordenflycht)

    Hedvig Charlotta Nordenflycht: …of which were published in Den s?rjande turturduvan (1743; “The Mourning Turtledove”). Several of her poems in this volume usher in an uncompromising subjectivism previously unheard-of in Swedish literature. She settled in Stockholm and became a leading literary figure, publishing four volumes of poetry in the next six years. During…

  • Sorge, Richard (German journalist)

    Richard Sorge, German press correspondent who headed a successful Soviet espionage ring in Tokyo during World War II. After service in the German Army during World War I, he earned a doctorate in political science at the University of Hamburg, Germany, joining the Communist Party of Germany in

  • Sorghastrum elliottii (plant)

    Indian grass: …is a close relative of slender Indian grass (Sorghastrum elliottii) and lopsided Indian grass (S. secundum).

  • Sorghastrum nutans (plant)

    Indian grass, (Sorghastrum nutans), perennial grass of the family Poaceae, one of the important constituents of the North American tallgrass prairie. Indian grass is sometimes planted as an ornamental border grass and is a good forage plant for livestock. It is a close relative of slender Indian

  • Sorghastrum secundum (plant)

    Indian grass: …Indian grass (Sorghastrum elliottii) and lopsided Indian grass (S. secundum).

  • sorghum (grain)

    Sorghum, (Sorghum bicolor), cereal grain plant of the grass family (Poaceae) and its edible starchy seeds. The plant likely originated in Africa, where it is a major food crop, and has numerous varieties, including grain sorghums, used for food; grass sorghums, grown for hay and fodder; and

  • sorghum beer (alcoholic beverage)

    alcohol consumption: Among Classical peoples: …and wines, the best-known being sorghum beer and palm wines. Most of the peoples of Oceania, on the other hand, seem to have missed the discovery of fermentation. Many of the pre-Columbian Indians of North America were also exceptional in lacking alcoholic beverages until they were introduced by Europeans, with…

  • Sorghum bicolor (grain)

    Sorghum, (Sorghum bicolor), cereal grain plant of the grass family (Poaceae) and its edible starchy seeds. The plant likely originated in Africa, where it is a major food crop, and has numerous varieties, including grain sorghums, used for food; grass sorghums, grown for hay and fodder; and

  • Sorghum dochna (agriculture)

    origins of agriculture: Sorghum: Chinese ambercane was brought from France to the United States in 1854 and was distributed to farmers. While the cane provided good forage for livestock, promoters of the new crop were most interested in refining sugar from the sorghum molasses, a goal that persisted for many…

  • Sorghum vulgare sudanensis (plant)

    feed: Hay: …grasses (such as timothy and Sudan grass) are lower in protein and vary considerably depending on their stage of maturity and the amount of nitrogen fertilization applied to them. Stored hay is fed to animals when sufficient fresh pasture grass is not available.

  • sorgo (grain)

    Sorghum, (Sorghum bicolor), cereal grain plant of the grass family (Poaceae) and its edible starchy seeds. The plant likely originated in Africa, where it is a major food crop, and has numerous varieties, including grain sorghums, used for food; grass sorghums, grown for hay and fodder; and

  • sori (plant anatomy)

    Sorus, in botany, brownish or yellowish cluster of spore-producing structures (sporangia) usually located on the lower surface of fern leaves. A sorus may be protected during development by a scale or flap of tissue called an indusium. In rust and smut fungi, a sorus is a spore mass produced on the

  • Sōri (Japanese artist)

    Hokusai, Japanese master artist and printmaker of the ukiyo-e (“pictures of the floating world”) school. His early works represent the full spectrum of ukiyo-e art, including single-sheet prints of landscapes and actors, hand paintings, and surimono (“printed things”), such as greetings and

  • Soria (Spain)

    Soria, town, capital of Soria provincia (province), in Castile-León comunidad autónoma (autonomous community), north-central Spain. It lies on the western bank of the Duero River about 140 miles (225 km) northeast of Madrid. Restored by Alfonso I (the Warrior) of Aragon after the Moorish invasion,

  • Soria (province, Spain)

    Soria, provincia (province) in the comunidad autónoma (autonomous community) of Castile-León, north-central Spain. It was formed from part of the historic region of Old Castile in 1833. The terrain is varied: to the north are the Moncayo and Urbión mountain ranges; in the centre, around Soria city,

  • Soriano, Juan (Mexican painter and sculptor)

    Juan Soriano, (Juan Francisco Rodríguez Montoya), Mexican painter and sculptor (born Aug. 18, 1920, Guadalajara, Mex.—died Feb. 10, 2006, Mexico City, Mex.), was an exponent of the Mexican School cultural movement, which flourished after the ouster in 1910 of Mexican dictator Porfirio Díaz and d

  • Soriano, Osvaldo (Argentine writer)

    Osvaldo Soriano, Argentine journalist and author of best-selling novels characterized by action and humour, notably No habrá más penas ni olvido, about internecine squabbles among Peronists in the early 1970s (b. Jan. 6, 1943--d. Jan. 29,

  • soricid (mammal)

    Shrew, (family Soricidae), any of more than 350 species of insectivores having a mobile snout that is covered with long sensitive whiskers and overhangs the lower lip. Their large incisor teeth are used like forceps to grab prey; the upper pair is hooked, and the lower pair extends forward. Shrews

  • Soricidae (mammal)

    Shrew, (family Soricidae), any of more than 350 species of insectivores having a mobile snout that is covered with long sensitive whiskers and overhangs the lower lip. Their large incisor teeth are used like forceps to grab prey; the upper pair is hooked, and the lower pair extends forward. Shrews

  • Soricimorpha (mammal order)

    insectivore: Classification: Order Soricimorpha More than 400 species in 4 families. 9 fossil families contain 30 genera, some dating to the Late Cretaceous. Moles (family Talpidae) are sometimes classified with hedgehogs in Erinaceomorpha. Family Soricidae (true shrews) 341 or more species in 23 genera and 60 extinct genera…

  • Sorikmarapi, Mount (mountain, Indonesia)

    North Sumatra: … (6,870 feet [2,094 metres]), and Mount Sorikmarapi (7,037 feet [2,145 metres]). Near the centre of the plateau, at an elevation of 2,985 feet (910 metres), is Lake Toba, the remnant of an ancient and massive volcanic eruption. At the lake’s centre is Samosir Island, 27 miles (44 km) long and…

  • Sorim (Korean painter)

    Cho Sok-chin, noted painter of the late Chos?n dynasty (1392–1910) whose paintings were nostalgic re-creations of the decadent traditional Confucian style of China and Korea. Born into a family of court painters, Cho was early sent to China to study with the old masters. On his return, he

  • Sorin, Edward Frederick (American educator)

    Edward Frederick Sorin, Roman Catholic priest and educator, founder and first president of the University of Notre Dame. Sorin was ordained a priest in 1838, and two years later he joined the Congregation of Holy Cross, a group of priests and brothers organized at Le Mans, Fr. Sorin and six

  • sorites (logic)

    Sorites, in syllogistic, or traditional, logic, a chain of successive syllogisms—or units of argument that pass from two premises (a major and then a minor) to a conclusion—in the first figure (i.e., with the middle, or repeated, term as the subject of the major and the predicate of the minor

  • sorites problem (paradox)

    Sorites problem, Paradox presented by the following reasoning: One grain of sand does not constitute a heap; if n grains of sand do not constitute a heap, then neither do n + 1 grains of sand; therefore, no matter how many grains of sand are put together, they never constitute a heap. The problem

  • s?rjande turturduvan, Den (work by Nordenflycht)

    Hedvig Charlotta Nordenflycht: …of which were published in Den s?rjande turturduvan (1743; “The Mourning Turtledove”). Several of her poems in this volume usher in an uncompromising subjectivism previously unheard-of in Swedish literature. She settled in Stockholm and became a leading literary figure, publishing four volumes of poetry in the next six years. During…

  • Sorkh Tomb (tomb, Marāgheh, Iran)

    Marāgheh: …the town; the earliest, the Sorkh Tomb (1147), is one of the finest examples of brickwork in Iran. West of the town are traces of an observatory (1259). The local building stone, known as Marāgheh marble, is of mainly yellow, pink, greenish, or milk-white colour, streaked with red and green…

  • Sorkin, Aaron (American writer and producer)

    Aaron Sorkin, American writer, producer, and director who brought an astute intelligence and sharp dialogue to films, television series, and plays that were often set within the combative backstage world of politics, law, or entertainment. Sorkin grew up in suburban New York City and, as a child,

  • Sorkin, Aaron Benjamin (American writer and producer)

    Aaron Sorkin, American writer, producer, and director who brought an astute intelligence and sharp dialogue to films, television series, and plays that were often set within the combative backstage world of politics, law, or entertainment. Sorkin grew up in suburban New York City and, as a child,

  • Sorkin, Richard (American executive)

    Zip2: …by a more experienced businessman, Richard Sorkin, but remained executive vice president and chief technology officer.

  • Sorko (people)

    Niger: Settlement patterns: …the Niger the Buduma and Sorko peoples are fishermen. Sedentary peoples live in dwellings that vary from those made of straw to those made of banco (hardened mud), although the Wogo people live in tents of delicate matting.

  • S?rlandet (region, Norway)

    S?rlandet, geographic region, southern Norway. Its base runs along the southern coast of the country, and it extends inland to the Bykle Hills. Like most of Norway, S?rlandet has a strip of lowland along its coast that quickly rises into interior mountains and plateaus. These highlands are cut by

  • Sor? (Denmark)

    Sor?, city, western Zealand, Denmark. It is the home of Sor? Academy, a well-known Danish boarding school, resembling an English public (i.e., “private”) school. The academy was founded by Frederick II in 1586 in a former Cistercian abbey (dating from the 12th century). Its alumni include many

  • Soro (album by Keita)

    African popular music: Released in 1987, Soro became a benchmark for modern African music by showcasing the singer’s powerful voice with sophisticated arrangements of synthesizers and drum machines alongside acoustic instruments and female vocal choruses. For Keita, the record led to a worldwide contract with Island Records. For producer Sylla, it…

  • Sor? Academy (school, Denmark)

    Sor?: It is the home of Sor? Academy, a well-known Danish boarding school, resembling an English public (i.e., “private”) school. The academy was founded by Frederick II in 1586 in a former Cistercian abbey (dating from the 12th century). Its alumni include many Danish kings and princes. The magnificent abbey church,…

  • Soro, Guillaume (Ivorian rebel leader)

    Laurent Gbagbo: Presidency and civil war: …Gbagbo and rebel forces commander Guillaume Soro. A transitional government was formed with Gbagbo as president and Soro as prime minister. The UN ceased patrolling the buffer zone, and the process of disarming the militias loyal to both sides began.

  • soroban (calculating device)

    East Asian mathematics: The elaboration of Chinese methods: …Japanese the use of the soroban, an improvement of the Chinese abacus, and introduced some Chinese knowledge. Its many editions contributed to popularizing mathematics because most of the works on mathematics in Japan were written in Chinese and could not be widely read. In its enlarged edition of 1641, Jingoki…

  • Sorocaba (Brazil)

    Sorocaba, city, east-central S?o Paulo estado (state), southeastern Brazil. It lies along the Sorocaba River, a tributary of the Tietê River, at 1,804 feet (550 metres) above sea level. Given town status in 1661 and made the seat of a municipality in 1842, Sorocaba is now one of the country’s major

  • Sorochinskaya yarmarka (opera by Mussorgsky)

    Modest Mussorgsky: Life and career: …his opera Sorochinskaya yarmarka (unfinished; Sorochintsy Fair), inspired by Gogol’s tale. As the accompanist of an aging singer, Darya Leonova, Mussorgsky departed on a lengthy concert tour of southern Russia and the Crimean Peninsula. On his return he tried teaching at a small school of music in St. Petersburg.

  • Sorochintsy Fair (opera by Mussorgsky)

    Modest Mussorgsky: Life and career: …his opera Sorochinskaya yarmarka (unfinished; Sorochintsy Fair), inspired by Gogol’s tale. As the accompanist of an aging singer, Darya Leonova, Mussorgsky departed on a lengthy concert tour of southern Russia and the Crimean Peninsula. On his return he tried teaching at a small school of music in St. Petersburg.

  • Sorokin, Pitirim Alexandrovitch (American sociologist)

    Pitirim Alexandrovitch Sorokin, Russian-American sociologist who founded the department of sociology at Harvard University in 1930. In the history of sociological theory, he is important for distinguishing two kinds of sociocultural systems: “sensate” (empirical, dependent on and encouraging

  • Sorokin, Vladimir Georgievich (Russian author)

    Vladimir Georgievich Sorokin, Russian novelist and playwright considered to be one of the most influential figures in postmodern Russian literature. Sorokin was known particularly for his vivid experimental, and often controversial, works that parodied Socialist Realism in the former Soviet Union.

  • Sorokino (Ukraine)

    Krasnodon, coal-mining city, eastern Ukraine. It lies on the Great (Bilsha) Kam’yanka River. Krasnodon was established in 1914 and incorporated in 1938. Historically, it has been important for the mining of bituminous coal. A local museum commemorates the defense of the city during World War II by

  • Sorokyne (Ukraine)

    Krasnodon, coal-mining city, eastern Ukraine. It lies on the Great (Bilsha) Kam’yanka River. Krasnodon was established in 1914 and incorporated in 1938. Historically, it has been important for the mining of bituminous coal. A local museum commemorates the defense of the city during World War II by

  • Sorolla y Bastida, Joaquín (Spanish painter)

    Joaquín Sorolla, Spanish painter whose style was a variant of Impressionism and whose best works, painted in the open air, vividly portray the sunny seacoast of Valencia. Sorolla was from a poor family and was orphaned at age two. He displayed an early talent and was admitted to the Academy of San

  • Sorolla, Joaquín (Spanish painter)

    Joaquín Sorolla, Spanish painter whose style was a variant of Impressionism and whose best works, painted in the open air, vividly portray the sunny seacoast of Valencia. Sorolla was from a poor family and was orphaned at age two. He displayed an early talent and was admitted to the Academy of San

  • Soromenho, Fernando Monteiro de Castro (Angolan novelist)

    Fernando Monteiro de Castro Soromenho, white Angolan novelist writing in Portuguese who depicted African life in the interior of the country and condemned the Portuguese colonial administration there. He is known as the “father of the Angolan novel.” Soromenho was taken to Angola by his parents in

  • Sorondo, Mount (mountain, South America)

    Andes Mountains: Physiography of the Southern Andes: Mounts Darwin, Valdivieso, and Sorondo—are all less than 7,900 feet high. The physiography of this southernmost subdivision of the Andes system is complicated by the presence of the independent Sierra de la Costa.

  • sororal polygyny (anthropology)

    polygyny: Sororal polygyny, in which the cowives are sisters, is often the preferred form because sisters are thought to be more mutually supportive and less argumentative than nonsiblings. A typical rule for sororal polygyny is that the eldest girl in a family marries first and that…

  • sororate (anthropology)

    Sororate, custom or law decreeing that a widower should, or in rare cases must, marry his deceased wife’s sister. The term comes from the Latin word soror, “sister,” and was introduced by the British anthropologist Sir James George Frazer. The “sister” may be a biological or adopted sibling of the

  • sorority (organization)

    Fraternity and sorority, in the United States, social, professional, or honorary societies, for males and females, respectively. Most such organizations draw their membership primarily from college or university students. With few exceptions, fraternities and sororities use combinations of letters

  • Soros, George (American financier)

    George Soros, Hungarian-born American financier, author, philanthropist, and activist whose success as an investor made him one of the wealthiest men in the world. He was also known as a powerful and influential supporter of liberal social causes. Soros, who was born into a prosperous Jewish

  • sorosilicate (mineral)

    Sorosilicate, any member of a group of compounds with structures that have two silicate tetrahedrons (each consisting of a central silicon atom surrounded by four oxygen atoms at the corners of a tetrahedron) linked together. Because one oxygen atom is shared by two tetrahedrons, the chemical

  • Soroush, Abdolkarim (Iranian philosopher)

    Iran: Presidential term of Ali Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani: reconstruction and liberalization: Inside Iran in the mid-1990s, Abdolkarim Soroush, a philosopher with both secular and religious training, attracted thousands of followers to his lectures. Soroush advocated a type of reformist Islam that went beyond most liberal Muslim thinkers of the 20th century and argued that the search for reconciliation of Islam and…

  • sorption pump (mechanics)

    vacuum technology: Sorption pump: Typically, the size of these pumps is about 1,000 grams of sorbent material, which retains gas molecules on its surface. They are capable of pumping from atmosphere to 10-2 torr or can be used in series down to 10-5 torr. In most cases…

  • sorrel (tree)

    Sourwood, (species Oxydendrum arboreum), deciduous ornamental tree, of the heath family (Ericaceae), native to southeastern North America. It grows to about 23 metres (75 feet) in height. The bitter-tasting leaves are alternate, stalked, rather oblong, and 12–20 cm (5–8 inches) long. In the autumn

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