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  • southern fulmar (bird)

    fulmar: The southern fulmar (F. glacialoides) has a comparable distribution in the Southern Hemisphere. Both fulmars are typically predominately white with a pearly gray mantle, but darker colour phases occur in some populations.

  • Southern Fund (Italian government program)

    Italy: Public and private sectors: The Southern Development Fund (Cassa per il Mezzogiorno), a state-financed fund set up to stimulate economic and industrial development between 1950 and 1984, met with limited success. It supported early land reform—including land reclamation, irrigation work, infrastructure building, and provision of electricity and water to rural…

  • southern fur seal (mammal)

    fur seal: The eight species of southern fur seals (Arctocephalus) are distributed in the Southern Hemisphere, except for a herd of Guadalupe fur seals (A. townsendi) on Guadalupe Island off the northwest coast of Baja California. Southern fur seals are gray to brown or black in colour with chestnut-coloured underfur. Length…

  • Southern gastric brooding frog (extinct amphibian)

    Myobatrachidae: Rheobatrachus silus, an extinct species, swallowed its eggs and brooded them in its stomach.

  • southern giraffe (mammal)

    giraffe: camelopardalis), the southern giraffe (G. giraffa), the Masai giraffe (G. tippelskirchi), and the reticulated giraffe (G. reticulata).

  • Southern Gothic (American literature)

    Southern gothic, a style of writing practiced by many writers of the American South whose stories set in that region are characterized by grotesque, macabre, or fantastic incidents. Flannery O’Connor, Tennessee Williams, Truman Capote, William Faulkner, and Carson McCullers are among the best-known

  • Southern Grand Canal (canal, China)

    Grand Canal: …centuries has been called the Southern Grand Canal (Nan Yunhe). This ancient waterway was first constructed as early as the 4th century bce, was rebuilt in 607 ce, and has been used ever since.

  • southern grasshopper mouse (rodent)

    grasshopper mouse: The southern grasshopper mouse (O. torridus) is found from southern California, Nevada, and Utah southward to northeastern Mexico. Mearns’ grasshopper mouse (O. arenicola) ranges from the southwestern United States to central Mexico. The last two species prefer warm, very arid, scrubby desert habitats. All are stout…

  • southern green stinkbug (insect)

    stinkbug: The southern green stinkbug, or green vegetable bug (Nezara viridula), which occurs worldwide, damages beans, berries, tomatoes, and other garden crops. The rice stinkbug (Oebalus pugneax) causes severe losses to the rice crop in North America.

  • Southern Guaymí (people)

    Guaymí: …the Northern Guaymí and the Southern Guaymí. The Guaymí language is one of the Chibchan group. The Northern Guaymí live in a tropical forest environment in which hunting and gathering of wild foods are nearly as important as agriculture. The Southern Guaymí also gather wild plants but are more heavily…

  • southern hairy-nosed wombat (marsupial)

    wombat: The southern hairy-nosed wombat (L. latifrons) is smaller than the common wombat; it lives in semiarid country mainly in South Australia, extending through the Nullarbor Plain into the southeast of Western Australia. The very rare Queensland, or northern, hairy-nosed wombat (L. barnardi) is larger and differs…

  • Southern Hemisphere

    scrubland: Biota: …distinct from that of the Southern Hemisphere. The wide variety of shrubs excludes proteoids, while some common groups of plants in the north such as oaks (Quercus) do not occur in the south. Other, more widespread, plant groups tend to be represented in northern scrublands by distant relatives of southern…

  • Southern Hemisphere Polar Front

    Antarctic Convergence, transition region of the Southern Hemisphere, a major boundary zone of the world’s oceans that separates the waters surrounding Antarctica into Antarctic and sub-antarctic regions. (It is sometimes referred to as a polar front, but use of this term can cause it to be

  • Southern Highlands (region, Mexico)

    Mexico: Physiographic regions: The Southern Highlands are a series of highly dissected mountain ranges and plateaus, including the Sierra Madre del Sur, Mesa del Sur, and the Chiapas Highlands, also called the Sierra Madre de Chiapas. On their southwestern side, approximately from Puerto Vallarta to the Gulf of Tehuantepec,…

  • southern hornworm (insect)

    hawk moth: …destructive North American species, the tobacco, or southern, hornworm (Manduca sexta) and the tomato, or northern, hornworm (M. quinquemaculata), attack tomato, tobacco, and potato crops. These leaf-feeding pests are green and can be 10 cm (4 inches) long. Control includes the use of a natural enemy, the braconid wasp (Apanteles…

  • Southern Ibibio (people)

    Ibibio: (Eket), Delta (Andoni-Ibeno), Western (Anang), and Eastern (the Ibibio proper).

  • Southern Illinois Normal University (university, Illinois, United States)

    Southern Illinois University, public coeducational institution of higher education in Carbondale and Edwardsville, Illinois, U.S. It was chartered in 1869 as Southern Illinois Normal University and opened that same year. It grew to become one of the largest teachers colleges in the state. In 1943

  • Southern Illinois University (university, Illinois, United States)

    Southern Illinois University, public coeducational institution of higher education in Carbondale and Edwardsville, Illinois, U.S. It was chartered in 1869 as Southern Illinois Normal University and opened that same year. It grew to become one of the largest teachers colleges in the state. In 1943

  • Southern Karoo (plateau, South Africa)

    Little Karoo, intermontane plateau basin in Western Cape province, South Africa, lying between the east-west oriented Groot-Swart Mountains (north), the Lange Mountains (southwest), and the Outeniqua Mountains (southeast), with the discontinuous Kammanassie Mountains running between those ranges.

  • Southern Khoisan languages

    Khoisan languages: Classification of the Khoisan languages: groups: Northern, Central, and Southern. Sandawe of Tanzania has a distant relationship to the Central group, but the place of Hadza even in relation to Sandawe has always been unclear; and the status of Kwadi, an extinct language of Namibe (formerly Mo?amedes) in southwestern Angola, remains uncertain. Kwadi may…

  • Southern Lahnda

    Siraiki language, Indo-Aryan language spoken in Pakistan. The Siraiki-speaking region spreads across the southwestern districts of Punjab province, extending into adjacent regions of the neighbouring provinces of Sindh, Balochistan, and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. There were probably at least 20 million

  • Southern League (sports)

    football: Professionalism: The Southern League began in 1894 but was absorbed by the Football League in 1920. Yet football did not become a major profit-making business during this period. Professional clubs became limited liability companies primarily to secure land for gradual development of stadium facilities. Most clubs in…

  • southern lights (atmospheric phenomenon)

    Southern lights, luminous atmospheric display visible in the Southern Hemisphere. See

  • southern live oak (plant)

    live oak: …the term refers to the southern live oak (Quercus virginiana), a massive evergreen tree native to Cuba and the Atlantic and Gulf coastal plains. It often grows to a height of 15 metres (50 feet) or more on hummocks and ridges but may be shrubby on barren coastal soils. The…

  • Southern Luangwa National Park (national park, Zambia)

    Zambia: Plant and animal life: South Luangwa (3,500 square miles [9,100 square km]) has one of Africa’s largest (but declining) elephant concentrations. North Luangwa offers true wilderness adventure: walking safaris. Thornicroft’s giraffe is unique to the Luangwa valley. The other parks are much smaller. Lochinvar, on the Kafue Flats, is…

  • Southern Lunda (people)

    African religions: Mythology: For the Ndembu of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, by contrast, twins represent an excess of fertility more characteristic of the animal world than the human, and rituals are undertaken to protect the community from this anomalous condition.

  • southern magnolia (plant)

    Magnoliales: Distribution and abundance: …Magnolia grandiflora (bull bay, or Southern magnolia), for example, grows in forests from southern Virginia to eastern Texas and extends into the West Indies. Another American species, M. ashei, however, is found only in a few counties in Florida.

  • southern mahogany (plant)

    eucalyptus: Major species and uses: …are the black peppermint tree; southern mahogany (E. botryoides); karri (E. diversicolor); Tasmanian bluegum; white ironbark, or yellow gum (E. leucoxylon); jarrah (E. marginata); messmate stringybark (E. obliqua); red mahogany (E. resinifera); northern gray ironbark; and others. The bark of many

  • Southern Mail (work by Saint-Exupéry)

    Antoine de Saint-Exupéry: …first book, Courrier sud (1929; Southern Mail), his new man of the skies, airmail pilot Jacques Bernis, dies in the desert of Rio de Oro. His second novel, Vol de nuit (1931; Night Flight), was dedicated to the glory of the first airline pilots and their mystical exaltation as they…

  • Southern Maine, University of (university, Maine, United States)

    University of Maine: …seven coeducational institutions, including the University of Southern Maine. The University of Maine is a land-grant and sea-grant university based in Orono. It offers a wide range of undergraduate, graduate, and professional programs. There are five colleges, including the College of Natural Sciences, Forestry, and Agriculture, one of the largest…

  • Southern Man (song by Young)

    Lynyrd Skynyrd: …to Neil Young’s derisive “Southern Man,” opened Second Helping (1974) and established the group as Southern rock stalwarts. In 1977, as Skynyrd’s success was increasing, a plane carrying the band crashed in Gillsburg, Mississippi, killing singer Van Zant and guitarist Gaines. The group disbanded.

  • Southern Market (South American economic organization)

    Mercosur, South American regional economic organization. Mercosur grew out of earlier efforts to integrate the economies of Latin America through the Latin American Free Trade Association (1960) and its successor, the Latin American Integration Association (1980). In 1985 Argentina and Brazil

  • Southern Methodist University (university, University Park, Texas, United States)

    Southern Methodist University (SMU), private, coeducational institution of higher education located in University Park, a suburb of Dallas, Texas, U.S. Although it is nonsectarian, the university is affiliated with the United Methodist Church. It offers about 80 undergraduate degree programs, as

  • Southern Min language

    Guangdong: Population composition: A third major language, Southern Min (Minnan), is spoken mostly along an eastern coastal area centred on Shantou (Swatow).

  • Southern Ming dynasty (Chinese history)

    China: The dynastic succession: Their so-called Nan (Southern) Ming dynasty principally included the prince of Fu (Zhu Yousong, reign name Hongguang), the prince of Tang (Zhu Yujian, reign name Longwu), the prince of Lu (Zhu Yihai, no reign name), and the prince of Gui (Zhu Youlang, reign name Yongli). The loyalist…

  • Southern Mississippi, University of (university, Hattiesburg, Mississippi, United States)

    University of Southern Mississippi, public, coeducational institution of higher learning in Hattiesburg, Mississippi, U.S. It offers some 170 bachelor’s, master’s, and doctoral degree programs. Degrees are conferred through colleges of the Arts, Business Administration, Education and Psychology,

  • Southern Mnong language

    Mnong language: …Gar, and Mnong Rlam; and Southern Mnong, including Prang and Nong.

  • southern muriqui (primate)

    woolly spider monkey: The southern muriqui (B. arachnoides), from the states of Rio de Janeiro and S?o Paulo, has a black face and no thumb at all, and the male’s canines are much longer than the female’s. In the northern muriqui (B. hypoxanthus), from Bahia, Minas Gerais, and Espiritu…

  • Southern Negro Youth Congress (American organization)

    African Americans: African American life during the Great Depression and the New Deal: …Congress in 1936 and the Southern Negro Youth Congress in 1937.

  • Southern Nevada Foreign Trade Zone (international trade)

    Las Vegas: Transportation: The Southern Nevada Foreign Trade Zone—a free-trade zone that includes the airport and allows a variety of goods to be imported duty-free or with reduced excise taxes—has increased the region’s attractiveness to international business interests.

  • Southern Nevada Water Project (public utility project, Nevada, United States)

    Las Vegas: Municipal services and health: The massive Southern Nevada (now Robert B. Griffith) Water Project, funded jointly by the federal and state governments and built between 1968 and the early 1980s (with subsequent expansion), is a complex of distribution and treatment facilities that draws from Lake Mead and now supplies the bulk of regional water…

  • Southern Nigeria (region, Nigeria)

    Oil Rivers, area comprising the delta of the Niger River in modern Nigeria, West Africa. The Oil Rivers Protectorate was established by the British in 1885. It was renamed the Niger Coast Protectorate in 1893 and in 1900 was joined to the Nigerian territories administered by the British

  • Southern Normal School of Bowling Green (university, Bowling Green, Kentucky, United States)

    Western Kentucky University, public, coeducational institution of higher learning in Bowling Green, Kentucky, U.S. It comprises five colleges: Potter College of Arts, Humanities, and Social Sciences; Gordon Ford College of Business; the College of Education and Behavioral Sciences; Ogden College of

  • Southern Numic languages

    Great Basin Indian: Language: Southern Numic languages are spoken by the Kawaiisu and a number of Ute and Southern Paiute groups including the Chemehuevi. The distinction between Southern Paiute and Ute is cultural rather than linguistic; Ute speakers who had horses in the early historic period are regarded as…

  • Southern Ocean

    Southern Ocean, the southern portions of the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian oceans and their tributary seas surrounding Antarctica. Unbroken by any other continental landmass, the Southern Ocean’s narrowest constriction is the Drake Passage, 600 miles (about 1,000 km) wide, between South America and

  • Southern Ontario (region, Ontario, Canada)

    Ontario: Relief: …the area of the province, Southern Ontario contains land of gentle relief. Its lowest area—on the Ottawa River—is only 150 feet (45 metres) above sea level, and its highest point—in the Blue Mountains south of Georgian Bay—is just over 1,770 feet (540 metres) in elevation. The east is divided from…

  • southern opah (fish)

    opah: The southern opah (L. immaculatus) is smaller, averaging about 110 cm (43 inches) and 30 kg (66 pounds). Both species are distinctively coloured, blue above and rosy below, with scarlet fins and jaws and round white spots on the body. The opah occurs in the tropical…

  • Southern Operation (Japanese history)

    Burma Railway: Early Japanese conquests: …as part of the so-called Southern Operation. By late spring 1942, with the surrender of Allied strongholds in Singapore, Hong Kong, the Philippines, and the Dutch East Indies, an estimated 140,000 Allied prisoners of war had fallen into Japanese hands. In addition, approximately 130,000 civilians—including some 40,000 children—were captured by…

  • Southern Oscillation (Earth science)

    Southern Oscillation, in oceanography and climatology, a coherent interannual fluctuation of atmospheric pressure over the tropical Indo-Pacific region. The Southern Oscillation is the atmospheric component of a single large-scale coupled interaction called the El Ni?o/Southern Oscillation (ENSO).

  • Southern Oscillation Index (Earth science)

    Australia: Climate: Monitoring the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) is now considered essential to seasonal weather forecasting. The SOI is strongly negative when weak Pacific winds bring less moisture than usual to Australia. Prolonged negative phases are related to El Ni?o episodes in the South Pacific, and most of Australia’s…

  • Southern Overland Mail Company (American company)

    Southern Overland Mail Company, organization awarded (1858) the U.S. government contract to deliver mail to the Pacific coast. The company operated a 25-day, semiweekly stagecoach run along a route from St. Louis, Mo., through El Paso, Texas, and Tucson, New Mexico Territory, to San Francisco.

  • Southern Pacific Co. v. Arizona (law case)

    commerce clause: …affirmed and expanded upon in Southern Pacific Co. v. Arizona (1945), in which the court found that

  • Southern Pacific Railroad (American company)

    Southern Pacific Railroad, one of the great American railroad systems, established in 1861 by the “big four” of western railroad building—Collis P. Huntington, Leland Stanford, Mark Hopkins, and Charles Crocker. After completing the Central Pacific from California to Utah in 1869, they started the

  • Southern Pacific Transportation Company (American company)

    Southern Pacific Railroad: The Southern Pacific Transportation Company, a holding company for the railroad, was incorporated in 1969. In 1983 the Southern Pacific Transportation Company agreed to merge with Santa Fe Industries (see historical coverage in Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway), but in 1987 the Interstate Commerce Commission…

  • southern painting (Japanese painting)

    Nan-ga, (Japanese: “Southern Painting”, ) (“Literati Painting”), style of painting practiced by numerous Japanese painters of the 18th and 19th centuries. Some of the most original and creative painters of the middle and late Edo period belonged to the Nan-ga school. The style is based on

  • Southern Paiute (people)

    Great Basin Indian: Language: …a number of Ute and Southern Paiute groups including the Chemehuevi. The distinction between Southern Paiute and Ute is cultural rather than linguistic; Ute speakers who had horses in the early historic period are regarded as Ute, and those who did not readily adopt horses are regarded as Southern Paiute.

  • southern pea (plant)

    Cowpea, (Vigna unguiculata), annual plant within the pea family (Fabaceae) grown for its edible legumes. The plants are thought to be native to West Africa and are widely cultivated in warm regions around the world. In addition to their use as a protein-rich food crop, cowpeas are extensively grown

  • southern pearly-eye butterfly (insect)

    satyr butterfly: Southern pearly-eyes (Enodia portlandia) have dark eyespots near the margins of their forewings and hind wings. They are found primarily in the southeastern region of the United States, with their range extending west to the eastern edge of Texas. They inhabit damp, wooded areas and…

  • Southern Portuguese (Portuguese dialect)

    Portuguese language: …or Beira, (2) Southern (Estremenho), including Lisbon, Alentejo, and Algarve, (3) Insular, including the dialects of Madeira and the Azores, and (4) Brazilian. Standard Portuguese was developed in the 16th century, basically from the dialects spoken from Lisbon to Coimbra

  • Southern Poverty Law Center (American organization)

    Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC), a nonprofit organization based in Montgomery, Alabama, that is committed to advocacy for civil rights and racial equality. Formally incorporated in 1971 by Alabama lawyers Morris Dees and Joe Levin, the Southern Poverty Law Center was founded as a small law firm

  • Southern pygmy squid (mollusk)

    squid: The smallest squid is the Southern pygmy squid (Idiosepius notoides); males grow only to about 1.6 cm (less than 34 inch) in length. The largest squids—giant squids and colossal squids—are also the largest living invertebrates. Some researchers place giant squids and colossal squids into the genus Architeuthis, whereas others separate…

  • Southern Qi dynasty (Chinese history)

    China: The Dong (Eastern) Jin (317–420) and later dynasties in the south (420–589): …five—Dong Jin, 317–420; Liu-Song, 420–479; Nan [Southern] Qi, 479–502; Nan Liang, 502–557; and Nan Chen, 557–589—and all but Dong Jin are also known as Nanchao [Southern Dynasties] in Chinese history; the earlier kingdom of Wu, 222–280, is counted as the sixth dynasty.) Their annihilation (in 589) was postponed only by…

  • southern quahog (mollusk)

    clam: …or hard-shell clam, and the southern quahog (M. campechiensis) belong to the family of venus clams (Veneridae). M. mercenaria is about 7.5 to 12.5 cm (3 to 5 inches) long. The dingy white shell, which is thick and rounded and has prominent concentric lines, is found in the intertidal zone…

  • Southern Railway Company (American company)

    Southern Railway Company, railroad system in the southern United States incorporating almost 150 prior railroads. It was organized in 1894 by the financier J.P. Morgan to take over a number of other railroads, including the Richmond and Danville, formed in 1847, and the East Tennessee, Virginia,

  • Southern Range (hills, Trinidad and Tobago)

    Trinidad and Tobago: Relief and drainage: …of mainly low hills, the Southern Range, adds further variety to the mostly flat or undulating surface of Trinidad.

  • southern red oak (plant)

    red oak: …oak (Quercus rubra) and the southern red oak, or Spanish oak (Q. falcata). The northern red oak is often cultivated as an ornamental; it grows rapidly into a round-headed, wide-spreading tree about 25 m (80 feet) tall, occasionally to 45 m (150 feet). Its oblong leaves have 7 to 11…

  • southern redbelly dace (fish)

    dace: …(Phoxinus) are well-known, with a southern (P. erythrogaster) and northern (P. eos) species. The southern redbelly dace, found in clear creeks from Alabama to Pennsylvania and the Great Lakes region, is an attractive fish sometimes kept in home aquariums. It is 5–7.5 cm (2–3 inches) long and is marked with…

  • southern reedbuck (mammal)

    reedbuck: …and less hooked in the southern, or common, reedbuck (R. arundium). The southern reedbuck is the largest species, standing 65–105 cm (26–41 inches) tall and weighing 50–95 kg (110–210 pounds), compared with 65–76 cm (26–30 inches) and 19–38 kg (42–84 pounds) for the mountain reedbuck, the smallest of the three.…

  • Southern Rhodesia (historical state, Africa)

    Southern Africa: Southern Rhodesia: South Africa also had designs on Southern Rhodesia. In 1922, however, when the British South Africa Company relinquished control of Southern Rhodesia, the predominantly British settlers opted for self-government under British rule, and the territory became a self-governing colony the following year. While…

  • Southern Rhodesia

    Zimbabwe, landlocked country of southern Africa. It shares a 125-mile (200-kilometre) border on the south with the Republic of South Africa and is bounded on the southwest and west by Botswana, on the north by Zambia, and on the northeast and east by Mozambique. The capital is Harare (formerly

  • Southern Rift Valley (valley, Africa)

    East African lakes: Occupying the Southern Rift Valley is Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi), which drains into the Zambezi River. Marking the course of the Western Rift Valley are Lakes Tanganyika, Kivu, Edward, and

  • southern right whale (mammal)

    right whale: …Hemisphere, referred to as the southern right whale. Whether found in northern or southern latitudes, these right whales are estimated to reach a maximum length of about 18 metres. They may or may not have white on the undersides, and they resemble the bowhead in form but have a smaller,…

  • Southern rock (music)

    Southern rock, popular music style combining blues jams and boogie licks with lyrics declaring fierce regional pride. Its aggressive, unpretentious sound helped revitalize American rock in the 1970s. Rock and roll had been an expression of popular culture in the American South since the days of

  • southern rockhopper penguin (bird)

    penguin: Locomotion and orientation: southern rockhopper (E. chrysocome), and Adélie penguins, move among rocks with agility, using the flippers for balance. On snow or ice, many penguins “toboggan,” sliding on the belly as they propel themselves with the feet and flippers. The flippers, along with the beak, are the…

  • Southern Rocky Mountains (mountains, United States)

    Rocky Mountains: …Utah, and southeastern Idaho; the Southern Rockies, mainly in Colorado and New Mexico; and the Colorado Plateau in the Four Corners region of Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona. These four subdivisions differ from each other in terms of geology (origin, ages, and types of rocks) and physiography (landforms, drainage,…

  • Southern Rugby Football Union (sports organization)

    rugby: Australia: The national Australian Rugby Union was not formed until 1949. In other parts of Australia, Australian rules football had already established itself as the dominant sport.

  • Southern Russian Shooting Society (Russian organization)

    shooting: Russia: In 1899 the recently formed Southern Russian Shooting Society offered gold and silver award badges in two categories to successful sharpshooters. The first All-Russian Championship shooting competition was held at Kiev in 1913 and a second at Riga in 1914. The success of Soviet marksmen in the Olympic Games and…

  • Southern school (Chinese art)

    Dai Jin: …regard in contrast to the school of literary “amateurs,” who were more concerned with personal expression and who were then represented in the Wu school in which Shen Zhou held an equivalent place of leadership.

  • southern script (Vietnamese writing system)

    Nguyen Du: …Kim van Kieu, written in chu-nom (southern characters). He is considered by some to be the father of Vietnamese literature.

  • Southern Sea (inlet, Netherlands)

    Zuiderzee, former inlet of the North Sea. From the 13th to the 20th century, the Zuiderzee penetrated the Netherlands and occupied some 2,000 square miles (5,000 square km); it was separated from the North Sea by an arc of former sandflats that are now the West Frisian Islands. From about 400 ce

  • southern sea lion (mammal)

    sea lion: The southern, or South American, sea lion (Otaria byronia) is generally brown with a yellowish orange belly. It swims in coastal waters from northern Peru southward to Tierra del Fuego and even around the Falkland Islands in the South Atlantic. The male is about 2.5 metres…

  • Southern SERENDIP (astronomy)

    extraterrestrial intelligence: Radio searches: …California at Berkeley) and Australia’s Southern SERENDIP (begun in 1998 by the University of Western Sydney at Macarthur), scan large tracts of the sky and make no assumption about the directions from which signals might come. The former uses the Arecibo telescope, and the latter (which ended in 2005) was…

  • southern short-tailed shrew (mammal)

    short-tailed shrew: brevicauda), the southern (B. carolinensis), and Elliot’s (B. hylophaga) short-tailed shrew. Blarina is one of many genera classified with “true shrews” of the family Soricidae in the order Soricimorpha, which belongs to a larger group of mammals referred to as insectivores. Their evolutionary history extends back to…

  • Southern Slav (people)

    Bosnia and Herzegovina: Ethnic groups and religions: …three groups share the same South Slav heritage. The major cultural difference between them is that of religious origin or affiliation—a difference that may be explained in part by the legacy of the Ottoman Empire, which allowed autonomous religious communities to coexist under its rule. Indeed, “Serb” and “Croat” referred…

  • Southern Song dynasty (Chinese history)

    Xia Gui: Life: …dynasty is known as the Southern Song period (1127–1279). During this period, the centre of painting and the concentration of major artists was in the Imperial Painting Academy. Accordingly, the leading masters of the 12th and the first half of the 13th centuries, with a few exceptions, were the court…

  • Southern Sotho

    Benue-Congo languages: Bantoid: …of the population of Angola; Sotho, which has two dialects generally treated as separate languages, northern Sotho (3,800,000) and southern Sotho (4,000,000); and Kituba, a creole based mostly on Kongo, with some 4,000,000 first-language speakers and more than another 1,000,000 second-language speakers.

  • Southern Sporades (islands, Greece)

    Aegean Sea: …are also known as the Southern Sporades. The Greek dhiamerisma (region) of the Aegean Islands encompasses the nomoí (departments) of Cyclados, Dodecanese, Khíos, Lésvos, and Sámos.

  • Southern States (region, United States)

    The South, region, southeastern United States, generally though not exclusively considered to be south of the Mason and Dixon Line, the Ohio River, and the 36°30′ parallel. As defined by the U.S. federal government, it includes Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, the District of Columbia, Florida,

  • Southern Student Organizing Committee (American organization)

    Southern Student Organizing Committee (SSOC), organization of students from predominantly white colleges and universities in the American South that promoted racial equality and other progressive causes during the American civil rights movement. Founded in Nashville, Tennessee, in 1964, the

  • Southern Sudan Liberation Movement (Sudanese political organization)

    Sudan: The Addis Ababa Agreement: …and its political wing, the Southern Sudan Liberation Movement (SSLM). Thereafter throughout 1971 the SSLM, representing General Lagu, maintained a dialogue with the Sudanese government over proposals for regional autonomy and the ending of hostilities. These talks culminated in the signing of the Addis Ababa Agreement on February 27, 1972.…

  • southern sunfish (fish)

    mola: The southern sunfish (M. ramsayi) is slightly smaller, measuring about 3 metres (9.9 feet), and is native to the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The hoodwinker sunfish (M. tecta) was discovered in 2017, the first new sunfish to be found in more than 130 years, and is thought…

  • Southern Sung dynasty (Chinese history)

    Xia Gui: Life: …dynasty is known as the Southern Song period (1127–1279). During this period, the centre of painting and the concentration of major artists was in the Imperial Painting Academy. Accordingly, the leading masters of the 12th and the first half of the 13th centuries, with a few exceptions, were the court…

  • southern taiga zone

    taiga: Distribution: …of three roughly parallel zones: closed-canopy forest, lichen woodland or sparse taiga, and forest-tundra. The closed-canopy forest is the southernmost portion of the taiga. It contains the greatest richness of species, the warmest soils, the highest productivity, and the longest growing season within the boreal zone. North of the closed-canopy…

  • southern tamandua (mammal)

    anteater: The tamandua: Unlike the giant anteater, the lesser anteater, or tamandua (genus Tamandua), is arboreal as well as terrestrial. The two tamandua species are similar in size—about 1.2 metres (4 feet) long, including the almost-hairless prehensile tail, which is used for climbing. They are often tan…

  • Southern Tanami Indigenous Protected Area (conservation zone, Australia)

    Australia: Conservation: Notable among those is the Southern Tanami Indigenous Protected Area, a conservation zone covering more than 38,600 square miles (100,000 square km) of desert and subtropical savanna in west-central Northern Territory.

  • Southern Tang (ancient kingdom, China)

    Ten Kingdoms: …were the Wu (902–937), the Nan (Southern) Tang (937–975/976), the Nan Ping (924–963), the Chu (927–951), the Qian (Former) Shu (907–925) and Hou (Later) Shu (934–965), the Min (909–945), the Nan Han (917–971), and the Wu-Yue (907–978), the latter near the Yangtze delta; the one northern state was the Bei…

  • Southern Tepehuan (people)

    Tepehuan: …Tepehuan, of Chihuahua, and the Southern Tepehuan, of Durango. Both speak dialects of the same language, Tepehuan, a Uto-Aztecan language that is most closely related to Piman.

  • Southern University (university system, Lousiana, United States)

    Southern University, state-supported university system of Louisiana, U.S., comprising three coeducational units in Baton Rouge, New Orleans, and Shreveport. The main unit, Southern University and Agricultural and Mechanical College, is a historically African-American, land-grant institution located

  • Southern University (university, Shanghai, China)

    Jiang Kanghu: He organized the Southern University at Shanghai with himself as its president and in 1924 revived the Chinese Socialist Party, which he reorganized in 1925 into the Social Democratic Party, giving it a platform similar to those of western European social-democratic organizations. Jiang’s growing political momentum came to…

  • Southern University and Agricultural and Mechanical College (college, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, United States)

    Southern University: The main unit, Southern University and Agricultural and Mechanical College, is a historically African-American, land-grant institution located in Baton Rouge. It offers about 65 undergraduate degree programs and some 30 graduate programs. John B. Cade Library contains a Black Heritage Collection. University centres conduct research in such fields…

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