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  • sorrel (herb)

    Sorrel, any of several hardy perennial herbs of the Polygonaceae, or buckwheat, family that are widely distributed in temperate regions. Sheep sorrel (Rumex acetosella) is a weed that is native to Europe and has become widespread in North America. It is an attractive but troublesome invader that

  • Sorrel, Hetty (fictional character)

    Hetty Sorrel, fictional character, a naive dairy maid who is seduced and abandoned in the novel Adam Bede (1859) by George

  • Sorrentino, Gilbert (American poet)

    Gilbert Sorrentino, American poet and experimental novelist, whose use of devices such as nonchronological structure illustrated his dictum that “form not only determines content but form invents content.” From 1956 to 1960 Sorrentino was editor and publisher of Neon, a magazine that featured works

  • Sorrento (Italy)

    Sorrento, town and archiepiscopal see, Campania regione, southern Italy. It lies on a peninsula separating the Bay of Naples, which it faces, from the Gulf of Salerno, south-southeast of Naples. The backbone of the peninsula is formed by the Lattari Mountains, which culminate in Mount Sant’Angelo

  • Sorrig og Gl?de vandre til Hobe (song by Kingo)

    Thomas Kingo: …(“Fare, World, Farewell”) and “Sorrig og Gl?de de vandre til Hobe” (“Sorrow and Joy They Wander Together”). He is remembered today mainly for what is popularly known as Kingo’s hymnbook, a collection that appeared in 1699 and contained 86 of his own poems. The first half of Kingo’s original…

  • Sorrow Acre (story by Dinesen)

    Winter's Tales: …on a Danish folktale, “Sorrow Acre” is one of the author’s best-known works. A feudal lord offers to release the imprisoned son of a peasant woman if she mows a field of rye by herself in one day; she fulfills the bargain and falls dead. “The Young Man with…

  • Sorrow and Joy They Wander Together (song by Kingo)

    Thomas Kingo: …(“Fare, World, Farewell”) and “Sorrig og Gl?de de vandre til Hobe” (“Sorrow and Joy They Wander Together”). He is remembered today mainly for what is popularly known as Kingo’s hymnbook, a collection that appeared in 1699 and contained 86 of his own poems. The first half of Kingo’s original…

  • Sorrow Beyond Dreams, A (work by Handke)

    Peter Handke: A Sorrow Beyond Dreams), is also an effective work.

  • Sorrow of Belgium, The (novel by Claus)

    Belgian literature: After World War II: …Het verdriet van Belgi? (1983; The Sorrow of Belgium), paints an unflattering portrait of a Flemish collaborationist family in the years before, during, and after World War II, but it is also a Bildungsroman about a wayward adolescent who decides to become a writer.

  • Sorrow of Bihār (river, Asia)

    Kosi River, river in Nepal and northern India. With its tributaries, the Kosi drains the eastern third of Nepal and part of Tibet, including the country around Mount Everest. Some of its headstreams rise beyond the Nepalese border in Tibet. About 30 miles (48 km) north of the Indian-Nepalese

  • Sorrows of Young Werther, The (novel by Goethe)

    The Sorrows of Young Werther, novel by J.W. von Goethe, published in German as Die Leiden des jungen Werthers in 1774. It was the first novel of the Sturm und Drang movement. The novel is the story of a sensitive, artistic young man who demonstrates the fatal effects of a predilection for

  • Sorry to Bother You (film by Riley [2018])

    Forest Whitaker: …in the movies Black Panther, Sorry to Bother You, and Burden. He then took a starring role in the TV series Godfather of Harlem (2019– ), portraying 1960s crime boss Bumpy Johnson.

  • Sorry We Missed You (film by Loach [2019])

    Ken Loach: In Sorry We Missed You (2019), a family’s attempt to use the gig economy to get ahead leaves them increasingly far behind.

  • Sorry, Wrong Number (film by Litvak [1948])

    Sorry, Wrong Number, American film noir, released in 1948, that was based on Lucille Fletcher’s hit 1943 radio play of the same name. Barbara Stanwyck played Leona Stevenson, a spoiled, wealthy invalid and hypochondriac who is confined to her bed. While trying to reach her husband (played by Burt

  • Sors, Joseph Fernando Macari (Spanish Romantic performer, composer, and teacher of guitar)

    Fernando Sor, Catalan Romantic performer, composer, and teacher of guitar known for being among the first to play the guitar as a classical concert instrument and for writing one of the earliest books of guitar-playing methodology. He was a noted guitar virtuoso. When he was a young boy, Sor was

  • Sors, José Fernando Macarurio (Spanish Romantic performer, composer, and teacher of guitar)

    Fernando Sor, Catalan Romantic performer, composer, and teacher of guitar known for being among the first to play the guitar as a classical concert instrument and for writing one of the earliest books of guitar-playing methodology. He was a noted guitar virtuoso. When he was a young boy, Sor was

  • Sorsa, Kalevi (Finnish politician)

    Kalevi Sorsa, Finnish politician (born Dec. 21, 1930, Keuruu, Fin.—died Jan. 16, 2004, Helsinki, Fin.), served as Finland’s prime minister four times (1972–75, 1977–79, 1982–83, 1983–87), holding the position longer than any other person, and was to a great extent the architect of the welfare s

  • Sorsa, Taisto Kalevi (Finnish politician)

    Kalevi Sorsa, Finnish politician (born Dec. 21, 1930, Keuruu, Fin.—died Jan. 16, 2004, Helsinki, Fin.), served as Finland’s prime minister four times (1972–75, 1977–79, 1982–83, 1983–87), holding the position longer than any other person, and was to a great extent the architect of the welfare s

  • Sorsby fundus dystrophy (pathology)

    macular degeneration: Other forms of macular degeneration: Sorsby fundus dystrophy, which is clinically similar to wet AMD, is caused by mutations in a gene known as TIMP3 (tissue-inhibitor of metalloproteinase 3). These forms of macular degeneration, with the exception of Stargardt macular dystrophy, are inherited as autosomal dominant traits; disease occurs when…

  • Sorsky, Nil (Russian mystic)

    Saint Nil Sorsky, ; feast day May 7), first Russian mystic to write about the contemplative life and to formulate a guide for spiritual self-perfection. After a trip to Constantinople and Mount Athos, he founded his own monastery beside the Sora River (whence the name Sorsky). At a council in

  • Sorsogon (Philippines)

    Sorsogon, city and port, southeastern Luzon, northern Philippines. It is located near the southernmost tip of the Bicol Peninsula on the northeastern shore of Sorsogon Bay. The adjacent hinterland consists of volcanic cones interspersed with broad, level farmlands that produce abaca, coconuts,

  • Sorstalanság (novel by Kertész)

    Imre Kertész: …most-acclaimed novel, Sorstalanság (Fatelessness, or Fateless), which he completed in the mid-1960s but was unable to publish for nearly a decade. When the novel finally appeared in 1975, it received little critical attention but established Kertész as a unique and provocative voice in the dissident subculture within contemporary Hungarian literature.…

  • SORT (United States-Russia [2002])

    arms control: Recent efforts: …the two countries signed the Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty, which committed each side to reducing its store of strategic nuclear warheads. Russia subsequently announced that it would no longer be bound by the START II agreement, which its parliament had ratified in 2000.

  • sortilege (occult practice)

    augury: …(cartomancy), dice or lots (cleromancy), dots and other marks on paper (geomancy), fire and smoke (pyromancy), the shoulder blades of animals (scapulimancy), entrails of sacrificed animals (haruspicy), or their livers, which were considered to be the seat of life (hepatoscopy).

  • sorting (computing)

    computer science: Algorithms and complexity: For example, sorting the list into alphabetical order permits a so-called binary search technique to be used, in which the remainder of the list to be searched at each step is cut in half. This search technique is similar to searching a telephone book for a particular…

  • sorting

    postal system: Postal operations and management: The collection and sorting of individual items by the most economic method, concentrating together all items that are going to the same place or in the same direction, involves the use of local transport, usually operated by the postal services themselves, and sorting offices. The size of the…

  • sorting (clastic sediment)

    rock: Porosity: …and on the degree of sorting. Typical cements are siliceous, calcareous or carbonate, or iron-bearing minerals.

  • sorting machine

    postal system: Segregating machines: So-called packet sorting machines are, in fact, essentially conveyor systems for distributing manually sorted mail.

  • sortition (ancient Greece)

    Sortition, election by lot, a method of choosing public officials in some ancient Greek city-states. It was used especially in the Athenian democracy, from which most information about the practice is derived. With few exceptions, all magistrates were chosen by lot, beginning with the archons in

  • Sorts i Muntades, Josep Ferran (Spanish Romantic performer, composer, and teacher of guitar)

    Fernando Sor, Catalan Romantic performer, composer, and teacher of guitar known for being among the first to play the guitar as a classical concert instrument and for writing one of the earliest books of guitar-playing methodology. He was a noted guitar virtuoso. When he was a young boy, Sor was

  • Sorum, Matt (American musician)

    Guns N' Roses: ), Matt Sorum (b. November 19, 1960, Long Beach, California, U.S.), Dizzy Reed (original name Darren Reed; b. June 18, 1963, Hinsdale, Illinois, U.S.), and Gilby Clarke (b. August 17, 1962, Cleveland, Ohio).

  • sorus (plant anatomy)

    Sorus, in botany, brownish or yellowish cluster of spore-producing structures (sporangia) usually located on the lower surface of fern leaves. A sorus may be protected during development by a scale or flap of tissue called an indusium. In rust and smut fungi, a sorus is a spore mass produced on the

  • Sorvino, Mira (American actress)

    Mira Sorvino, American actress who won an Academy Award for best supporting actress for her portrayal of a dim-witted but warmhearted prostitute in Woody Allen’s Mighty Aphrodite (1995). Sorvino, the daughter of character actor Paul Sorvino, grew up in New Jersey. She excelled at school and

  • Sorvino, Paul (American actor)

    Mira Sorvino: …the daughter of character actor Paul Sorvino, grew up in New Jersey. She excelled at school and attended Harvard University, graduating in 1990 with a major in East Asian area studies after spending an academic year abroad in China, where she learned to speak Mandarin. She then moved to New…

  • SOS (distress signal)

    distress signal: …such as the Morse group SOS, the international code signal NC, or the spoken word “Mayday” (pronounced like the French m’aider, “help me”), by radiotelephone. Distressed vessels may also actuate alarms of other vessels by a radio signal consisting of a series of 12 four-second dashes or by a radiotelephone…

  • Sosa Peralta, Samuel (Dominican [republic] baseball player)

    Sammy Sosa, Dominican professional baseball player who, with Mark McGwire, entertained fans with a series of home run races in the late 1990s that rewrote the record books. In 1999 Sosa became the first player to hit 60 homers in two seasons. As a child, Sosa worked at a number of jobs, including

  • Sosa v. Alvarez-Machain (law case)

    Alien Tort Claims Act: In Sosa v. Alvarez-Machain, the court held that the ATCA applies only to violations of international norms that are “specific, universal, and obligatory,” and it determined that general prohibitions against arbitrary arrest and detention did not meet that standard. And in 2013 the court ruled in…

  • Sosa, Mercedes (Argentine musician)

    Mercedes Sosa, (Haydée Mercedes Sosa), Argentine folk singer (born July 9, 1935, San Miguel de Tucumán, Arg.—died Oct. 4, 2009, Buenos Aires, Arg.), was known as “the voice of the voiceless” for her songs that spoke of the struggle for economic and political justice. She was a leading proponent of

  • Sosa, Sammy (Dominican [republic] baseball player)

    Sammy Sosa, Dominican professional baseball player who, with Mark McGwire, entertained fans with a series of home run races in the late 1990s that rewrote the record books. In 1999 Sosa became the first player to hit 60 homers in two seasons. As a child, Sosa worked at a number of jobs, including

  • sōsaku hanga (Japanese print style)

    Japanese art: Wood-block prints: …other wood-block print trend was sōsaku hanga, or “creative print,” a movement modeled on European approaches to print production. The artist, instead of consigning his designs to the carvers and printers employed by the publisher, performed all aspects of production. This was a philosophy of total engagement with the work.…

  • Sosat (Germany)

    Soest, city, North Rhine–Westphalia Land (state), northwestern Germany. It lies on the fertile Soester Plain (Soester B?rde) in the Hellweg region, which extends south from the Lippe River, east of Dortmund. Although excavations have shown there to have been a settlement on the site since Roman

  • Soshangane (African general)

    Gaza: …Mozambique in the 1830s by Soshangane, the Ndwandwe general who fled from Zululand after his defeat at the hands of Shaka during the Zulu-Nguni wars known as the Mfecane. Soshangane extended his control over the area between the Komati (Incomati) and the Zambezi rivers, incorporating the local Tsonga and Shona…

  • Sōshū school (swordmaking)

    Masamune: He founded the Sōshū school of swordmaking, in which blades were made entirely of steel and hardened throughout. It marked an important advance in metallurgical technique that was significantly ahead of the technical level in Europe or elsewhere in Asia.

  • Sosialidemokraattinen pvolve (political party, Finland)

    Finland: Domestic affairs: …the main opposition parties—either the Social Democrats, who finished second with 42 seats, or the anti-immigrant, Euroskeptic True Finn Party, which proved to be the election’s biggest surprise as it vaulted from the five seats it won in the 2007 election to 39 seats and third place in 2011.

  • Sosigenes of Alexandria (Greek astronomer mathematician)

    Sosigenes of Alexandria, Greek astronomer and mathematician, probably from Alexandria, employed by Julius Caesar to devise the Julian calendar. He is sometimes confused with Sosigenes the Peripatetic (fl. 2nd century ce), the tutor of the Greek philosopher Alexander of Aphrodisias. Toward the end

  • Sosnowiec (Poland)

    Sosnowiec, city, ?l?skie województwo (province), southern Poland. It lies along the Czarna Przemsza River, which is a tributary of the Vistula River. A rail junction in the Silesian Upland, Sosnowiec has numerous heavy-industrial plants and coal mines. It is also the home of Poland’s first mining

  • Soso (people)

    Susu, people living in the southern coastal regions of Guinea and the northwestern parts of Sierra Leone. They speak a dialect of Susu-Yalunka, a language belonging to the Mande branch of the Niger-Congo languages. In Sierra Leone, villages are grouped under a paramount chief into small chiefdoms

  • Sosos (Pergamum artist)

    mosaic: Ancient Greek and Hellenistic mosaics: Roman historian Pliny the Younger, Sosos, one of the most renowned mosaic artists of antiquity, worked in this city. None of his works survives but, thanks to Roman copies, the intentions that underlay his art can be judged. Pliny listed as his most celebrated works a representation of drinking doves…

  • Sospiri, Ponte dei (bridge, Venice, Italy)

    Bridge of Sighs, bridge in Venice, Italy, spanning the narrow canal (Rio di Palazzo) between the Doge’s Palace and the prisons. It was built about 1600 by the architect Antonio Contino. The enclosed passageway was so called from the “sighs” of the prisoners who passed over

  • Sostegni, Saint Gerard (Italian friar)

    Seven Holy Founders: Benedict dell’Antella, Bartholomew Amidei, Gerard Sostegni, and Ricoverus Uguccione. Formally Ordo Fratrum Servorum Sanctae Mariae (“Order of Friar Servants of St. Mary”), the order is a Roman Catholic congregation of mendicant friars dedicated to apostolic work.

  • Sostratus of Cnidus (Greek architect)

    lighthouse of Alexandria: Built by Sostratus of Cnidus, perhaps for Ptolemy I Soter, it was finished during the reign of Soter’s son Ptolemy II of Egypt in about 280 bce. The lighthouse stood on the island of Pharos in the harbour of Alexandria and is said to have been more…

  • Sosurim (king of Kogury?)

    Kogury?: With the promulgation by King Sosurim (reigned 371–384) of various laws and decrees aimed at centralizing royal authority, Kogury? emerged as a full-fledged aristocratic state. Its territory was extended greatly during the reign of King Kwanggaet’o (391–412) and further by Changsu (reigned 413–491). The entire northern half of the Korean…

  • Sot-Weed Factor, The (novel by Barth)

    The Sot-Weed Factor, picaresque novel by John Barth, originally published in 1960 and revised in 1967. A parody of the historical novel, it is based on and takes its title from a satirical poem published in 1708 by Ebenezer Cooke, who is the protagonist of Barth’s work. The novel’s black humour is

  • Sotamies Jokisen vihkiloma (play by Meri)

    Veijo Meri: …play, Sotamies Jokisen vihkiloma (1965; Private Jokinen’s Marriage Leave), is set in the war years of the 1940s. An autobiography, Kersantin poika (“The Son of a Sergeant”), was published in 1971.

  • sotapanna (Buddhism)

    arhat: , a convert (sotapanna)—achieved by overcoming false beliefs and doubts regarding the Buddha, the teaching (dhamma), and the order (sangha), (2) the “once-returner” (sakadagamin), who will be reborn only once in this realm, a state attained by diminishing lust, hatred, and illusion, (3) the “nonreturner” (anagamin), who, after…

  • sotapanna-puggala (Buddhism)

    ariya-puggala: …of holy person, called a sotapanna-puggala (“stream-winner”), is one who will attain nibbana (Sanskrit nirvana)—release (moksha) from the cycle of death and rebirth (samsara), the supreme goal of Buddhist practice—after no more than seven rebirths. Another type of holy person is termed a sakadagamin (“once-returner”), or one who is

  • Sōtatsu (Japanese artist)

    Sōtatsu, Japanese artist of the Tokugawa period (1603–1867) who combined the traditional themes of the indigenous school of Japanese narrative scroll painting, known as Yamato-e, with the bold, decorative designs of the great screen painters of the Azuchi-Momoyama period (1574–1600). He pioneered

  • Sōtatsu school (Japanese art)

    Ogata Kōrin: …of the masters of the Sōtatsu-Kōetsu school of decorative painting. He is particularly famous for his screen paintings, lacquerwork, and textile designs.

  • Sōtatsu-Kōetsu school (Japanese art)

    Ogata Kōrin: …of the masters of the Sōtatsu-Kōetsu school of decorative painting. He is particularly famous for his screen paintings, lacquerwork, and textile designs.

  • Sotavento Islands (islands, Cabo Verde)

    Sotavento Islands, island group in the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of western Africa and the southern of two island groups that constitute Cabo Verde. The archipelago consists of the islands of Brava, Fogo, Maio, and Santiago, as well as the islets of Grande, Luís Carneiro, and Cima, together

  • Sotavento, Ilhas do (islands, Cabo Verde)

    Sotavento Islands, island group in the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of western Africa and the southern of two island groups that constitute Cabo Verde. The archipelago consists of the islands of Brava, Fogo, Maio, and Santiago, as well as the islets of Grande, Luís Carneiro, and Cima, together

  • Sotavento, Islas de (islands, West Indies)

    Leeward Islands, an arc of West Indian islands that constitute the most westerly and northerly of the Lesser Antilles, at the northeastern end of the Caribbean Sea, between latitudes 16° and 19° N and longitudes 61° and 65° W. The history of British, French, Spanish, and Dutch colonialism in the

  • sotdae (Korean religion)

    changs?ng: …spiritual significance, the somewhat taller sotdae, usually surmounted by a carved crane or duck, was often erected before a tomb or a house to commemorate the holder of a civil-service position during the Chos?n dynasty (1392–1910).

  • Soter, Saint (pope)

    Saint Soter, ; feast day April 22), pope from about 166 to about 175. Succeeding St. Anicetus as pope, Soter sent a letter and alms to the church of Corinth, whose bishop, St. Dionysius, replied in a letter that acknowledged Soter’s affection and theological advice. Soter continued Pope Anicetus’

  • Soteria (Greek religion)

    Soteria, (from Greek: “deliverance”), in Hellenistic religions, any sacrifice or series of sacrifices performed either in commemoration or in expectation of deliverance from a crisis; in a specific sense the word was often used in reference to large-scale commemorative festivals held at planned

  • soteriology

    salvation: Nature and significance: The term soteriology denotes beliefs and doctrines concerning salvation in any specific religion, as well as the study of the subject. The idea of saving or delivering from some dire situation logically implies that humankind, as a whole or in part, is in such a situation. This…

  • Sotheby and Company (art auction firm)

    Sotheby’s, one of the world’s leading auction firms, founded in London in 1744. It originally handled sales of important manuscripts and library collections, but, beginning in the mid-1950s, it increasingly focused on the sale of art. Headquartered in New York City since the 20th century, Sotheby’s

  • Sotheby’s (art auction firm)

    Sotheby’s, one of the world’s leading auction firms, founded in London in 1744. It originally handled sales of important manuscripts and library collections, but, beginning in the mid-1950s, it increasingly focused on the sale of art. Headquartered in New York City since the 20th century, Sotheby’s

  • Sotheby’s 250th birthday

    At precisely 12 noon on March 11, 1994, Sotheby’s, the world’s leading art Auction house, invited each staff member to raise a glass of champagne to toast the firm’s 250th birthday. During the company’s first two centuries in business, Sotheby’s had reigned exclusively as the world’s largest seller

  • Sotheby’s Holdings, Inc. (art auction firm)

    Sotheby’s, one of the world’s leading auction firms, founded in London in 1744. It originally handled sales of important manuscripts and library collections, but, beginning in the mid-1950s, it increasingly focused on the sale of art. Headquartered in New York City since the 20th century, Sotheby’s

  • Sotheby, Wilkinson and Hodge (art auction firm)

    Sotheby’s, one of the world’s leading auction firms, founded in London in 1744. It originally handled sales of important manuscripts and library collections, but, beginning in the mid-1950s, it increasingly focused on the sale of art. Headquartered in New York City since the 20th century, Sotheby’s

  • Sothern, Ann (American actress)

    Ann Sothern, (Harriette Lake), American actress (born Jan. 22, 1909, Valley City, N.D.—died March 15, 2001, Ketchum, Idaho), achieved fame with her roles in films that included Maisie (1939) and Lady Be Good (1941) and as the star of the 1950s television series Private Secretary. Sothern began h

  • Sothern, Edward Hugh (American actor)

    Edward Hugh Sothern, American actor who was widely popular for his roles in romantic comedy and was noted as well for his performances in Shakespearean plays. The son of the English comedian Edward Askew Sothern, he made his first stage appearance with his father’s company in New York City in 1879.

  • Sothic cycle (chronology)

    Egyptian calendar: …years (referred to as a Sothic cycle). The months were named after those of the lunar calendar, and both systems of reckoning were maintained throughout the pharaonic period. In the 4th century bce a schematized 25-year lunar calendar was apparently devised on the pattern of the civil calendar, in order…

  • Sothis (star)

    Sirius, brightest star in the night sky, with apparent visual magnitude ?1.46. It is a binary star in the constellation Canis Major. The bright component of the binary is a blue-white star 25.4 times as luminous as the Sun. It has a radius 1.71 times that of the Sun and a surface temperature of

  • Sotho (people)

    Sotho, linguistic and cultural group of peoples occupying the high grasslands of southern Africa. The main groups are customarily classified as the Transvaal, or northern, Sotho (Pedi, Lovedu, and others); the western Sotho, or Tswana (q.v.); and the southern Sotho (often called Basuto) of Lesotho

  • Sotho language

    Benue-Congo languages: Bantoid: …of the population of Angola; Sotho, which has two dialects generally treated as separate languages, northern Sotho (3,800,000) and southern Sotho (4,000,000); and Kituba, a creole based mostly on Kongo, with some 4,000,000 first-language speakers and more than another 1,000,000 second-language speakers.

  • sotie (French drama)

    Sotie, short satirical play popular in France in the 15th and early 16th centuries, in which a company of sots (“fools”) exchanged badinage on contemporary persons and events. The sots, wearing the traditional short jacket, tights, bells, and dunce cap of the fool, also introduced acrobatics and f

  • Sotileza (work by Pereda)

    José María de Pereda: …of the 19th century, was Sotileza (1884), an epic of the Santander fisherfolk, exemplified by the portrait of the haughty, enigmatic female fisher Sotileza, and a genuine novel of customs.

  • Sotira (historical site, Cyprus)

    Cyprus: Earliest periods: …excavated north of Kourion at Sotira near the southern coast and also in the Kyrenia Mountains, and ornaments of picrolite (a variety of soapstone) and copper have also been found in those areas.

  • Sotn in Goray, Der (work by Singer)

    Isaac Bashevis Singer: …Der Sotn in Goray (Satan in Goray), was published in installments in Poland shortly before he immigrated to the United States in 1935.

  • Sotnikova, Adelina (Russian figure skater)

    Sochi 2014 Olympic Winter Games: …figure skating, where unheralded Russian Adelina Sotnikova upset defending Olympic champion Kim Yu-Na of South Korea, despite the latter having skated what many observers thought was a winning program. The Alpine skiing events featured two notable finishes by Americans of disparate ages, as Bode Miller became—at age 36—the oldest Alpine…

  • ?otnovosky, Karel ?kréta (Bohemian painter)

    Western painting: Central Europe: In Karel ?kréta ?otnovosky, Bohemia possessed a painter of European stature; his sombre portraits and religious scenes are filled with a deeply serious mystical fervour. The frescoes by Johann Michael Rottmayr in the castle of Vranov in Moravia (1695) and in Breslau (now Wroc?aw; 1704–06) constitute…

  • Sōtō (Buddhist sect)

    Sōtō, largest of the Zen Buddhist sects in Japan. It follows the method of quiet sitting and meditation (zazen) as a means of obtaining enlightenment. The sect was founded in China in the 9th century by Liang-chieh and Pen-chi, where it was known as Ts’ao-tung (after its monastic centres on the

  • Soto Alejo, Federico Arístides (Cuban percussionist)

    Tatá Güines, (Federico Arístides Soto Alejo), Cuban percussionist (born June 30, 1930, Güines, Cuba—died Feb. 4, 2008, Havana, Cuba), was hailed as the King of the Congas and Golden Hands, winning accolades for popularizing Afro-Cuban rhythms worldwide with his fiery drumming. After performing with

  • Soto y Gama, Antonio Díaz (Mexican revolutionary)

    Emiliano Zapata: The Plan of Ayala: …from Mexico City, among them Antonio Díaz Soto y Gama, who became his theorist and later established an agrarian party. When Huerta fell, Zapata invited the Constitutionalists to accept his Plan of Ayala and warned them that he would continue fighting independently until the plan was put to practical use.

  • Soto, Fernando de (Spanish explorer)

    Hernando de Soto, Spanish explorer and conquistador who participated in the conquests of Central America and Peru and, in the course of exploring what was to become the southeastern United States, discovered the Mississippi River. De Soto spent his youth in the family manor house at Jerez de los

  • Soto, Hernando de (Spanish explorer)

    Hernando de Soto, Spanish explorer and conquistador who participated in the conquests of Central America and Peru and, in the course of exploring what was to become the southeastern United States, discovered the Mississippi River. De Soto spent his youth in the family manor house at Jerez de los

  • Soto, Jesús Rafael (Venezuelan-born artist)

    Jesús-Rafael Soto, Venezuelan-born French artist (born July 5, 1923, Ciudad Bolívar, Venez.—died Jan. 17, 2005, Paris, France), attached himself to avant-garde modernism immediately after World War II and by the late 1960s had become known as a leader in optical and kinetic art, with works that w

  • Soto, Marco Aurelio (president of Honduras)

    Honduras: Early history: …to liberalism in Honduras, where Marco Aurelio Soto, a Liberal, assumed the presidency (1876). In 1880 the Liberals promulgated a new constitution that sought to undo the work of the Conservatives, and they also moved the capital from Comayagua to Tegucigalpa. Five years later, Liberals in Honduras and elsewhere proved…

  • Soto, Victoria (American educator)

    Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting: The shootings at Sandy Hook: …second classroom, where first-grade teacher Victoria Soto had hidden her students in a closet. She attempted to misdirect Lanza by telling him that her class was in the school’s auditorium on the other side of the building. Lanza killed Soto, as well as six students who attempted to flee from…

  • sotol (plant)
  • Sotomayor, Sonia (United States jurist)

    Sonia Sotomayor, associate justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from 2009. She was the first Hispanic and the third woman to serve on the Supreme Court. The daughter of parents who moved to New York City from Puerto Rico, Sotomayor was raised in a housing project in the Bronx. After

  • Sotomayor, Sonia Maria (United States jurist)

    Sonia Sotomayor, associate justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from 2009. She was the first Hispanic and the third woman to serve on the Supreme Court. The daughter of parents who moved to New York City from Puerto Rico, Sotomayor was raised in a housing project in the Bronx. After

  • Sotrondio (Spain)

    San Martín del Rey Aurelio, municipio (municipality), in Asturias provincia (province) and comunidad autónoma (autonomous community), northwestern Spain. It lies in the mountains known as the Cordillera Cantábrica, just southeast of Oviedo city. The municipality takes its name from the tomb of

  • Sotsialisty Revolyutsionery (political party, Russia)

    Socialist Revolutionary Party, Russian political party that represented the principal alternative to the Social-Democratic Workers’ Party during the last years of Romanov rule. Ideological heir to the Narodniki (Populists) of the 19th century, the party was founded in 1901 as a rallying point for

  • sottie (French drama)

    Sotie, short satirical play popular in France in the 15th and early 16th centuries, in which a company of sots (“fools”) exchanged badinage on contemporary persons and events. The sots, wearing the traditional short jacket, tights, bells, and dunce cap of the fool, also introduced acrobatics and f

  • sotto in su (art)

    Sotto in su, (Italian: “from below to above”) in drawing and painting, extreme foreshortening of figures painted on a ceiling or other high surface so as to give the illusion that the figures are suspended in air above the viewer. It is an approach that was developed during the Renaissance, and it

  • Sottsass, Ettore (Italian industrial designer)

    Ettore Sottsass, Italian industrial designer (born Sept. 14, 1917, Innsbruck, Austria-Hungary—died Dec. 31, 2007, Milan, Italy), brought bold colours, contemporary style, and ironic wit to everyday items, creating strikingly postmodern furniture, electronic gear, and domestic accessories. As a

  • sou (ancient coin)

    coin: France: The sou became in 1266 the silver gros tournois, 2324 fine and weighing about four grams; its types continued the “castle” of the denier tournois but with concentric inscription and ornament frequently imitated. With this there appeared a gold écu, with the royal lilies on a…

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