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  • Sou Fujimoto Architects (Japanese company)

    Sou Fujimoto: …and established an eponymous firm, Sou Fujimoto Architects, in Tokyo in 2000.

  • Sou Fujimoto: Primitive Future (book by Fujimoto)

    Sou Fujimoto: …genshotekina mirai no kenchiku (2008; Sou Fujimoto: Primitive Future).

  • Sou ni tilé (music album by Amadou and Mariam)

    Amadou and Mariam: In 1998 the duo released Sou ni tilé (“Night and Day”), their first album for a major label in France, which contained their breakthrough hit single, “Mon amour, ma chérie.” Their blend of West African influences and Western R&B and funk was now backed by a full band. The globalization…

  • souari nut (food)

    Souari nut, any of the seeds borne in large, clustered fruits of trees of the genus Caryocar (family Caryocaraceae), which has about 15 species. C. nuciferum, from Panama and northern South America, is typical. Its coconut-sized fruit has four nuts, surrounded by edible flesh. The warty, red,

  • Soubirous, Marie-Bernarde (French saint)

    St. Bernadette of Lourdes, ; canonized December 8, 1933; feast day April 16, but sometimes February 18 in France), miller’s daughter whose visions led to the founding of the shrine of Lourdes. Frail in health, Bernadette was the eldest of nine children from a poverty-stricken family. She contracted

  • Soubirous, Saint Bernadette (French saint)

    St. Bernadette of Lourdes, ; canonized December 8, 1933; feast day April 16, but sometimes February 18 in France), miller’s daughter whose visions led to the founding of the shrine of Lourdes. Frail in health, Bernadette was the eldest of nine children from a poverty-stricken family. She contracted

  • Soubise, Benjamin de Rohan, seigneur de (French Huguenot leader)

    Benjamin de Rohan, seigneur de Soubise, French Huguenot leader, younger brother of Henri, duc de Rohan. Soubise apprenticed as a soldier under Prince Maurice of Orange-Nassau in the Low Countries. In the Huguenot rebellions that rocked France in the 1620s, his elder brother chiefly commanded the

  • Soubise, Charles de Rohan, prince de (French marshal)

    Charles de Rohan, prince de Soubise, peer and marshal of France, favourite of Louis XV and Mme de Pompadour. Soubise accompanied Louis XV in the campaign of 1744–48 and attained high military rank, which he owed more to his courtiership than to his generalship. Soon after the beginning of the Seven

  • Soubise, H?tel de (building, Paris, France)

    Rococo: …salons (begun 1732) of the H?tel de Soubise, Paris, by Germain Boffrand. The Rococo style was also manifested in the decorative arts. Its asymmetrical forms and rocaille ornament were quickly adapted to silver and porcelain, and French furniture of the period also displayed curving forms, naturalistic shell and floral ornament,…

  • soubrette (theatrical character)

    Soubrette, in theatre, comic female character usually in the role of a chambermaid. The soubrette role originated in French comedy, one of the earliest examples being Suzanne in Pierre-Augustin de Beaumarchais’ Le Mariage de Figaro (1784). Still earlier, Molière’s plays Tartuffe (1664) and Le

  • Soudanaise–Rassemblement Démocratique Africain (political party, Mali)

    Modibo Keita: …and became secretary-general of the Sudanese Union. In 1946 the Sudanese Union merged with another anticolonial party, the African Democratic Rally, to form the US-RDA. Keita was briefly imprisoned by the French in 1946. Two years later, however, he won a seat in the territorial assembly of French Sudan, and…

  • Soudce z milosti (novel by Klíma)

    Ivan Klíma: …Loves); Soudce z milosti (1986; Judge on Trial), a Prague novel about a judge who is jeopardized by his friendships with liberals; and Láska a smetí (1988; Love and Garbage), the narrator of which is a banned Czech writer who sweeps streets for a living while meditating on Franz Kafka…

  • Souei language

    Souei language, language of northeastern Thailand, northern Cambodia, and parts of southern Laos. It belongs to the Katuic branch of the Mon-Khmer language family, itself a part of the Austroasiatic stock. Spoken by some 630,000 people, Souei is—after Vietnamese, Khmer, and Mon—one of the most

  • Souffle au coeur, Le (film by Malle [1971])

    Louis Malle: …Le Souffle au coeur (1971; Murmur of the Heart), a tenderly treated comedy about an adolescent boy; and Lacombe, Lucien (1974), about a bored teenager who becomes an informer for the Gestapo during the German occupation of France.

  • Souffle, Le (novel by Rolin)

    Dominique Rolin: …her novel Le Souffle (1952; The Pulse of Life; “The Breath”) won the Prix Fémina.

  • Soufflot, Jacques-Germain (French architect)

    Jacques-Germain Soufflot, French architect, a leader in the development of Neoclassical architecture and the designer of the Church of Sainte-Geneviève (the Panthéon) in Paris. Claiming to be self-taught, Soufflot made several sojourns in Rome during the 1730s and ’50s and studied the classical

  • Soufrière (Saint Lucia)

    Soufrière, town on Saint Lucia island in the eastern Caribbean Sea. It is situated on a bay of the island’s west coast, southwest of Castries, the capital. The town is exceptionally picturesque. It is a fishing port and the centre of a coconut- and lime-producing district and is 2 miles (3 km)

  • Soufrière (volcano, Guadeloupe)

    Soufrière, (French: “Sulfur Mine”), active volcano on southern Basse-Terre island, Guadeloupe, in the eastern Caribbean Sea. It rises to 4,813 feet (1,467 metres) and is the highest point of Guadeloupe. The volcano erupted for several weeks starting in August 1976 but caused no loss of life because

  • Soufrière (volcano, Saint Vincent)

    Soufrière, active volcano on the island of Saint Vincent, in the country of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, which lies within the Lesser Antilles in the Caribbean Sea. The volcano rises to peaks of 3,864 feet (1,178 metres) and 4,048 feet (1,234 metres) north of the crater. It erupted violently

  • Soufrière Hills (hills, Montserrat, West Indies)

    Montserrat: Land: Chances Peak, in the Soufrière Hills, was, at 3,000 feet (915 metres), the highest point on the island until the mid-1990s, when the first volcanic eruptions in Montserratian history dramatically changed the landscape. In July 1995 a series of eruptions began in which volcanic domes in the Soufrière Hills…

  • Soufrière, La (volcano, Guadeloupe)

    Soufrière, (French: “Sulfur Mine”), active volcano on southern Basse-Terre island, Guadeloupe, in the eastern Caribbean Sea. It rises to 4,813 feet (1,467 metres) and is the highest point of Guadeloupe. The volcano erupted for several weeks starting in August 1976 but caused no loss of life because

  • Soufrière, La (volcano, Saint Vincent)

    Soufrière, active volcano on the island of Saint Vincent, in the country of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, which lies within the Lesser Antilles in the Caribbean Sea. The volcano rises to peaks of 3,864 feet (1,178 metres) and 4,048 feet (1,234 metres) north of the crater. It erupted violently

  • Soui language

    Souei language, language of northeastern Thailand, northern Cambodia, and parts of southern Laos. It belongs to the Katuic branch of the Mon-Khmer language family, itself a part of the Austroasiatic stock. Spoken by some 630,000 people, Souei is—after Vietnamese, Khmer, and Mon—one of the most

  • souk (market)

    Bazaar, originally, a public market district of a Persian town. From Persia the term spread to Arabia (the Arabic word sūq is synonymous), Turkey, and North Africa. In India it came to be applied to a single shop, and in current English usage it is applied both to a single shop or concession

  • Souk el-Arba (Morocco)

    Gharb: …of Souq Larb’a al-Gharb (Souk-el-Arba-du-Gharb). It is a major citrus-growing region.

  • Souk el-Arba (Tunisia)

    Jendouba, town, northwestern Tunisia, about 95 miles (150 km) west of Tunis. It lies along the middle Wadi Majardah (Medjerda). The town was developed on the railway from Tunis to Algeria during the French protectorate (1881–1955) and still serves as an important crossroads and administrative

  • Soukop, Wilhelm Josef (British sculptor)

    Wilhelm Josef Soukop, ("WILLI"), Austrian-born British sculptor (b. Jan. 5, 1907--d. Feb. 8,

  • Soukop, Willi (British sculptor)

    Wilhelm Josef Soukop, ("WILLI"), Austrian-born British sculptor (b. Jan. 5, 1907--d. Feb. 8,

  • soul (religion and philosophy)

    Soul, in religion and philosophy, the immaterial aspect or essence of a human being, that which confers individuality and humanity, often considered to be synonymous with the mind or the self. In theology, the soul is further defined as that part of the individual which partakes of divinity and

  • soul (Russian taxation unit)

    Russia: The Petrine state: …unit of taxation, the “soul”—i.e., a male peasant of working age—and the lords were made responsible for the collection of the tax assessed on each of their souls. The peasant thus became a mere item on the tax roll who could be moved, sold, or exchanged according to the…

  • S?ul (national capital, South Korea)

    Seoul, city and capital of South Korea (the Republic of Korea). It is located on the Han River (Han-gang) in the northwestern part of the country, with the city centre some 37 miles (60 km) inland from the Yellow Sea (west). Seoul is the cultural, economic, and political centre of South Korea.

  • soul (music)

    Soul music, term adopted to describe African American popular music in the United States as it evolved from the 1950s to the ’60s and ’70s. Some view soul as merely a new term for rhythm and blues. In fact a new generation of artists profoundly reinterpreted the sounds of the rhythm-and-blues

  • Soul Clap Hands and Sing (novellas by Marshall)

    Paule Marshall: Soul Clap Hands and Sing, a 1961 collection of four novellas, presents four aging men who come to terms with their earlier refusal to affirm lasting values. Marshall’s 1962 short story “Reena” was one of the first pieces of fiction to feature a college-educated, politically…

  • soul food (cuisine)

    Soul food, the foods and techniques associated with the African American cuisine of the United States. The term was first used in print in 1964 during the rise of “black pride,” when many aspects of African American culture—including soul music—were celebrated for their contribution to the American

  • Soul Food (album by Goodie Mob)

    CeeLo Green: …OutKast, and their own debut, Soul Food (1995), soon followed. With its optimistic attitude and its incorporation of live instrumentation infused with the sounds of classic soul and funk music, Soul Food became a touchstone for an emerging subgenre of hip-hop based in the South. Callaway, who rapped and sang…

  • soul loss (religion)

    Soul loss, departure of the soul from the body and its failure to return. In many preliterate cultures soul loss is believed to be a primary cause of illness and death. In some cultures individuals are believed to have one soul that may wander inadvertently when its owner’s guard is relaxed, as

  • Soul Makossa (song by Dibango)

    African popular music: …the Top 40 with “Soul Makossa,” a pioneering disco hit that sold more than 100,000 copies in the United States despite negligible radio airplay. In Britain the pennywhistle tune “Tom Hark” was a Top Five hit in 1958 for the South African kivela (kwela) group Elias and His Zigzag…

  • soul music (music)

    Soul music, term adopted to describe African American popular music in the United States as it evolved from the 1950s to the ’60s and ’70s. Some view soul as merely a new term for rhythm and blues. In fact a new generation of artists profoundly reinterpreted the sounds of the rhythm-and-blues

  • Soul of Man Under Socialism, The (work by Wilde)

    Konoe Fumimaro: Early life: …Japanese Oscar Wilde’s essay “The Soul of Man Under Socialism” (1891), which was published in an intellectual journal. Its sale was prohibited by the government because it was judged dangerous to the public order.

  • Soul on Ice (work by Cleaver)

    Eldridge Cleaver: …black militant whose autobiographical volume Soul on Ice (1968) is a classic statement of black alienation in the United States.

  • soul ship (religion)

    bisj pole: …as another form of the “soul ship,” a large ceremonial dugout canoe filled with carved figures said to possess special powers. The ships are intended to carry the souls of the recently dead away from the villages and to impart magical powers to novices during initiation rites. The rituals surrounding…

  • Soul Stirrers, the (American music group)

    The Soul Stirrers, American gospel singers who were one of the first male quintets and one of the most enduring male groups. Several singers emerged from the group’s ranks to become influential rhythm-and-blues and soul singers, most notably Sam Cooke. The members included S.R. Crain (in full

  • Soul Train (American television show)

    Soul Train, American music variety television show, the first to prominently feature African American musical acts and dancers. Broadcast nationally from 1971 to 2006, it was one of the longest-running syndicated programs in American television history. Soul Train was the brainchild of Chicago

  • Soul’s Journey into God, The (work by Bonaventure)

    Saint Bonaventure: His Journey of the Mind to God (1259) was a masterpiece showing the way by which man as a creature ought to love and contemplate God through Christ after the example of St. Francis. Revered by his order, Bonaventure recodified its constitutions (1260), wrote for it…

  • soul, sleep of the (religion)

    Christianity: Concepts of life after death: …view, therefore, also prevailed: the sleep of the soul—i.e., the soul of the dead person enters into a sleeping state that continues until the Last Judgment, which will occur after the general resurrection. At the Last Judgment the resurrected will be assigned either to eternal life or eternal damnation. This…

  • soul-stuff (religion)

    myth: Soul-stuff: Although many tend to associate the soul with personal survival or continuity after death, there is an equally ancient view that emphasizes the continuity of life. This view, to which the Dutch anthropologist Albertus Christiaan Kruyt gave the term soul-stuff (a term he contrasted…

  • S?ul-t’?kpy?lsi (national capital, South Korea)

    Seoul, city and capital of South Korea (the Republic of Korea). It is located on the Han River (Han-gang) in the northwestern part of the country, with the city centre some 37 miles (60 km) inland from the Yellow Sea (west). Seoul is the cultural, economic, and political centre of South Korea.

  • Soulages, Pierre (French painter and printmaker)

    Pierre Soulages, French painter and printmaker and a major figure in the postwar abstract movement. He was a leader of Tachism, the French counterpart to Action painting in the United States, and was known for the restraint of his works and his preoccupation with the colour black. During his

  • Soulas, Josias de, sieur de Prinefosse (French actor)

    Floridor, French leading actor who headed the important troupe of the Théatre de l’H?tel de Bourgogne, in Paris, where he created many roles in plays by the French masters Pierre Corneille and Jean Racine. The son of a German father, he entered the French army and was promoted to ensign but later r

  • Soulbury Commission

    Soulbury Commission, commission sent by the British government to Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) in 1944 to examine a constitutional draft prepared by the Ceylonese ministers of government and, on the basis of it, to make recommendations for a new constitution. The Soulbury Commission (headed by the 1st

  • soule (French game)

    football: The French version, known as soule, was described by Michel Bouet in Signification du sport (1968) as “a veritable combat for possession of the ball,” in which the participants struggled “like dogs fighting over a bone.” The British version, which has been researched more thoroughly than any other, was, according…

  • Soule, Aileen Riggin (American athlete)

    Aileen Riggin, American swimmer and diver who won three Olympic medals and was the first competitor to win a medal in both a swimming and a diving event at the same Olympics. When Riggin began diving in 1919, she quickly learned that her gender and age would often be obstacles to her desire to

  • Soule, John B. L. (American journalist)
  • Soulé, Michael (American biologist)

    minimum viable population: Estimating MVP: …Ian Franklin and American biologist Michael Soulé. They created the “50/500” rule, which suggested that a minimum population size of 50 was necessary to combat inbreeding and a minimum of 500 individuals was needed to reduce genetic drift. Management agencies tended to use the 50/500 rule under the assumption that…

  • Soulé, Pierre (United States diplomat)

    Ostend Manifesto: After Pierre Soulé, U.S. minister to Spain, failed in his mission to secure the purchase of Cuba (1853), Marcy directed James Buchanan, minister to Great Britain, and John Y. Mason, minister to France, to confer with Soulé at Ostend, Belgium. Their dispatch urged U.S. seizure of…

  • Soule, Robert H. (United States general)

    Battle of the Chosin Reservoir: Crossing into North Korea: Robert H. Soule). The corps also had control of the Capital and 3rd divisions of the South Korean I Corps, which was already crossing the 38th parallel on the east coast highway.

  • Soulier de satin, Le (film by Oliveira [1985])

    Manoel de Oliveira: …ambitiousness found further purpose in Le Soulier de satin (1985; “The Satin Slipper”), a nearly seven-hour adaptation of Paul Claudel’s French-language drama set during the Spanish Golden Age. It was followed by Mon cas (1986; “My Case”), which presented multiple interpretations of a one-act play by Régio, and Os canibais…

  • Soulier de satin; ou, Le Pire n’est pas toujours s?r, Le (play by Claudel)

    The Satin Slipper, philosophical play in four “days” or sections by Paul Claudel, published in 1929 in French as Le Soulier de satin; ou, le pire n’est pas toujours s?r. It was designed to be read rather than performed (an abridged version was staged in 1943), and it is often considered Claudel’s

  • Souligna Vongsa (king of Lan Xang)

    Suliyavongsa, Lao king of Lan Xang during its golden age of prosperity, who welcomed the first European visitors to Laos. Suliyavongsa came to the throne in 1637 at a time of dynastic conflict and instability and authoritatively restored peace and delimited Lan Xang’s frontiers with its

  • Soulignavongsa (king of Lan Xang)

    Suliyavongsa, Lao king of Lan Xang during its golden age of prosperity, who welcomed the first European visitors to Laos. Suliyavongsa came to the throne in 1637 at a time of dynastic conflict and instability and authoritatively restored peace and delimited Lan Xang’s frontiers with its

  • Souliot (people)

    Markos Botsaris: …in the struggle between the Souliots of southern Epirus (Modern Greek: íperos) and Ali Pa?a, who had made himself ruler of Ioánnina (Janina) in Epirus in 1788. After Ali Pa?a succeeded in capturing the Souliot strongholds in 1803, Botsaris and most of his surviving clansmen fled to Corfu (Kérkyra). He…

  • Soulouque, Faustin-élie (emperor of Haiti)

    Faustin-élie Soulouque, Haitian slave, president, and later emperor of Haiti, who represented the black majority of the country against the mulatto elite. Soulouque was born a slave while Haiti was still under French rule. He participated in a successful revolt in 1803 that expelled the French, and

  • Souls & Bodies (novel by Lodge)

    David Lodge: How Far Can You Go? (1980; also published as Souls & Bodies) was well received in both the United States and Britain and takes a satiric look at a group of contemporary English Catholics.

  • Souls and Bodies (novel by Lodge)

    David Lodge: How Far Can You Go? (1980; also published as Souls & Bodies) was well received in both the United States and Britain and takes a satiric look at a group of contemporary English Catholics.

  • Souls of Black Folk, The (essays by Du Bois)

    African American literature: Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. Du Bois: …his landmark collection of essays, The Souls of Black Folk (1903), William Edward Burghardt Du Bois, a professor of sociology at Atlanta University, disputed the main principle of Washington’s political program, the idea that voting and civil rights were less important to black progress than acquiring property and achieving economic…

  • souls, multiple (religion)

    Multiple souls, widely distributed notion, especially in central and northern Asia and Indonesia, that an individual’s life and personality are made up of a complex set of psychic interrelations. In some traditions the various souls are identified with the separate organs of the body; in others

  • Soult Immaculate Conception (painting by Murillo)

    Bartolomé Esteban Murillo: …Sevilla, which included the celebrated Soult Immaculate Conception (1678), which was removed to France by Nicolas-Jean de Dieu Soult during the Napoleonic period. Murillo’s late style is exemplified by his unfinished works for the Capuchin church at Cádiz and the Two Trinities (popularly known as the “Holy Family”). The often…

  • Soult, Marshal (French politician)

    Fran?ois Guizot: …Guizot became foreign minister in Marshal Nicolas-Jean de Dieu Soult’s ministry. This ministry proved to be the longest in Louis-Philippe’s reign, and from the beginning Guizot rather than the aged Soult was the real head of it. Indeed, Guizot succeeded Soult as premier in 1847. In foreign affairs Guizot’s policies…

  • Soult, Nicolas-Jean de Dieu, duc de Dalmatie (French military leader)

    Nicolas-Jean de Dieu Soult, duke de Dalmatie, French military leader and political figure who was noted for his courage in battle and his opportunism in politics. Upon the death of his father in 1785, Soult enlisted in the infantry. At the outbreak of the French Revolution (1789–92), he was a

  • soumak (craft)

    Soumak, method of brocading handmade flat-woven rugs and similar fabrics. It is one of the oldest known techniques, identified among charred 7th-century-bc fragments excavated at Gordion, near Ankara in Anatolia. In recent times, it has been most prevalent in the Caucasus, but it is also used in

  • Soumission (novel by Houellebecq)

    Michel Houellebecq: Soumission (2015; Submission) was a dystopian work of speculative fiction in which France has become an Islamic state. The novel was published on the day of the attacks on the Paris offices of satirical magazine Charlie Hebdo, which had that week published an issue featuring a caricature…

  • sound (physics)

    Sound, a mechanical disturbance from a state of equilibrium that propagates through an elastic material medium. A purely subjective definition of sound is also possible, as that which is perceived by the ear, but such a definition is not particularly illuminating and is unduly restrictive, for it

  • Sound & Color (album by Alabama Shakes)

    Alabama Shakes: The group’s sophomore effort, Sound & Color, was released in April 2015. It debuted at number one on the Billboard 200 and marked the band’s first trip to the top of the charts. It was propelled by the soul anthem “Don’t Wanna Fight,” the album’s first single, which logged…

  • sound absorption (physics)

    sound: Sound absorption: In addition to the geometric decrease in intensity caused by the inverse square law, a small part of a sound wave is lost to the air or other medium through various physical processes. One important process is the direct conduction of the vibration…

  • Sound and Form in Modern Poetry (work by Gross)

    prosody: The 20th century and beyond: Harvey Gross in Sound and Form in Modern Poetry (1964) saw rhythmic structure as a symbolic form, signifying ways of experiencing organic processes and the phenomena of nature. The function of prosody, in his view, is to image life in a rich and complex way. Gross’s theory is…

  • Sound and Image (Soviet film manifesto)

    history of the motion picture: Postsynchronization: …this practice of synchronous, “naturalistic” sound recording as a threat to the cinema. In their 1928 manifesto “Sound and Image,” the Soviet directors Sergey Eisenstein, Vsevolod Pudovkin, and Grigory Aleksandrov denounced synchronous sound in favour of asynchronous, contrapuntal sound—sound that would counterpoint the images it accompanied to become another dynamic…

  • Sound and Smoke (German drama revue)

    Max Reinhardt: Discovery of the theatre: …revue, Schall und Rauch (Sound and Smoke), to which Reinhardt contributed sketches. Playing before invited audiences, it was so successful that it was transformed into a serious work and settled into the Kleines Theater in 1902. Reinhardt planned a full season and directed his first play, Oscar Wilde’s Salomé.

  • Sound and the Fury, The (film by Ritt [1959])

    Martin Ritt: First films: …source for their next collaboration, The Sound and the Fury (1959), a disappointing adaptation of author’s stylistically complex novel.

  • Sound and the Fury, The (novel by Faulkner)

    The Sound and the Fury, novel by William Faulkner, published in 1929, that details the destruction and downfall of the aristocratic Compson family from four different points of view. Faulkner’s fourth novel, The Sound and the Fury is notable for its nonlinear plot structure and its unconventional

  • sound barrier (physics)

    Sound barrier, sharp rise in aerodynamic drag that occurs as an aircraft approaches the speed of sound and that was formerly an obstacle to supersonic flight. If an aircraft flies at somewhat less than sonic speed, the pressure waves (sound waves) it creates outspeed their sources and spread out

  • sound box (stringed musical instrument part)

    sound: The Helmholtz resonator: The air cavity of a string instrument, such as the violin or guitar, functions acoustically as a Helmholtz-type resonator, reinforcing frequencies near the bottom of the instrument’s range and thereby giving the tone of the instrument more strength in its low range. The acoustic band-pass filter…

  • sound card (technology)

    Sound card, Integrated circuit that generates an audio signal and sends it to a computer’s speakers. The sound card can accept an analog sound (as from a microphone or audio tape) and convert it to digital data that can be stored in an audio file, or accept digitized audio signals (as from an audio

  • sound change (linguistics)

    Dravidian languages: Proto-Dravidian sound changes: Several sound changes are found in all Dravidian languages in all subgroups. To be so widely distributed, these changes must have been prevalent in the parent language itself.

  • Sound Current yoga (yoga school)

    Elan Vital: …a spiritual discipline called the yoga of the sound current. According to Elan Vital, human individuals are essentially divine beings who exist as a result of the creative sound flowing from the divine realm. By chanting the names of God they immerse themselves in the sound current and thereby reconnect…

  • sound design (performing arts and technology)

    stagecraft: Sound design: Prior to the 1930s, the manner in which sound in the theatre was produced had not changed for more than 2,000 years. Music was played by musicians present in the theatre. Sound effects were produced by people…

  • sound effect (theatrical production)

    Sound effect, any artificial reproduction of sound or sounds intended to accompany action and supply realism in the theatre, radio, television, and motion pictures. Sound effects have traditionally been of great importance in the theatre, where many effects, too vast in scope, too dangerous, or

  • sound film (motion picture)

    history of the motion picture: The pre-World War II sound era: The idea of combining motion pictures and sound had been around since the invention of the cinema itself: Thomas Edison had commissioned the Kinetograph to provide visual images for his phonograph, and William Dickson had actually synchronized the two machines…

  • sound fixing and ranging channel (oceanography)

    SOFAR channel, zone of minimum sound speed in the oceans that occurs at depths of approximately 1,000 metres (3,300 feet). In this region, pressure, temperature, and salinity combine to inhibit the movement of sound through the water medium. If a sound is generated by a point source in the SOFAR

  • Sound Grammar (album by Coleman)

    Ornette Coleman: …trumpet, and violin), he recorded Sound Grammar during a live performance in Italy; the work, which was said to hearken back to his music of the 1960s, was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for music in 2007.

  • sound hole (musical instrument)

    stringed instrument: Morphology: …correct position is between the sound holes and just above the lower corners of the middle bout. The sound holes are of italic f form, sweeping outward and downward from the waist to the lower corners. A line joining the crosses of the fs marks the approximate position of the…

  • Sound I Saw: Improvisation on a Jazz Theme, The (work by DeCarava)

    Roy DeCarava: …jazz portraits were published in The Sound I Saw: Improvisation on a Jazz Theme (2001). In 1996 the Museum of Modern Art organized a DeCarava retrospective that traveled to several cities and introduced his work to a new generation. DeCarava received a National Medal of Arts in 2006.

  • Sound Inside, The (play by Rapp)

    Mary-Louise Parker: …in the Broadway production of The Sound Inside (2019–20), a mystery centring on a creative-writing professor.

  • sound intensity (physics)

    Sound intensity, amount of energy flowing per unit time through a unit area that is perpendicular to the direction in which the sound waves are travelling. Sound intensity may be measured in units of energy or work—e.g., microjoules (10-6 joule) per second per square centimetre—or in units of

  • sound localization

    illusion: Auditory phenomena: …who tested the process of sound localization (the direction from which sound seems to come). He constructed a pseudophone, an instrument made of two ear trumpets, one leading from the right side of the head to the left ear and the other vice versa. This created the illusory impression of…

  • Sound of Leadership: Presidential Communication in the Modern Age, The (work by Hart)

    Roderick P. Hart: The Sound of Leadership: Presidential Communication in the Modern Age (1987) and Campaign Talk: Why Elections Are Good for Us (2000) carefully blended two approaches (a sensitivity to individual texts and the rigour of large-scale human and computerized content analyses) to ask and answer fundamental…

  • Sound of Music, The (film by Wise [1965])

    The Sound of Music, American musical film, released in 1965, that reigned for five years as the highest-grossing film in history. Its breathtaking photography and its many memorable songs, among them “My Favorite Things” and the title song, helped it to become an enduring classic. The nearly

  • Sound of Music, The (musical by Rodgers and Hammerstein)

    Trapp Family: …Rodgers and Hammerstein Broadway musical, The Sound of Music (1959), that proved one of the most successful in theatre history. Their story was also the basis for a film starring Julie Andrews (1965) that had a comparable success.

  • Sound of My Waves, The (poetry by Ko Un)

    Ko Un: …of poetry in English translation, The Sound of My Waves, was published in 1992. His later books in English translation included Beyond Self: 108 Korean Zen Poems (1997); Ten Thousand Lives (2005), excerpts from the first 10 volumes of the Ten Thousand Lives project; The Tree Way Tavern (2006); and…

  • Sound of One Hand Clapping, The (novel by Flanagan)

    Richard Flanagan: …by the highly acclaimed novel The Sound of One Hand Clapping (1997), a tale of the harsh life of a Slovenian immigrant family in Tasmania during the 20th century. His novel Gould’s Book of Fish: A Novel in Twelve Fish (2001), about a 19th-century convict living in Tasmania, was awarded…

  • Sound of Philadelphia, The (popular music)

    Philadelphia International Records: The Sound of Philadelphia: The Sound of Philadelphia in the 1970s was the bridge between Memphis soul and international disco and between Detroit pop and Hi-NRG (high energy; the ultrafast dance music popular primarily in gay clubs in the 1980s). African-American-run Philadelphia International Records was the vital label of…

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