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  • Spagnoletto, Lo (Spanish painter)

    José de Ribera, Spanish painter and printmaker, noted for his Baroque dramatic realism and his depictions of religious and mythological subjects. He was born in Spain but spent most of his life in Italy. Little is known of his life in Spain, though he is said by the painter and biographer Antonio

  • Spagnolo, Lo (Italian painter)

    Giuseppe Maria Crespi, Italian Baroque painter who broke dramatically with the formal academic tradition to achieve a direct and immediate approach to his subject matter that was unparalleled at the time. Better known as a painter of genre scenes (pictures of everyday life), he also applied his

  • Spagnuolo, Pietro (Spanish painter)

    Pedro Berruguete, the first great Renaissance painter in Spain and the father of Alonso Berruguete, the greatest Spanish sculptor of the 16th century. Berruguete is believed to have studied under Fernando Gallego or Colantonio and to have worked about 1474 at the “studiolo” of Federico da

  • spahi (Ottoman cavalry)

    Sipahi, feudal cavalryman of the Ottoman Empire whose status resembled that of the medieval European knight. The sipahi (from Persian for “cavalryman”) was holder of a fief (timar; Turkish: t?mar) granted directly by the Ottoman sultan and was entitled to all of the income from it in return for

  • Spahn Ranch (Manson cult base)

    Tate murders: …were arrested at their base, Spahn Ranch in Death Valley, accused of stealing vehicles and burning equipment. One of those arrested implicated Atkins in an earlier murder, and Atkins, while jailed, boasted to cellmates of the Tate murders. By year’s end all of the killers had been arrested. The trial,…

  • Spahn, Warren (American baseball player)

    Warren Spahn, American professional baseball player whose total of 363 major-league victories established a record for left-handed pitchers. His feat of winning 20 or more games in each of 13 seasons also was a record for left-handers. He set still another mark by striking out at least 100 batters

  • Spahn, Warren Edward (American baseball player)

    Warren Spahn, American professional baseball player whose total of 363 major-league victories established a record for left-handed pitchers. His feat of winning 20 or more games in each of 13 seasons also was a record for left-handers. He set still another mark by striking out at least 100 batters

  • Spain

    Spain, country located in extreme southwestern Europe. It occupies about 85 percent of the Iberian Peninsula, which it shares with its smaller neighbour Portugal. Spain is a storied country of stone castles, snowcapped mountains, vast monuments, and sophisticated cities, all of which have made it a

  • Spain (work by Madariaga y Rojo)

    Salvador de Madariaga y Rojo: …analysis of Cervantes’ classic; and Spain (1942), a historical essay. He also published books on various periods in Latin-American history, among them Cuadro histórico de las Indias, 2 vol. (1945; The Rise and Fall of the Spanish American Empire), and the trilogy Christopher Columbus (1939), Hernán Cortés (1941), and Simón…

  • Spain in My Heart (work by Neruda)

    Pablo Neruda: Communism and poetry: …Espa?a en el corazón (1937; Spain in My Heart) to express his feelings of solidarity with them. The book was printed by Republican troops working with improvised presses near the front lines.

  • Spain, an Interpretation (work by Ganivet y García)

    ángel Ganivet y García: …is the Idearium espa?ol (1897; Spain, an Interpretation), an essay that examines the Spanish temperament and the historical basis of the political situation of his country. In this essay he asserts that Spaniards are basically stoical and that the country has wasted its energies on territorial aggrandizement. He maintains that…

  • Spain, Bank of (bank, Spain)

    Spain: Finance: The central bank is the Banco de Espa?a (Bank of Spain). Having complied with the criteria for convergence, Spain joined the economic and monetary union of the EU in 1998, and the Banco de Espa?a became part of the European System of Central Banks. In addition to being the government’s…

  • Spain, Era of (chronology)

    chronology: Christian: The Era of Spain was based on an Easter cycle that began on January 1, 716 AUC (38 bc), marking the completion of the Roman conquest of Spain. First recorded in the 5th century, it was in general use in Visigothic Spain of the 6th and…

  • Spain, flag of

    horizontally striped red-yellow-red national flag with an off-centre coat of arms. Within Spain private citizens may display the flag without the coat of arms. The flag’s width-to-length ratio is 2 to 3.Many symbols used today by Spain have origins that, according to tradition, stretch back for

  • Spain, history of

    Spain: Pre-Roman Spain: Human fossils in Spain belong to modern humans (Homo sapiens), the Neanderthals (H. neanderthalensis), and even earlier members of the human lineage, possibly H. erectus or H. heidelbergensis. A large number of bones have been recovered from caves at Atapuerca, Burgos, which come…

  • Spain, Johnny (American baseball player)

    Atlanta Braves: …dominant pitchers, Warren Spahn and Johnny Spain, who inspired the slogan “Spahn and Spain and pray for rain.”

  • Spain, Kingdom of

    Spain, country located in extreme southwestern Europe. It occupies about 85 percent of the Iberian Peninsula, which it shares with its smaller neighbour Portugal. Spain is a storied country of stone castles, snowcapped mountains, vast monuments, and sophisticated cities, all of which have made it a

  • Spalacinae (rodent)

    Blind mole rat, (subfamily Spalacinae), any of eight species of burrowing rodents living in the eastern Mediterranean and Black Sea regions. Among the several rodents referred to as “mole rats” (see zokor), the blind mole rat is among the most molelike in form, having a furred, cylindrical body,

  • Spalacotherium (fossil mammal genus)

    Spalacotherium, extinct genus of primitive, probably predaceous, mammals known from fossils found in European deposits dating from the late Jurassic and early Cretaceous periods (some 160 million –100 million years ago). The genus Spalacotherium has a symmetrodont dentition, characterized by molar

  • Spalatin, Georg (Bavarian humanist)

    Georg Spalatin, humanist friend of Martin Luther and prolific writer whose capacity for diplomacy helped advance and secure the Protestant Reformation in its early stages. As a student Spalatin came in contact with various humanists, and he followed their custom in choosing a last name that

  • Spalato (Croatia)

    Split, seaport, resort, and chief city of Dalmatia, southern Croatia. It is situated on a peninsula in the Adriatic Sea with a deep, sheltered harbour on the south side. A major commercial and transportation centre, the city is best known for the ruins of the Palace of Diocletian (built 295–305

  • Spalax ehrenbergi (rodent)

    evolution: Quantum speciation: …rats of the species group Spalax ehrenbergi in Israel and gophers of the species group Thomomys talpoides in the northern Rocky Mountains are well-studied examples.

  • Spalding (England, United Kingdom)

    South Holland: Spalding, an ancient market town and now the administrative centre of the district, is a headquarters for an elaborate drainage and flood-control system in the Fens.

  • Spalding, A. G. (American athlete and manufacturer)

    A.G. Spalding, American professional baseball player and sporting-goods manufacturer, who contributed to the development of professional baseball and manufactured gear for many sports played in his day. In his youth Spalding pitched and batted right-handed with such authority that the Forest City

  • Spalding, Al (American athlete and manufacturer)

    A.G. Spalding, American professional baseball player and sporting-goods manufacturer, who contributed to the development of professional baseball and manufactured gear for many sports played in his day. In his youth Spalding pitched and batted right-handed with such authority that the Forest City

  • Spalding, Albert (American musician)

    Albert Spalding, American composer and one of the leading violinists of his day. The son of a partner in the sporting-goods firm of A.G. Spalding and Brothers, he began to study the violin at the age of seven, making his debut in Paris in 1905 and in New York City in 1908. He served with the

  • Spalding, Albert Goodwill (American athlete and manufacturer)

    A.G. Spalding, American professional baseball player and sporting-goods manufacturer, who contributed to the development of professional baseball and manufactured gear for many sports played in his day. In his youth Spalding pitched and batted right-handed with such authority that the Forest City

  • Spalding, Eliza (American missionary)

    Oregon Trail: Missionaries, Mormons, and others: In addition, Narcissa Whitman and Eliza Spalding, the wives of the two men, accompanied them on their journey, thus becoming the first white women to cross the South Pass and the Continental Divide.

  • Spalding, Esperanza (American musician)

    Esperanza Spalding, American bassist, singer, and composer whose precocious talent and musical adventurousness brought her considerable success both within and beyond the world of jazz. Spalding grew up in a multilingual multiethnic household (her single mother was of Welsh, Hispanic, and Native

  • Spalding, Henry Harmon (American minister)

    Henry Harmon Spalding, U.S. Presbyterian missionary who, with his wife, Eliza (née Hart), in 1836 established the Lapwai Mission (near present-day Lewiston, Idaho) with the first white home, church, and school in what is now Idaho. Spalding was educated at Plattsbury (N.Y.) Academy, Western Reserve

  • Spalding, Mother Catherine (American Roman Catholic leader)

    Mother Catherine Spalding, American Roman Catholic leader under whose guidance the Sisters of Charity established a strong presence in Kentucky through their schools and welfare institutions. Spalding was taken to frontier Kentucky by her widowed mother about 1799. She was later orphaned and reared

  • Spallanzani, Lazzaro (Italian physiologist)

    Lazzaro Spallanzani, Italian physiologist who made important contributions to the experimental study of bodily functions and animal reproduction. His investigations into the development of microscopic life in nutrient culture solutions paved the way for the research of Louis Pasteur. Spallanzani

  • spallation (physics)

    Spallation, high-energy nuclear reaction in which a target nucleus struck by an incident (bombarding) particle of energy greater than about 50 million electron volts (MeV) ejects numerous lighter particles and becomes a product nucleus correspondingly lighter than the original nucleus. The light

  • spam (unsolicited electronic message)

    Spam, unsolicited commercial electronic messages. Although e-mail is the most common means of transmitting spam, blogs, social networking sites, newsgroups, and cellular telephones are also targeted. Viewed with widespread disdain, spam nonetheless remains a popular marketing tool because the

  • Spamalot (musical theatre)

    Monty Python's Flying Circus: …the Tony Award-winning musical comedy Spamalot (first produced in 2005). Decades after the show’s initial run, the mere mention of some of its most-loved sketches (e.g., the Cheese Shop, the Pet Shop, the Ministry of Silly Walks, the Spanish Inquisition, Spam, No. 1: The Larch) is still enough to prompt…

  • span (bridges)

    bridge: …the structure up, and the span between supports must be strong enough to carry the loads. Spans are generally made as short as possible; long spans are justified where good foundations are limited—for example, over estuaries with deep water.

  • span-type greenhouse (horticulture)

    greenhouse: …basic structural forms are the span-type greenhouse, which has a double-sloped, or A-shaped, roof, and the lean-to greenhouse, which has only one roof slope and leans against the side of a building. Two or more span-type greenhouses are sometimes joined side by side so that they have fewer external walls,…

  • Spandau (area, Berlin, Germany)

    Spandau, area of Berlin, Germany. It lies on the Havel River at the mouth of the Spree. Originally the site of a Sorbian (Wendish) fortress, Spandau became German about 1230 and was granted civic rights in 1232. It was incorporated into Berlin in 1920. After 1946 the Spandau Prison, on the

  • Spandau Prison (prison, Berlin, Germany)

    Spandau: After 1946 the Spandau Prison, on the Wilhelmstrasse, housed Nazi war criminals sentenced by the Allies. The prison was demolished following the death of the last inmate, Rudolf Hess, in 1987. Spandau is the chief industrial area of Berlin, with the electrotechnical firm of Siemens in the Siemensstadt…

  • Spandau: The Secret Diaries (work by Speer)

    Albert Speer: …Reich, 1970), Spandauer Tagebücher (1975; Spandau: The Secret Diaries, 1976), and Der Sklavenstaat (1981; Infiltration, 1981).

  • Spandauer Tagebücher (work by Speer)

    Albert Speer: …Reich, 1970), Spandauer Tagebücher (1975; Spandau: The Secret Diaries, 1976), and Der Sklavenstaat (1981; Infiltration, 1981).

  • Spandelle (fibre)

    polyurethane: …synthetic fibre known generically as spandex is composed of at least 85 percent polyurethane by weight. Such fibres are generally used for their highly elastic properties. Trademarked fibres in this group are Lycra, Numa, Spandelle, and Vyrene. Such fibres have, for many textile purposes, largely replaced natural and synthetic rubber…

  • spandex (fibre)

    polyurethane: …synthetic fibre known generically as spandex is composed of at least 85 percent polyurethane by weight. Such fibres are generally used for their highly elastic properties. Trademarked fibres in this group are Lycra, Numa, Spandelle, and Vyrene. Such fibres have, for many textile purposes, largely replaced natural and synthetic rubber…

  • spandrel (biology)

    biology, philosophy of: Form and function: …which he compared to the spandrels in medieval churches—the roughly triangular areas above and on either side of an arch. Biological spandrels, such as the pseudo-penis of the female hyena, are the necessary result of certain adaptations but serve no useful purpose themselves. Once in the population, however, they persist…

  • spandrel (architecture)

    Spandrel, the roughly triangular area above and on either side of an arch, bounded by a line running horizontally through the apex of the arch, a line rising vertically from the springing of the arch, and the curved extrados, or top of the arch. When arches adjoin, the entire area between their

  • spandril (architecture)

    Spandrel, the roughly triangular area above and on either side of an arch, bounded by a line running horizontally through the apex of the arch, a line rising vertically from the springing of the arch, and the curved extrados, or top of the arch. When arches adjoin, the entire area between their

  • Spangenberg, August Gottlieb (German bishop)

    August Gottlieb Spangenberg, German bishop of the Unitas Fratrum, successor to its leader, Nikolaus Ludwig, graf von Zinzendorf, and founder of the Moravian Church in North America. As a law student at Jena, Spangenberg was converted in 1722 to Pietism, a religious movement emphasizing biblical

  • Spangler, David (American theosophist)

    New Age movement: Birth of the movement: In 1970 American theosophist David Spangler moved to the Findhorn Foundation, where he developed the fundamental idea of the New Age movement. He believed that the release of new waves of spiritual energy, signaled by certain astrological changes (e.g., the movement of the Earth into a new cycle known…

  • Spanglish (film by Brooks [2004])

    James L. Brooks: His later films included Spanglish (2004), which explored class and cultural differences between two Los Angeles families, and How Do You Know (2010), a story of a love triangle, which marked his fourth collaboration with Nicholson. He subsequently returned his focus to the developement and production of The Simpsons.

  • Spaniard (people)

    Spain: Migration: Spaniards participated fully in the massive 19th- and early 20th-century European immigration to the Americas. Between 1846 and 1932 nearly five million Spaniards went to the Americas, mostly to South America in general and to Argentina and Brazil in particular. Only Britain, Italy, Austria-Hungary, and…

  • spaniel (dog)

    Spaniel, any of several sporting dogs used by hunters to flush game from cover. The earliest spaniels apparently originated in Spain, hence the name, but most of the modern breeds were developed in Britain. The distinction between spaniel breeds originally was one of size, the larger spaniels being

  • Spanier in Peru (work by Kotzebue)

    August von Kotzebue: His Spanier in Peru (1796) was adapted by the English playwright Richard Brinsley Sheridan as Pizarro (1799) and also proved a great success. Kotzebue traveled abroad and spent some time writing for the municipal theatre of Vienna. Upon his return to Russia he was arrested, inexplicably,…

  • Spanische Hofreitschule (school, Vienna, Austria)

    Spanish Riding School of Vienna, school of classical horsemanship in Vienna, probably founded in the late 16th century. It is the only remaining institution where haute école (“high school”) riding and training methods are exclusively practiced, much as they were in the 18th century. The school is

  • spanische Krieg, Der (work by Renn)

    Ludwig Renn: The novel Der spanische Krieg (1956; “The Spanish War”) is his account of it. After lecturing in the United States, Canada, and Cuba (1937–38), he was director of the Officers College in Spain in 1938. Interned in a French camp in 1939, he was liberated, and from…

  • Spanische Reitschule Wien (school, Vienna, Austria)

    Spanish Riding School of Vienna, school of classical horsemanship in Vienna, probably founded in the late 16th century. It is the only remaining institution where haute école (“high school”) riding and training methods are exclusively practiced, much as they were in the 18th century. The school is

  • Spanische T?nze (work by Moszkowski)

    Moritz Moszkowski: His two books of Spanische T?nze, Opus 12, were published in 1876 for piano duet and later in many different arrangements. They were long popular as examples of national music in a light style. Other attempts with national idioms were less successful. His opera Boabdil der Maurenk?nig (1892; “Boabdil…

  • Spanisches Liederbuch (work by Wolf)

    Spanisches Liederbuch, (German: “Spanish Songbook”) song cycle by Austrian composer Hugo Wolf, based on both sacred and secular verses. The Spanisches Liederbuch was published in 1891. For the words to his song cycle, Wolf selected from a collection of Spanish poems that had been translated into

  • Spanish (people)

    Spain: Migration: Spaniards participated fully in the massive 19th- and early 20th-century European immigration to the Americas. Between 1846 and 1932 nearly five million Spaniards went to the Americas, mostly to South America in general and to Argentina and Brazil in particular. Only Britain, Italy, Austria-Hungary, and…

  • Spanish Armada (Spanish naval fleet)

    Spanish Armada, the great fleet sent by King Philip II of Spain in 1588 to invade England in conjunction with a Spanish army from Flanders. England’s attempts to repel this fleet involved the first naval battles to be fought entirely with heavy guns, and the failure of Spain’s enterprise saved

  • Spanish Bawd, The (novel by Rojas)

    La Celestina, Spanish dialogue novel, generally considered the first masterpiece of Spanish prose and the greatest and most influential work of the early Renaissance in Spain. Originally published in 16 acts as the Comedia de Calisto y Melibea (1499; “Comedy of Calisto and Melibea”) and shortly

  • Spanish bayonet (plant)

    yucca: Spanish bayonet (Y. aloifolia), Spanish dagger (Y. gloriosa), and Adam’s needle (Y. filamentosa) are commonly cultivated as ornamentals for their unusual appearance and attractive flower clusters.

  • Spanish bluebell (plant)

    bluebell: …wild hyacinth (Hyacinthoides non-scripta), and Spanish bluebell (H. hispanica) are borne on plants about 30 cm (1 foot) tall. Both species are cultivated as garden ornamentals.

  • Spanish cedar (tree)

    Cigar-box cedar, (Cedrela odorata), tropical American timber tree, of the mahogany family (Meliaceae), prized for its aromatic wood, hence its name. Its small flowers are borne in branched clusters, and each fruit is a capsule containing many winged seeds. Other species of the genus Cedrela such

  • Spanish Center for Astrobiology (institute, Madrid, Spain)

    Curiosity: The Spanish Center for Astrobiology supplied Curiosity’s weather station. The largest experiment, the Sample Analysis at Mars, consists of a mass spectrometer, a gas chromatograph, and a laser spectrometer that search for carbon-containing compounds. Curiosity also has several cameras, one of which takes high-definition video at…

  • Spanish chestnut (plant)

    chestnut: Species and uses: The European chestnut (C. sativa), 30 metres (100 feet) tall, is native to Eurasia and northern Africa; it is often called sweet, Spanish, or Eurasian chestnut. The Chinese chestnut (C. mollissima), usually less than 18 metres (about 60 feet) tall, grows at altitudes up to 2,440…

  • Spanish Civil War (Spanish history)

    Spanish Civil War, (1936–39), military revolt against the Republican government of Spain, supported by conservative elements within the country. When an initial military coup failed to win control of the entire country, a bloody civil war ensued, fought with great ferocity on both sides. The

  • Spanish colonial style (architecture)

    Western architecture: Colonial architecture in North America: (7) The Spanish colonial style in the United States extended geographically and chronologically from St. Augustine in 1565 to San Francisco in 1848. The five great mission fields were in Florida, New Mexico (from 1598), Texas, Arizona (both from 1690), and California (from 1769). Unlike other colonial…

  • Spanish Confederation of Autonomous Rights (Spanish political group)

    Spain: The Second Republic: …the right-wing electoral grouping, the Spanish Confederation of Autonomous Rights (Confederación Espa?ola de Derechas Autónomas; CEDA). The left viewed CEDA’s “accidentalism” (the doctrine that forms of government are irrelevant provided the church can fulfill its mission) as suspect, and these suspicions were only exacerbated by a proclivity among Gil Robles’s…

  • Spanish coup of 1936 (Spanish civil war)

    Francisco Franco: Franco’s military rebellion: At dawn on July 18, 1936, Franco’s manifesto acclaiming the military rebellion was broadcast from the Canary Islands, and the same morning the rising began on the mainland. The following day he flew to Morocco and within 24 hours was firmly in control…

  • Spanish court (Spanish and Portuguese parliament)

    Cortes, a representative assembly, or parliament, of the medieval Iberian kingdoms and, in modern times, the national legislature of Spain and of Portugal. The Cortes developed in the Middle Ages when elected representatives of the free municipalities acquired the right to take part in the

  • Spanish dagger (plant)

    Agavoideae: brevifolia) and Spanish daggers (Y. gloriosa), are popular as ornamentals for their woody stems and spiny leaves. Tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa) is cultivated for its fragrant volatile oil and has spikes of white flowers.

  • Spanish Earth, The (documentary film)

    Great Depression: Political movements and social change: …make a documentary film called The Spanish Earth (1937), was symptomatic of a political involvement that neither he nor his fictional characters would have undertaken a decade earlier.

  • Spanish flu

    Influenza pandemic of 1918–19, the most severe influenza outbreak of the 20th century and, in terms of total numbers of deaths, among the most devastating pandemics in human history. Influenza is caused by a virus that is transmitted from person to person through airborne respiratory secretions. An

  • Spanish fly (insect)

    blister beetle: …species Lytta vesicatoria, commonly called Spanish fly. Cantharidin is used medically as a topical skin irritant to remove warts. In the past, when inducing blisters was a common remedy for many ailments, cantharidin was commonly used for this purpose. It was also a major ingredient in so-called love potions. Blister…

  • Spanish Fork (Utah, United States)

    Spanish Fork, city, Utah county, northern Utah, U.S., situated about 8 miles (13 km) south of Provo. The city takes its name from the Spanish Fork River, along which the Spanish missionary-explorers Francisco Domínguez and Sylvestre Vélez de Escalante traveled in 1776 to conduct a survey of the

  • Spanish Fury (Belgian history)

    history of the Low Countries: Unification after Alba: …had been invaded by mutinying Spanish troops, who had slaughtered 7,000 citizens in a massacre that came to be known as the “Spanish Fury.”

  • Spanish gorse (plant)

    gorse: …spines and green twigs of Spanish gorse (G. hispanica), native to Spain and northern Italy, make it appear evergreen in winter. Both species bear yellow, pea-like flowers and grow well in dry soil.

  • Spanish grass (plant)

    Esparto, either of two species of gray-green needlegrasses (Stipa tenacissima and Lygeum spartum) in the family Poaceae that are indigenous to southern Spain and northern Africa; the term also denotes the fibre obtained from those grasses. Esparto fibre has great strength and flexibility, and both

  • Spanish Guinea

    Equatorial Guinea, country located on the west coast of Africa. It consists of Río Muni (also known as Continental Equatorial Guinea), on the continent, and five islands (known collectively as insular Equatorial Guinea): Bioko (formerly Fernando Po), Corisco, Great Elobey (Elobey Grande), Little

  • Spanish Harlem (area, New York City, New York, United States)

    Harlem: …area known pejoratively as “Spanish Harlem.” By 2010, however, the Hispanic community was concentrated in central Harlem, and east Harlem’s overall population numbers stood at roughly half of their 1950 peak. The late 2000s also saw an increase in the number of Harlem’s white non-Hispanic residents, a demographic shift…

  • Spanish Harlem Orchestra (American orchestra)

    Rubén Blades: …was a guest vocalist on Spanish Harlem Orchestra’s album Across 110th Street (2004), and in 2005 he was honoured by the American Society of Composers, Authors, and Publishers (ASCAP) with its Founders Award for lifetime achievement. After his political appointment ended, Blades released Cantares del subdesarrollo (2009), an acoustic album…

  • Spanish Hill (hill, Pennsylvania, United States)

    Bradford: Spanish Hill, near Sayre and Athens at the confluence of the Chemung and Susquehanna rivers, was one of the first sites visited by Europeans in their exploration of Pennsylvania. This strategic point was also the site of Tioga, one of the largest Seneca Indian towns…

  • Spanish hogfish (fish)

    hogfish: The spotfin hogfish and the Spanish hogfish belong to the genus Bodianus and occupy the same geographic range as L. maximus. The Spanish hogfish attains a length of 61 cm and, when young, are known to clean other fishes of external parasites.

  • Spanish ibex (extinct mammal)

    ibex: …ibex are now extinct (C. pyrenaica pyrenaica, which lived in the Pyrenees, and C. pyrenaica lusitanica, which was found in Portugal) and one is vulnerable (C. pyrenaica victoriae, which lives in the Sierra de Gredos), but another is fairly abundant, with a population of about 9,000 head (C. pyrenaica…

  • Spanish Imperial Riding School (school, Vienna, Austria)

    Spanish Riding School of Vienna, school of classical horsemanship in Vienna, probably founded in the late 16th century. It is the only remaining institution where haute école (“high school”) riding and training methods are exclusively practiced, much as they were in the 18th century. The school is

  • Spanish influenza pandemic

    Influenza pandemic of 1918–19, the most severe influenza outbreak of the 20th century and, in terms of total numbers of deaths, among the most devastating pandemics in human history. Influenza is caused by a virus that is transmitted from person to person through airborne respiratory secretions. An

  • Spanish Inquisition (Spanish history [1478–1834])

    Spanish Inquisition, (1478–1834), judicial institution ostensibly established to combat heresy in Spain. In practice, the Spanish Inquisition served to consolidate power in the monarchy of the newly unified Spanish kingdom, but it achieved that end through infamously brutal methods. The medieval

  • Spanish iris (plant)

    Iris: Spanish iris (I. xiphium), violet with yellow or yellow-spotted falls, grows in damp sandy places. English iris (I. xiphioides), so named because of its popularity in British horticulture, bears bright blue flowers. Dutch irises are sturdier, earlier-flowering hybrids created in the Netherlands.

  • Spanish Islam (work by Dozy)

    Reinhart Pieter Dozy: …par les Almoravides, 711–1110 (1861; Spanish Islam, 1913). Dozy, of French Huguenot ancestry, spent 33 years (from 1850) as professor of history at the University of Leiden. His history, a graphically written account of Moorish dominion in Spain that shed new light on many obscure points, long remained the standard…

  • Spanish juniper (plant)

    juniper: Major species: The wood of incense, or Spanish, juniper (J. thurifera), of Spain and Portugal, and of Phoenician juniper (J. phoenicea) of the Mediterranean region sometimes is burned as incense.

  • Spanish knot (carpet-making)

    rug and carpet: Materials and technique: The Spanish knot, used mainly in Spain, differs from the other two types in looping around only one warp yarn. After the 18th century it became extremely rare. The kind of knot used affects the delicacy and tightness of the pile. Knotting each pile yarn by…

  • Spanish lace (needlework)

    Spanish lace, lace made in Spain; the name is also erroneously given to much lace that was in fact imported into Spain from the 17th century onward. The Spaniards imported a great deal of Venetian needle lace for church use in the 17th century. When the Spanish monasteries were dissolved in 1830,

  • Spanish ladyfish (fish)

    hogfish: The spotfin hogfish and the Spanish hogfish belong to the genus Bodianus and occupy the same geographic range as L. maximus. The Spanish hogfish attains a length of 61 cm and, when young, are known to clean other fishes of external parasites.

  • Spanish language

    Spanish language, Romance language (Indo-European family) spoken as a first language by some 360 million people worldwide. In the early 21st century, Mexico had the greatest number of speakers (more than 85 million), followed by Colombia (more than 40 million), Argentina (more than 35 million), the

  • Spanish licorice (herb)

    Licorice, (Glycyrrhiza glabra), perennial herb of the pea family (Fabaceae), and the flavouring, confection, and folk medicine made from its roots. Licorice is similar to anise (Pimpinella anisum) in flavour; both plants are somewhat sweet and slightly bitter. The Greek name glykyrrhiza, of which

  • Spanish lime (tree)

    Spanish lime, (Melicoccus bijugus), tree, of the soapberry family (Sapindaceae), native to the West Indies. It grows to about 15 metres (50 feet). The flowers are small, greenish white, and fragrant. The green fruit is a drupe (a single stony seed covered by soft, fleshy tissue) with yellow or

  • Spanish ling (fish)

    ling: …other deepwater European fishes: the Spanish, or Mediterranean, ling (M. macrophthalma, or M. elongata) and the blue ling (M. dypterygia, or M. byrkelange).

  • Spanish literature

    Spanish literature, the body of literary works produced in Spain. Such works fall into three major language divisions: Castilian, Catalan, and Galician. This article provides a brief historical account of each of these three literatures and examines the emergence of major genres. Although

  • Spanish lynx (mammal)

    lynx: Iberian lynx: The Iberian lynx (L. pardinus), which is also known as the Spanish lynx or the Pardel lynx, bears a strong resemblance to the Eurasian lynx but may be distinguished by its smaller size; short, dark-tipped tail; and the presence of long, white, beardlike…

  • Spanish mackerel (fish genus)

    mackerel: …species, among them: the barred Spanish mackerel (S. commerson), an Indo-Pacific fish said to weigh up to 45 kg (100 pounds); the king mackerel, or kingfish (S. cavalla), a western Atlantic fish about 170 cm long and weighing 36 kg or more; and the cero, or painted mackerel (S. regalis),…

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