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  • Spanish Main (historical region, South America and Caribbean Sea)

    Spanish Main, Northern coast of South America. The term refers to an area that was once under Spanish control and spanned roughly between the Isthmus of Panama and the delta of the Orinoco River. The term can also refer to the Caribbean Sea and adjacent waters, especially when referring to the

  • Spanish March (historical region, Spain)

    Spain: The Christian states, 711–1035: …region, later known as the Spanish March, consisted of several counties under Frankish rule and long maintained strong political and cultural connections first to the Carolingian empire and then to the kingdom of France. Thus, for several centuries Catalans looked to the north.

  • Spanish Marriages, Affair of the (European history)

    Affair of the Spanish Marriages, the political maneuvering surrounding the dual marriages (October 10, 1846) of Queen Isabella II of Spain to her cousin Francisco de Asís de Bourbon, duque de Cadiz, and of her younger sister and heiress to the throne, Luisa Fernanda, to Antoine, duc de Montpensier,

  • Spanish mission (Spanish and North American history)

    Latin American architecture: The new urban strategy: Checkerboard plans and the Laws of the Indies: …Spain, oversaw the creation of mission establishments. Representing different religious orders, these missions were inspired by the theories of Europeans such as Leon Battista Alberti, Erasmus, and Sir Thomas More. The plan usually included a single nave church, a convent around a patio, a large walled atrium or churchyard with…

  • Spanish moss (plant)

    Spanish moss, (Tillandsia usneoides), epiphyte (a nonparasitic plant that is supported by another plant and has aerial roots exposed to the humid atmosphere) of the pineapple family (Bromeliaceae). It is found in southern North America, the West Indies, and Central and South America. The

  • Spanish Netherlands (historical province, Europe)

    Spanish Netherlands, (c. 1579–1713), Spanish-held provinces located in the southern part of the Low Countries (roughly corresponding to present Belgium and Luxembourg). Although the provinces of the Low Countries had for some years and for many reasons been chafing under foreign rule, the revolt

  • Spanish North Africa (region, North Africa)

    Spanish North Africa, five small areas, in special relationship with the Spanish government, on and off the Mediterranean coast of Morocco. They are Alhucemas, Ceuta, the Chafarinas Islands, Melilla (qq.v.), and Pe?ón de Vélez de la Gomera, with a combined area of about 12 square miles (31 square

  • Spanish oak (plant)

    red oak: …oak (Quercus rubra) and the southern red oak, or Spanish oak (Q. falcata). The northern red oak is often cultivated as an ornamental; it grows rapidly into a round-headed, wide-spreading tree about 25 m (80 feet) tall, occasionally to 45 m (150 feet). Its oblong leaves have 7 to 11…

  • Spanish onion (plant)

    onion: Spanish onions are large, sweet, and juicy, with colour ranging from yellow to red. Their flavour is mild, and they are used raw and sliced for salads and sandwiches and as a garnish. Italian onions, or cipollini onions, are flat, with red colour and mild…

  • Spanish Parnassus, The (work by Palomino)

    Diego Velázquez: …volume (El Parnaso espa?ol; “The Spanish Parnassus”) of El museo pictórico y escala óptica (“The Pictorial Museum and Optical Scale”), published in 1724 by the court painter and art scholar Antonio Palomino. This was based on biographical notes made by Velázquez’s pupil Juan de Alfaro, who was Palomino’s patron.…

  • Spanish People, Union of the (Spanish political organization)

    Adolfo Suárez González: …a founding member of the Union of the Spanish People, a mildly reformist political association within the National Movement, of which he later became president. In June 1976 he strongly defended in the Cortes (parliament) the new law legalizing political parties.

  • Spanish Prisoner, The (film by Mamet [1997])

    David Mamet: …Games (1987), Homicide (1991), and The Spanish Prisoner (1998). In 1999 he directed The Winslow Boy, which he had adapted from a play by Terence Rattigan. State and Main (2000), a well-received ensemble piece written and directed by Mamet, depicts the trials and tribulations of a film crew shooting in…

  • Spanish Revolution of 1820 (Spanish history)

    history of Europe: The conservative reaction: A rebellion in Spain was also suppressed, though only after several years, foreshadowing more than a century of recurrent political instability; the revolution also confirmed Spain’s loss of most of its American colonies, which had first risen during the Napoleonic occupation. A Greek revolution against Ottoman control fared…

  • Spanish ribbed newt (amphibian)

    newt: One species, the Spanish ribbed newt (Pleurodeles waltl), combines its poisonous skin secretions with sharp barbs running along the sides of its body; the barbs are ribs that can be forced through the animal’s skin when threatened. Commonly, these poisonous salamanders are brightly coloured to advertise their toxicity…

  • Spanish Riding School of Vienna (school, Vienna, Austria)

    Spanish Riding School of Vienna, school of classical horsemanship in Vienna, probably founded in the late 16th century. It is the only remaining institution where haute école (“high school”) riding and training methods are exclusively practiced, much as they were in the 18th century. The school is

  • Spanish Rogue, The (work by Alemán)

    Mateo Alemán: , The Spanish Rogue, 1622, 1924), which brought him fame throughout Europe but little profit, is one of the earliest picaresque novels; it was subsequently published under various titles. The first part ran through many editions, almost all pirated; even before he could finish the second…

  • Spanish Sahara (region, Africa)

    Western Sahara, territory occupying an extensive desert Atlantic-coastal area (97,344 square miles [252,120 square km]) of northwest Africa. It is composed of the geographic regions of Río de Oro (“River of Gold”), occupying the southern two-thirds of the region (between Cape Blanco and Cape

  • Spanish Singer (painting by Manet)

    édouard Manet: Early life and works: …Salon of 1861, Manet exhibited Spanish Singer (1860), dubbed “Guitarero” by the French man of letters Théophile Gautier, who praised it enthusiastically in the periodical Le Moniteur universel.

  • Spanish Socialist Workers’ Party (political party, Spain)

    Spanish Socialist Workers’ Party, Spanish socialist political party. Spain’s oldest political party, the PSOE was founded in 1879 by Pablo Iglesias, a Madrid typesetter and union organizer. Iglesias was also the founder in 1888 of the party’s affiliated trade union confederation, the General Union

  • Spanish Southern Morocco (region, Morocco)

    Tan-Tan: …1912) known variously as the Tekla zone, Tarfaya zone, or Spanish Southern Morocco. This region was returned to Morocco in 1958. It has been the site of warfare between Moroccan troops and the Western Saharan Polisario Front guerrillas; guerrillas raided the town twice in 1979.

  • Spanish Stairs (architectural feature, Rome, Italy)

    Rome: Piazza di Spagna: …dei Monti, known as the Spanish Steps (or Stairs). The staircase is a rare case of the failure of French cultural propaganda: although they are called the Spanish Steps—the Spanish Embassy moved onto the square in the 17th century—they are unequivocally French. First suggested by the French about the time…

  • Spanish Steps (architectural feature, Rome, Italy)

    Rome: Piazza di Spagna: …dei Monti, known as the Spanish Steps (or Stairs). The staircase is a rare case of the failure of French cultural propaganda: although they are called the Spanish Steps—the Spanish Embassy moved onto the square in the 17th century—they are unequivocally French. First suggested by the French about the time…

  • Spanish Succession, War of the (European history)

    War of the Spanish Succession, (1701–14), conflict that arose out of the disputed succession to the throne of Spain following the death of the childless Charles II, the last of the Spanish Habsburgs. In an effort to regulate the impending succession, to which there were three principal claimants,

  • Spanish Town (Jamaica)

    Spanish Town, city, southeast-central Jamaica. It is situated along the Rio Cobre, some 10 miles (16 km) west of Kingston. Probably laid out by Diego Columbus (c. 1523), it was originally called Santiago de la Vega (St. James of the Plain), and it was Jamaica’s capital from 1692 until 1872. It is

  • Spanish Tragedy, The (work by Kyd)

    Thomas Kyd: …English dramatist who, with his The Spanish Tragedy (sometimes called Hieronimo, or Jeronimo, after its protagonist), initiated the revenge tragedy of his day. Kyd anticipated the structure of many later plays, including the development of middle and final climaxes. In addition, he revealed an instinctive sense of tragic situation, while…

  • Spanish treasure fleet (Spanish history)

    Spanish treasure fleet, from the 16th to the 18th century, Spanish convoy of ships transporting European goods to the Spanish colonies in the Americas and transporting colonial products, especially gold and silver, back to the mother country. Beginning in the 1560s, shipping between Spain and the

  • Spanish-American literature

    Latin American literature, the national literatures of the Spanish-speaking countries of the Western Hemisphere. Historically, it also includes the literary expression of the highly developed American Indian civilizations conquered by the Spaniards. Over the years, Latin American literature has

  • Spanish-American War (Spain-United States)

    Spanish-American War, (1898), conflict between the United States and Spain that ended Spanish colonial rule in the Americas and resulted in U.S. acquisition of territories in the western Pacific and Latin America. The war originated in the Cuban struggle for independence from Spain, which began in

  • Spanish-Italian western (film genre)

    Clint Eastwood: Early life and career: …westerns (popularly known as “spaghetti westerns”) directed by Sergio Leone: Per un pugno di dollari (1964; A Fistful of Dollars), Per qualche dollari in più (1965; For a Few Dollars More), and Il buono, il brutto, il cattivo (1966; The Good, the Bad and the Ugly).

  • Spanker (missile)

    rocket and missile system: Multiple warheads: …1,000 to 1,500 feet: the SS-17 Spanker, with four 750-kiloton warheads; the SS-18 Satan, with up to 10 500-kiloton warheads; and the SS-19 Stiletto, with six 550-kiloton warheads. Each of these Soviet systems had several versions that traded multiple warheads for higher yield. For instance, the SS-18, model 3, carried…

  • Spanking the Monkey (film by Russell [1994])

    David O. Russell: …school, his feature-length directorial debut, Spanking the Monkey (1994), the story of a medical student who gets thrust into a confusing Oedipal relationship with his bedridden mother, was generally well received and earned him Independent Spirit Awards for best first feature and best first screenplay.

  • spanner (tool)

    Wrench, tool, usually operated by hand, for tightening bolts and nuts. Basically, a wrench consists of a stout lever with a notch at one or both ends for gripping the bolt or nut in such a way that it can be twisted by a pull on the wrench at right angles to the axes of the lever and the bolt or

  • spanning set (mathematics)

    vector space: …combinations is known as a spanning set. The dimension of a vector space is the number of vectors in the smallest spanning set. (For example, the unit vector in the x-direction together with the unit vector in the y-direction suffice to generate any vector in the two-dimensional Euclidean plane when…

  • Spanos, Dean (American sports executive)

    Los Angeles Chargers: During this time, Chargers owner Dean Spanos battled San Diego politicians over the team’s stadium, which he felt was substandard. He made attempts to get a new stadium built largely with public money, but those efforts failed, and in January 2017 the team announced that it was moving to Los…

  • Spanta Manyu (Zoroastrian deity)

    Spenta Mainyu, in Zoroastrianism, the Holy Spirit, created by the Wise Lord, Ahura Mazdā, to oppose the Destructive Spirit, Angra Mainyu. Spenta Mainyu is an aspect of the Wise Lord himself. Through the Holy Spirit, Ahura Mazdā creates life and goodness. According to Zoroastrian belief, Spenta

  • Spanx (undergarment brand)

    Sara Blakely: …inventor and entrepreneur who created Spanx, a brand of body-slimming women’s undergarments, and in 2012 became the world’s youngest female self-made billionaire.

  • spar torpedo (war technology)

    torpedo: …some naval vessels used the spar torpedo, which was simply an explosive charge attached to the end of a long pole or spar; it exploded when it touched the hull of an enemy vessel.

  • Sparassidae (arachnid family)

    spider: Annotated classification: Family Sparassidae or Heteropodidae (huntsman spiders, tarantulas in Australia) Found in most tropical regions. Eyes in 2 rows; legs extended sideways; large, slightly flattened body. Family Tetragnathidae (long-jawed orb weavers) 1,000 species worldwide. Males with long chelicerae; epigynum often

  • Sparassis crispa (Polyporales species)

    mushroom: One club fungus, the cauliflower fungus (Sparassis crispa), has flattened clustered branches that lie close together, giving the appearance of the vegetable cauliflower. The cantharelloid fungi (Cantharellus and its relatives) are club-, cone-, or trumpet-shaped mushroomlike forms with an expanded top bearing coarsely folded ridges along the underside and…

  • spare (bowling)

    bowling: Principles of play: …pins are knocked down, a spare is recorded. A split can occur on the first ball when two or more pins are left standing, separated by at least one fallen pin. Stepping over the foul line is a foul and results in loss of all pins knocked down on that…

  • Sparekassen (work by Hertz)

    Henrik Hertz: …of which the best-known are Sparekassen (1836; “The Savings Bank”), about a foster son who aids his bankrupt family; Svend Dyrings huus (1837; “Sven Dyring’s House”), about the woman protagonist’s failed battle to express her eroticism in a repressive society; and Kong Renés datter (1845; King René’s Daughter), based on…

  • Sparganium (plant)

    reed: Bur reed (Sparganium) and reed mace (Typha) are plants of other families.

  • sparganosis (disease)

    cestodiasis: (2) Sparganosis is caused by the Spirometra mansoni larva, which may be acquired by drinking water that contains water fleas harbouring the first larval stage. The larvae may grow to a length of 30 cm (12 inches) in the abdominal wall or in the region of…

  • Sparidae (fish)

    Porgy, any of about 100 species of marine fishes of the family Sparidae (order Perciformes). Porgies, sometimes called sea breams, are typically high-backed snapper- or grunt-like fishes. They have a single dorsal fin, and their small mouths, equipped with strong teeth, can handle a diet of fishes

  • sparite (geology)

    sedimentary rock: Textural components: …and sparry carbonate cement (sparite) are collectively referred to as orthochemical carbonate because, in contrast to allochems, neither exhibits a history of transport and deposition as clastic material. Micrite can occur either as matrix that fills or partly fills the interstitial pores between allochems or as the main component…

  • spark (electronics)

    mass spectrometry: Spark discharge: In the vacuum spark source, a pulsed, high-frequency potential of about 50 kilovolts is built up between two electrodes until electrical breakdown occurs. Hot spots appear on the electrodes, and electrode material is evaporated and partially ionized by bombardment from electrons present between…

  • spark chamber (radiation detector)

    Spark chamber, radiation detector useful for the investigation of subatomic particles in high-energy particle physics. It consists of a series of thin metal plates parallel to each other, separated by small gaps, and enclosed in a container filled with neon or another inert gas. When a charged

  • spark coil (electronics)

    Induction coil, an electrical device for producing an intermittent source of high voltage. An induction coil consists of a central cylindrical core of soft iron on which are wound two insulated coils: an inner or primary coil, having relatively few turns of copper wire, and a surrounding secondary

  • spark gap (engineering)

    gasoline engine: Spark plugs: …it is essential that the spark gap be as specified for the particular engine. Gauges are available to aid in making this adjustment by bending the ground electrode as required. Manufacturers specify gaps ranging from 0.508 to 1.016 mm between the centre electrode and the ground electrode. If the plug…

  • Spark New Zealand (New Zealand company)

    New Zealand: Transportation and telecommunications: …Telecom Corporation of New Zealand—renamed Spark New Zealand in 2014—was formed in 1987 (privatized in 1990), and industry deregulation began in 1989. Undersea fibre-optic cables, like the direct-current cables, cross the Cook Strait to serve as a main telecommunications link between the two main islands. New Zealanders have adopted changes…

  • spark plug (electronic device)

    Spark plug, device that fits into the cylinder head of an internal-combustion engine and carries two electrodes separated by an air gap, across which current from a high-tension ignition system discharges, to form a spark for igniting the air–fuel mixture. The electrodes must be able to resist high

  • Spark, Dame Muriel Sarah (British writer)

    Muriel Spark, British writer best known for the satire and wit with which the serious themes of her novels are presented. Spark was educated in Edinburgh and later spent some years in Central Africa; the latter served as the setting for her first volume of short stories, The Go-Away Bird and Other

  • Spark, Muriel (British writer)

    Muriel Spark, British writer best known for the satire and wit with which the serious themes of her novels are presented. Spark was educated in Edinburgh and later spent some years in Central Africa; the latter served as the setting for her first volume of short stories, The Go-Away Bird and Other

  • sparking plug (electronic device)

    Spark plug, device that fits into the cylinder head of an internal-combustion engine and carries two electrodes separated by an air gap, across which current from a high-tension ignition system discharges, to form a spark for igniting the air–fuel mixture. The electrodes must be able to resist high

  • sparkless antenna circuit

    Ferdinand Braun: …this problem by producing a sparkless antenna circuit (patented in 1899) that linked transmitter power to the antenna circuit inductively. This invention greatly increased the broadcasting range of a transmitter and has been applied to radar, radio, and television. Braun’s discovery of crystalline materials that act as rectifiers, allowing current…

  • sparkling archaic sun moth (insect)

    lepidopteran: Annotated classification: Family Eriocraniidae (sparkling archaic sun moths) 24 species with a Holarctic distribution; often brilliantly coloured; adults feed on nectar; related families: Mnesarchiidae (New Zealand), Mesopseustidae (India and Taiwan). Assorted Referencesability to hear

  • Sparkling Stone, The (work by Ruysbroeck)

    Christianity: The union with God: …between ourselves and God” (The Sparkling Stone, chapter 10); and Eckhart speaks of the birth of the Son in the soul in which God “makes me his only-begotten Son without any difference” (German Sermons, 6). These expressions of a unity of indistinction have seemed dangerous to many, but Eckhart…

  • sparkling wine

    wine: Sparkling wines: Wines containing excess carbon dioxide are called sparkling wines. They are always table wines, usually containing less than 4 percent sugar. The two basic techniques used for their production are a second sugar fermentation, often induced artificially, or direct carbonation, involving the addition…

  • Sparkman, John (United States senator)

    United States presidential election of 1952: Primaries and conventions: John Sparkman of Alabama. In contrast to the Republicans, the Democrats pledged to repeal the Taft-Hartley Act and called for the continuation of policies pursued by Truman and his predecessor as president, Franklin D. Roosevelt. There was also support for continuing the Korean War.

  • Sparks (Nevada, United States)

    Sparks, city, Washoe county, in northwestern Nevada, U.S., on the Truckee River. Adjacent to Reno and part of the Reno-Sparks distribution centre, it is mainly residential. Originally named Harriman for the railroad company’s president, Sparks was founded in 1904 as a switching yard and repair

  • Sparks Fly Upward (novel by La Farge)

    Oliver La Farge: Sparks Fly Upward (1931) is set in Central America, while The Enemy Gods (1937) centres on the inability of the Navajo to adapt to white civilization. Long Pennant (1933) and The Copper Pot (1942) have New Englanders as their main characters. La Farge’s short stories…

  • ‘Sparks variety’ monkshood (plant)

    monkshood: Major species: …are cultivated in gardens, including ‘Sparks variety’ monkshood (Aconitum henryi), Carmichael’s monkshood (A. carmichaelii), and southern blue monkshood (A. uncinatum). All species contain the powerful poison aconitine. The common monkshood, or friar’s cap (A. napellus), native to mountain slopes in Europe and east to the Himalayas, has been the most

  • Sparks, Hortense (American lawyer and reformer)

    Hortense Sparks Malsch Ward, American lawyer and reformer who campaigned energetically and successfully in Texas for women’s rights, particularly in the areas of property, labour, and voting laws. Hortense Sparks taught school for a year before marrying Albert Malsch, a tinner, in 1891 (divorced

  • Sparks, Jared (American publisher)

    Jared Sparks, American publisher and editor of the North American Review, biographer, and president of Harvard College. Educated at Phillips Exeter Academy and Harvard College, Sparks served as minister of the First Independent Church (Unitarian) from 1819 to 1823. From then until 1830, under his

  • Sparks, Nicholas (American author)

    Nicholas Sparks, American novelist known for his best-selling tales of romance and heartbreak. Sparks grew up mainly in north-central California, where his family moved when he was eight. He attended the University of Notre Dame on a track scholarship, but an injury ended his budding athletic

  • Sparks, Nicholas Charles (American author)

    Nicholas Sparks, American novelist known for his best-selling tales of romance and heartbreak. Sparks grew up mainly in north-central California, where his family moved when he was eight. He attended the University of Notre Dame on a track scholarship, but an injury ended his budding athletic

  • Sparks, William (American chemist)

    butyl rubber: …first produced by American chemists William Sparks and Robert Thomas at the Standard Oil Company of New Jersey (now Exxon Corporation) in 1937. Earlier attempts to produce synthetic rubbers had involved the polymerization of dienes (hydrocarbon molecules containing two carbon-carbon double bonds) such as isoprene and butadiene. Sparks and Thomas…

  • Sparling, Marcus (British photographer)

    Roger Fenton: Fenton and his assistant, Marcus Sparling, arrived on the ship Hecla and set up their darkroom in a wagon. Using the wet-collodion photographic process of the times, they took approximately 360 photographs of the war. As an agent of the government, however, Fenton portrayed only the “acceptable” parts of…

  • Sparrow (missile)

    rocket and missile system: Semiactive: ) The AIM-7 Sparrow air-to-air missile of the U.S. Air Force used a similar semiactive radar guidance method. Laser-guided missiles also could use semiactive methods by illuminating the target with a small spot of laser light and homing onto that precise light frequency through a seeker head…

  • sparrow (bird)

    Sparrow, any of a number of small, chiefly seed-eating birds having conical bills. The name sparrow is most firmly attached to birds of the Old World family Passeridae (order Passeriformes), particularly to the house sparrow (Passer domesticus) that is so common in temperate North America and

  • sparrow hawk (hawk group)

    Sparrowhawk, any of various small birds of prey usually of the genus Accipiter (family Accipitridae), classified with the goshawks as “accipiters,” or true hawks. They eat small birds such as sparrows, small mammals, and insects. The African little sparrowhawk (A. minullus), slate gray above with

  • sparrow hawk (bird)

    kestrel: …birds, but one species, the American kestrel (F. sparverius), called sparrow hawk in the United States, is common throughout the Americas. The American kestrel is about 30 cm (12 inches) long, white or yellowish below and reddish brown and slate gray above, with colourful markings on the head.

  • sparrowhawk (hawk group)

    Sparrowhawk, any of various small birds of prey usually of the genus Accipiter (family Accipitridae), classified with the goshawks as “accipiters,” or true hawks. They eat small birds such as sparrows, small mammals, and insects. The African little sparrowhawk (A. minullus), slate gray above with

  • SPARS (United States military organization)

    Coast Guard Women’s Reserve, U.S. military service group, founded in 1942 for the purpose of making more men available to serve at sea by assigning women to onshore duties during World War II. During World War I the U.S. Coast Guard enlisted a small number of women to serve as volunteers, primarily

  • sparse taiga

    taiga: Distribution: …roughly parallel zones: closed-canopy forest, lichen woodland or sparse taiga, and forest-tundra. The closed-canopy forest is the southernmost portion of the taiga. It contains the greatest richness of species, the warmest soils, the highest productivity, and the longest growing season within the boreal zone. North of the closed-canopy forest is…

  • sparse theory (philosophy)

    universal: Plenitudinous theories and sparse theories: The distinction between plenitudinous and sparse theories of universals (a distinction that cuts across the distinction between Platonic and Aristotelian realism) did not become a major issue in philosophy until the 20th century. According to the plenitudinous view, there is a universal corresponding to almost every predicative expression in any…

  • Sparta (ancient city, Greece)

    Sparta, ancient capital of the Laconia district of the southeastern Peloponnese, southwestern Greece. Along with the surrounding area, it forms the perifereiakí enótita (regional unit) of Laconia (Modern Greek: Lakonía) within the Peloponnese (Pelopónnisos) periféreia (region). The city lies on the

  • Spartacist Revolt (German history)

    Germany: Defeat of revolutionaries, 1918–19: The events of “Spartacist Week,” as the radical attempt at revolution came to be known, demonstrated that Germany was not nearly as ripe for revolution as leading radicals had believed. As Luxemburg had feared, mass support for communism did not exist among German workers; instead, most remained loyal…

  • Spartacist Week (German history)

    Germany: Defeat of revolutionaries, 1918–19: The events of “Spartacist Week,” as the radical attempt at revolution came to be known, demonstrated that Germany was not nearly as ripe for revolution as leading radicals had believed. As Luxemburg had feared, mass support for communism did not exist among German workers; instead, most remained loyal…

  • Spartacus (novel by Fast)

    Stanley Kubrick: Early life and films: …Dalton Trumbo’s adaptation of a novel by Howard Fast and a distinguished cast that included Douglas, Laurence Olivier, Peter Ustinov, and Charles Laughton. Spartacus was arguably Kubrick’s most-accessible film, but it was also his most-anonymous film and the one over which he had the least control.

  • Spartacus (film by Kubrick [1960])

    Spartacus, American epic adventure film, released in 1960, that recounts the story of a historical slave uprising (73–71 bce) against Rome. The movie, which starred Kirk Douglas and was directed by Stanley Kubrick, won widespread critical acclaim. The film traces the story of the slave Spartacus

  • Spartacus (American television series)

    Lucy Lawless: …starred in the TV series Spartacus (2010–13) and Ash vs Evil Dead (2015–18), both of which aired on the Starz cable channel. She also made guest appearances (2012–14) on the sitcom Parks and Recreation and had recurring roles on such shows as Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D. and Salem. In 2019 Lawless…

  • Spartacus (ballet by Khachaturian)

    Spartacus, ballet in three acts by Armenian composer Aram Khachaturian, known for its lively rhythms and strong energy. Spartacus was premiered by the Kirov Ballet in Leningrad (now St. Petersburg) in 1956, and its revised form was debuted in 1968 by the Bolshoi Ballet in Moscow. Khachaturian later

  • Spartacus (Roman gladiator)

    Spartacus, leader in the Gladiatorial War (73–71 bce) against Rome. A Thracian by birth, Spartacus served in the Roman army, perhaps deserted, led bandit raids, and was caught and sold as a slave. With about 70 fellow gladiators he escaped a gladiatorial training school at Capua in 73 and took

  • Spartacus League (German political organization)

    Spartacus League, revolutionary socialist group active in Germany from autumn 1914 to the end of 1918. It was officially founded in 1916 by Karl Liebknecht, Rosa Luxemburg, Clara Zetkin, and Franz Mehring. The name derived from their illegally distributed pamphlets Spartakusbriefen (Spartacus L

  • Spartacus Revolt (ancient Rome)

    Third Servile War, (73–71 bce) slave rebellion against Rome led by the gladiator Spartacus. Spartacus was a Thracian who had served in the Roman army but seems to have deserted. He was captured and subsequently sold as a slave. Destined for the arena, in 73 bce he, with a band of his fellow

  • Spartakiáda Stadium (stadium, Prague, Czech Republic)

    Prague: Cultural life: …stadiums, the largest of which, Spartakiáda Stadium, holds 250,000 spectators and is used for the mass gymnastic display known as the Spartakiáda—as well as numerous other sports and cultural centres, with emphasis on facilities for youth. The film studios at Barrandov, on the city outskirts, have produced a number of…

  • Spartakusbund (German political organization)

    Spartacus League, revolutionary socialist group active in Germany from autumn 1914 to the end of 1918. It was officially founded in 1916 by Karl Liebknecht, Rosa Luxemburg, Clara Zetkin, and Franz Mehring. The name derived from their illegally distributed pamphlets Spartakusbriefen (Spartacus L

  • Spartan (people)

    physical culture: Paganism to religious asceticism: The foremost warriors were the Spartans of Laconia, who endured harsh physical discipline to ensure that the finest physical specimens were produced. Spartans, in their efforts to toughen and exhibit their bodies, were also enthusiastic nudists. The greatest Greek athlete, however, was Milo of Croton, who popularized progressive resistance training…

  • Spartan Alliance (ancient Greek history)

    Peloponnesian League, military coalition of Greek city-states led by Sparta, formed in the 6th century bc. League policy, usually decisions on questions of war, peace, or alliance, was determined by federal congresses, summoned by the Spartans when they thought fit; each member state had one vote.

  • Spartan Braves (American amateur basketball team)

    New York Rens: Bob Douglas and basketball in Harlem: …an amateur adult team, the Spartan Braves, for which he starred until he retired as a player at age 36 in 1918 to devote himself full-time to managing the team. Under his leadership, the Braves easily won the 1921 Eastern (amateur) Championship.

  • Spartanburg (South Carolina, United States)

    Spartanburg, city, seat (1785) of Spartanburg county, in the Piedmont section of northwestern South Carolina, U.S. It lies in the foothills of the Blue Ridge Mountains 30 miles (50 km) northeast of Greenville. The name is derived from the Spartan Rifles, a regiment of local militia that fought in

  • Spartanburg (county, South Carolina, United States)

    Spartanburg, county, northern South Carolina, U.S. It is bordered to the north by North Carolina and to the southwest by the Enoree River. The county is also drained by the Tyger and Pacolet rivers. It lies in hilly piedmont terrain on the edge of the Blue Ridge Mountains of the Appalachian chain.

  • Spartas, Reuben (African religious leader)

    African Greek Orthodox Church: …when an Anglican in Uganda, Reuben Spartas, heard of the independent, all-black African Orthodox Church in the United States and founded his own African Orthodox Church in 1929. In 1932 he secured ordination by the U.S. church’s archbishop from South Africa, whose episcopal orders traced to the ancient Syrian Jacobite…

  • Spartí (ancient city, Greece)

    Sparta, ancient capital of the Laconia district of the southeastern Peloponnese, southwestern Greece. Along with the surrounding area, it forms the perifereiakí enótita (regional unit) of Laconia (Modern Greek: Lakonía) within the Peloponnese (Pelopónnisos) periféreia (region). The city lies on the

  • Spartina (plant)

    Cordgrass, (genus Spartina), genus of 16 species of perennial grasses in the family Poaceae. Cordgrasses are found on marshes and tidal mud flats of North America, Europe, and Africa and often form dense colonies. Some species are planted as soil binders to prevent erosion, and a few are considered

  • Spartina pectinata (plant)

    cordgrass: Prairie cordgrass (Spartina pectinata) and gulf cordgrass (S. spartinae) are the most widely distributed North American species.

  • Spartina spartinae (plant)

    cordgrass: Prairie cordgrass (Spartina pectinata) and gulf cordgrass (S. spartinae) are the most widely distributed North American species.

  • Spartocid dynasty (ancient Greek history)

    Kingdom of the Bosporus: …(480–438 bc), then by the Spartocid dynasty (438–110 bc), which annexed to Panticapaeum other Greek colonies—e.g., Nymphaeum, which had been founded in the region in the 7th and 6th centuries. After the second half of the 5th century, Athenian influence was strong among the Bosporus cities; Athens controlled local trade…

  • Spasines (king of Mesene)

    Mesene: …129 bc, a local prince, Hyspaosines (also called Aspasine, or Spasines), founded the Mesene kingdom, which survived until the rise of the Sāsānian empire. Hyspaosines refortified a town originally founded by Alexander the Great near the junction of the Eulaeus (Kārūn) and Tigris rivers and called it Spasinou Charax (“Fort…

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