You are using an outdated browser. Please upgrade your browser to improve your experience and security.
  • specificity, principle of (law)

    extradition: Under the principle of specificity, the demanding state can prosecute the extraditee only for the offense for which the extradition was granted and may not extradite the detainee to a third country for offenses committed before the initial extradition. Although states have recognized certain exceptions to this principle—and some…

  • Specified Areas (area, Islamabad, Pakistan)

    Islamabad: …of hinterland, known as the Specified Areas and subject to planning control, is roughly a trapezoid, with the Margala Hills, 3,000 to 5,000 feet (900 to 1,500 metres) high, in the north and northeast. The southern portion is an undulating plain. It is drained by the Kurang River, on which…

  • Specimen Days & Collect (work by Whitman)

    Walt Whitman: Civil War years: …Civil War, published later in Specimen Days & Collect (1882–83), are no less effective in their direct, moving simplicity.

  • Specimens of English Dramatic Poets Who Lived About the Time of Shakespear (work by Lamb)

    Charles Lamb: In 1808 Lamb also published Specimens of English Dramatic Poets Who Lived About the Time of Shakespear, a selection of scenes from Elizabethan dramas; it had a considerable influence on the style of 19th-century English verse. Lamb also contributed critical papers on Shakespeare and on William Hogarth to Hunt’s Reflector.…

  • Speck, Frank Gouldsmith (American anthropologist)

    Frank Gouldsmith Speck, American cultural anthropologist known for his work on the Algonquin Indian tribes of the eastern United States. Speck studied under Franz Boas at Columbia University. He founded the anthropology department at the University of Pennsylvania and was its chairman for much of

  • Speck, Richard (American murderer)

    Richard Speck, American mass murderer known for killing eight female nursing students in a Chicago town house in 1966. Speck was the seventh of eight children. Soon after he was born, the family moved to Monmouth, Illinois. Speck’s father, to whom he had been deeply attached, died of a heart attack

  • Speck, Richard Benjamin (American murderer)

    Richard Speck, American mass murderer known for killing eight female nursing students in a Chicago town house in 1966. Speck was the seventh of eight children. Soon after he was born, the family moved to Monmouth, Illinois. Speck’s father, to whom he had been deeply attached, died of a heart attack

  • speckle interferometry (astronomy)

    star: Stellar radii: A more recent method, called speckle interferometry, has been developed to reproduce the true disks of red supergiant stars and to resolve spectroscopic binaries such as Capella. The speckle phenomenon is a rapidly changing interference-diffraction effect seen in a highly magnified diffraction image of a star observed with a large…

  • speckle-belly (bird)

    White-fronted goose, (species Anser albifrons), rather small, dark-bodied goose with white forehead, yellow bill, and irregular black patches on the belly; it is classified in the tribe Anserini of the family Anatidae (order Anseriformes). Breeding in the Arctic, the white-fronted goose, which

  • speckle-throated otter (mammal)

    otter: Conservation and classification: Genus Hydrictis (speckle-throated otter) 1 species found in sub-Saharan Africa. Genus Enhydra (sea otter) 1 species found in North America. Genus Lutrogale (smooth-coated otter) 1 species found in Southern Asia.

  • specklebelly (bird)

    White-fronted goose, (species Anser albifrons), rather small, dark-bodied goose with white forehead, yellow bill, and irregular black patches on the belly; it is classified in the tribe Anserini of the family Anatidae (order Anseriformes). Breeding in the Arctic, the white-fronted goose, which

  • speckled alder (plant)

    alder: …orange-red twigs and buds; the speckled alder (A. rugosa), a small tree with conspicuous whitish, wartlike, porous markings, or lenticels; the aromatic-leaved American green alder (A. crispa or A. mitchelliana); the closely related but taller Sitka alder (A. sinuata); and the mountain, or thinleaf, alder (A. tenuifolia), a shrubby tree…

  • speckled hind (fish)

    hind: …61 cm (24 inches); the speckled hind (E. drummondhayi) of the coastal region of the southeastern United States is somewhat smaller, reaching a length of 46 cm (19 inches).

  • speckled piculet (bird)

    piculet: The speckled piculet (P. innominatus) of southeast Asia drums on dry bamboo.

  • speckled trout (fish)

    Brook trout, (Salvelinus fontinalis), popular freshwater game fish, a variety of char, regarded for its flavour and its fighting qualities when hooked. The brook trout belongs to the salmon family, Salmonidae. A native of the northeastern United States and Canada, it has been transplanted to many

  • SPECT (imaging technique)

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), imaging technique used in biomedical research and in diagnosis. SPECT is similar to positron emission tomography (PET), in which a compound labeled with a positron-emitting radionuclide is injected into the body; however, its pictures are not as

  • spectacled bear (mammal)

    Spectacled bear, (Tremarctos ornatus), bear, the only South American species of the family Ursidae. It inhabits mountainous regions (particularly of the Andes), dwelling primarily in forested areas, and it feeds mainly on shoots and fruit. The spectacled bear is an agile climber. The adult stands

  • spectacled caiman (reptile)

    caiman: latirostris), spectacled (C. crocodilus), and yacaré (C. yacare) caimans; Melanosuchus, with the black caiman (M. niger); and Paleosuchus, with two species (P. trigonatus and P. palpebrosus) known as smooth-fronted caimans.

  • spectacled guillemot (seabird)

    guillemot: The spectacled guillemot (C. carbo) breeds from Japan to the Kuril Islands. The two spotted eggs of guillemots are laid in a crevice, where the young remain for six weeks until they can fly.

  • spectacled langur (primate)

    langur: geei) from Bhutan, the spectacled langur (T. obscurus) from the Malay Peninsula, with white eye rings and pink muzzle, and a group of black langurs with white markings on the head and body, including Fran?ois’ langur (T. francoisi) and its relatives, which live in the limestone country of northern…

  • spectacled owl (bird)

    Spectacled owl, (Pulsatrix perspicillata), nocturnal bird of prey found in tropical American forests and named for the white feathers around its eyes. This owl, measuring up to 48 cm (19 inches) in length, is the largest tropical American owl. It is chocolate brown except for the much lighter chest

  • spectacled porpoise (mammal)

    porpoise: The spectacled porpoise (P. dioptrica) is named for the patchlike pigmentation pattern around its eyes and is distributed throughout the southern Indian, Atlantic, and Pacific oceans.

  • spectacles (optics)

    Eyeglasses, lenses set in frames for wearing in front of the eyes to aid vision or to correct such defects of vision as myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism. In 1268 Roger Bacon made the earliest recorded comment on the use of lenses for optical purposes, but magnifying lenses inserted in frames were

  • Spectacular Bid (racehorse)

    Spectacular Bid, (foaled 1976), American racehorse (Thoroughbred) who in 1979 won two of the Triple Crown events: the Kentucky Derby and the Preakness Stakes. Considered one of the great racers in the sport, Spectacular Bid set numerous records during his career. Foaled by Spectacular, sired by

  • Spectator Bird, The (novel by Stegner)

    Wallace Stegner: The Spectator Bird (1976), which won a National Book Award, has a similar two-narrative structure that alternates between a contemporary account of an aged literary agent upset with American culture and his flashback of a visit to Denmark he and his wife made 20 years…

  • spectator violence (sports)

    sports: Spectator violence: Sports-related spectator violence is often more strongly associated with a social group than with the specific nature of the sport itself. Roman gladiatorial combats were, for example, history’s most violent sport, but the closely supervised spectators, carefully segregated by social class and gender,…

  • Spectator, The (British periodical [1711–1712])

    The Spectator, a periodical published in London by the essayists Sir Richard Steele and Joseph Addison from March 1, 1711, to Dec. 6, 1712 (appearing daily), and subsequently revived by Addison in 1714 (for 80 numbers). It succeeded The Tatler, which Steele had launched in 1709. In its aim to

  • Spectator, The (British periodical [1828–present])

    The Spectator, weekly magazine of news and opinion, published in London and widely noted for its critical reviews and essays on political, literary, and economic issues. Its editorial stance is moderately conservative and much more conservative than the larger journals with which it shares its

  • Spectatorium (theatre)

    theatre: Theatre and stage design in America: …example, he designed a “Spectatorium” for musico-spectacle-dramas; it called for a sky dome that encircled the stage, a curtain made of light, a sliding stage for scene changes, and an auditorium seating 10,000 people.

  • Specter, Arlen (American lawyer and politician)

    Arlen Specter, American lawyer and politician who was a U.S. senator from Pennsylvania (1981–2011). Originally a Democrat, he became a Republican in the 1960s before switching back to the Democratic Party in 2009. Specter, the son of Russian Jewish immigrants, was raised in Russell, Kansas. In 1951

  • spectinomycin (drug)

    gonorrhea: Diagnosis and treatment: …as ciprofloxacin, the aminocyclitol antibiotic spectinomycin, and cephalosporins such as cefoxitin became increasingly used as alternatives for eliminating N. gonorrhoeae. Some strains of the bacteria, however, later developed resistance to fluoroquinolones, and eventually multidrug-resistant strains appeared. In the early 2000s, evidence of cephalosporin-resistant N. gonorrhoeae emerged.

  • Spector, Harvey Phillip (American record producer)

    Phil Spector, American record producer of the 1960s, described by the writer Tom Wolfe as the “First Tycoon of Teen.” There had been producers since the beginning of the record industry, but none had assumed the degree of control demanded by Spector. At age 18 he and two Los Angeles school friends

  • Spector, Phil (American record producer)

    Phil Spector, American record producer of the 1960s, described by the writer Tom Wolfe as the “First Tycoon of Teen.” There had been producers since the beginning of the record industry, but none had assumed the degree of control demanded by Spector. At age 18 he and two Los Angeles school friends

  • Spector, Ronnie (American singer)

    the Ronettes: …(byname of Veronica Bennett, later Ronnie Spector; b. August 10, 1943, New York, New York, U.S.) and Estelle Bennett (b. July 22, 1941, New York, New York—d. February 11, 2009, Englewood, New Jersey) with their cousin Nedra Talley (b. January 27, 1946, New York, New York). Their single “Be My…

  • Spectra der Planeten (work by Vogel)

    Hermann Karl Vogel: …it was published in his Spectra der Planeten (1874; “Spectra of the Planets”). In 1874 he joined the staff of the new Astrophysical Observatory at Potsdam and in 1882 became its director.

  • Spectra House, The (work by Smith)

    William Jay Smith: His The Spectra House (1961) is a study of well-known literary hoaxes and lampoons.

  • spectral analysis (science)

    Spectroscopy, study of the absorption and emission of light and other radiation by matter, as related to the dependence of these processes on the wavelength of the radiation. More recently, the definition has been expanded to include the study of the interactions between particles such as

  • spectral bat (mammal)

    bat: General features: …spectrum), also known as the tropical American false vampire bat, with a wingspan of over 60 cm (24 inches). The tiny hog-nosed, or bumblebee, bat (Craseonycteris thonglongyai) of Thailand is one of the smallest mammals. It has a wingspan of barely 15 cm (6 inches) and weighs about 2 grams…

  • spectral class (astronomy)

    star: Classification of spectral types: Most stars are grouped into a small number of spectral types. The Henry Draper Catalogue and the Bright Star Catalogue list spectral types from the hottest to the coolest stars (see stellar classification). These types are designated, in order of decreasing temperature, by…

  • spectral correlation chart (physics)

    spectroscopy: Analysis of absorption spectra: …led to the development of spectral correlation charts that can be compared with observed infrared spectra to aid in ascertaining the presence or absence of particular molecular entities and in determining the structure of newly synthesized or unknown species. The infrared spectrum of any individual molecule is a unique fingerprint…

  • spectral line (physics)

    spectroscopy: Basic properties of atoms: …discrete wavelengths are sometimes called spectral lines.

  • spectral line series (physics)

    Spectral line series, any of the related sequences of wavelengths characterizing the light and other electromagnetic radiation emitted by energized atoms. The simplest of these series are produced by hydrogen. When resolved by a spectroscope, the individual components of the radiation form images

  • spectral reflectance (physics)

    asteroid: Composition: The combination of albedos and spectral reflectance measurements—specifically, measures of the amount of reflected sunlight at wavelengths between about 0.3 and 1.1 micrometres (μm)—is used to classify asteroids into various taxonomic classes. If sufficient spectral resolution is available, especially extending to wavelengths of about 2.5 μm, those measurements also can…

  • spectral tarsier (primate)

    tarsier: The South Sulawesi, or spectral, tarsier (T. tarsier, formerly called T. spectrum) is primitive, with smaller eyes, shorter feet, and a hairier tail. There are several species on Celebes and its offshore islands, but most have not yet been described scientifically. The most distinctive is the…

  • spectral type (astronomy)

    star: Classification of spectral types: Most stars are grouped into a small number of spectral types. The Henry Draper Catalogue and the Bright Star Catalogue list spectral types from the hottest to the coolest stars (see stellar classification). These types are designated, in order of decreasing temperature, by…

  • Spectre (film by Mendes [2015])

    Ralph Fiennes: …M, in Skyfall (2012) and Spectre (2015). Fiennes played a corrupt prime minister in David Hare’s trilogy of television spy films—Page Eight (2011), Turks & Caicos (2014), and Salting the Battlefield (2014).

  • Spectre de la Rose, Le (ballet)

    Vaslav Nijinsky: …Sylphides (a revision of Chopiniana), Le Spectre de la rose, Schéhérazade, Petrushka, Le Dieu bleu, Daphnis et Chloé, and Narcisse. His later ballets were Mephisto Valse, Variations on the Music of Johann Sebastian Bach, Les Papillons de nuit, and The Minstrel. Until 1917 Nijinsky appeared all over Europe, in the…

  • spectrin (cytoplasm)

    cytoskeleton: …certain types of proteins, and spectrin, which assembles along the intracellular surface of the cell membrane and helps maintain cell structure.

  • spectrochemical analysis (chemistry)

    Spectrochemical analysis, methods of chemical analysis that depend upon the measurement of the wavelength and the intensity of electromagnetic radiation. Its major use is in the determination of the arrangement of atoms and electrons in molecules of chemical compounds on the basis of the amounts

  • spectrogram (scientific image)

    comet: Ancient Greece to the 19th century: The first spectrogram (a spectrum recorded on film) was of Comet Tebbutt (C/1881 K1), taken by English astronomer William Huggins on June 24, 1881. Later the same night, an American doctor and amateur astronomer, Henry Draper, took spectra of the same comet. Both men later became professional…

  • spectrograph (physics)

    telescope: Spectrographs: Newton noted the interesting way in which a piece of glass can break up light into different bands of colour, but it was not until 1814 that the German physicist Joseph von Fraunhofer discovered the lines of the solar spectrum and laid the basis…

  • spectrograph, sound (instrument)

    sound: The sound spectrograph: A sound that changes in time, such as a spoken word or a bird call, can be more completely described by examining how the Fourier spectrum changes with time. In a graph called the sound spectrograph, frequency of the complex sound is plotted…

  • spectroheliograph (instrument)

    Henri-Alexandre Deslandres: …who in 1894 invented a spectroheliograph, an instrument that photographs the Sun in monochromatic light. (About a year earlier George E. Hale had independently invented a spectroheliograph in the United States.)

  • spectrolite (mineral)

    Labradorite, a feldspar mineral in the plagioclase series that is often valued as a gemstone and as ornamental material for its red, blue, or green iridescence. The mineral is usually gray or brown to black and need not be iridescent; when used as a gem it is usually cut en cabochon (with a rounded

  • spectrometer (scientific instrument)

    Spectrometer, Device for detecting and analyzing wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation, commonly used for molecular spectroscopy; more broadly, any of various instruments in which an emission (as of electromagnetic radiation or particles) is spread out according to some property (as energy or

  • spectrometry (science)

    Spectroscopy, study of the absorption and emission of light and other radiation by matter, as related to the dependence of these processes on the wavelength of the radiation. More recently, the definition has been expanded to include the study of the interactions between particles such as

  • spectrophotometer (instrument)

    acid–base reaction: Dissociation constants in aqueous solution: …using an instrument called a spectrophotometer. Since [H3O+] must also be known, the commonest procedure is to measure [A]/[B] in a solution made by adding a small quantity of A or B to a standard buffer solution. If A and B do not have convenient optical properties—as is commonly the…

  • spectrophotometry (physics)

    Spectrophotometry, branch of spectroscopy that deals with measurement of the radiant energy transmitted or reflected by a body as a function of the wavelength. Ordinarily the intensity of the energy transmitted is compared to that transmitted by some other system that serves as a standard.

  • spectroscope (instrument)

    telescope: Spectrographs: …technically referred to as a spectroscope.

  • spectroscopic binary star (astronomy)

    star: Spectroscopic binaries: Spectroscopic binary stars are found from observations of radial velocity. At least the brighter member of such a binary can be seen to have a continuously changing periodic velocity that alters the wavelengths of its spectral lines in a rhythmic way; the velocity…

  • spectroscopic parallax (astronomy)

    Milky Way Galaxy: The stellar luminosity function: …methods include the use of spectroscopic parallaxes, which can involve much larger volumes of space. A third method entails the use of mean parallaxes of a star of a given proper motion and apparent magnitude; this yields a statistical sample of stars of approximately known and uniform distance. The fourth…

  • spectroscopy (science)

    Spectroscopy, study of the absorption and emission of light and other radiation by matter, as related to the dependence of these processes on the wavelength of the radiation. More recently, the definition has been expanded to include the study of the interactions between particles such as

  • spectroscopy system (radiation detection)

    radiation measurement: Spectroscopy systems: The pulse-mode counting systems described above provide no detailed information on the amplitude of the pulses that are accepted. In many types of detectors, the charge Q and thus the amplitude of the signal pulse is proportional to the energy deposited by the…

  • spectroscopy, mass

    Mass spectrometry, analytic technique by which chemical substances are identified by the sorting of gaseous ions in electric and magnetic fields according to their mass-to-charge ratios. The instruments used in such studies are called mass spectrometers and mass spectrographs, and they operate on

  • spectrum (physics)

    Spectrum, in optics, the arrangement according to wavelength of visible, ultraviolet, and infrared light. An instrument designed for visual observation of spectra is called a spectroscope; an instrument that photographs or maps spectra is a spectrograph. Spectra may be classified according to the

  • spectrum analyzer (mathematics)

    analog computer: Stratton built in 1898 a harmonic analyzer (q.v.) having 80 components. Each of these was capable of generating a sinusoidal motion, which could be multiplied by constant factors by adjustment of a fulcrum on levers. The components were added by means of springs to produce a resultant. Another milestone in…

  • spectrum bolometer (instrument)

    bolometer: The spectrum bolometer consists of a single strip set on edge, in an arm of a bridge. It is used for exploring the distribution of intensity of radiation in a spectrum.

  • spectrum variable star (astronomy)

    star: Peculiar variables: Spectrum and magnetic variables, mostly of spectral type A, show only small amplitudes of light variation but often pronounced spectroscopic changes. Their spectra typically show strong lines of metals such as manganese, titanium, iron, chromium, and the lanthanides (also called rare

  • spectrum, pulse-height (physics)

    radiation measurement: Spectroscopy systems: …channels matching their amplitude, a pulse-height spectrum is accumulated that, after a given measurement time, might resemble the example given in Figure 3. In this spectrum, peaks correspond to those pulse amplitudes around which many events occur. Because pulse amplitude is related to deposited energy, such peaks often correspond to…

  • Specularia speculum-veneris (plant)

    Venus’s looking glass, (Legousia, or Specularia, speculum-veneris), species of annual herb of the bellflower family (Campanulaceae), native to sandy, sunny parts of the Mediterranean region. It is grown as a garden ornamental for its blue, violet, or white, wide-open, bell-shaped flowers. The long

  • speculation (finance)

    financial market: …financial market contains no destabilizing speculation. Indeed, in the classic statement of the case for efficient markets, made in the 1950s, Milton Friedman ruled out the possibility of the very existence of destabilizing speculation. He argued that, to destabilize markets, speculators would have to buy assets for more than the…

  • Speculations About Jakob (novel by Johnson)

    Uwe Johnson: …novel, Mutmassungen über Jakob (1959; Speculations About Jakob). Its modernist narrative and its frank engagement with the problems faced daily by German citizens brought Johnson critical acclaim. Aware that his work would not be published in East Germany as long as he wrote what he wished to write and unable—because…

  • speculative fiction (literature and performance)

    Science fiction, a form of fiction that deals principally with the impact of actual or imagined science upon society or individuals. The term science fiction was popularized, if not invented, in the 1920s by one of the genre’s principal advocates, the American publisher Hugo Gernsback. The Hugo

  • speculative grammar

    Speculative grammar, a linguistic theory of the Middle Ages, especially the second half of the 13th century. It is “speculative” not in the modern sense but as the word is derived from the Latin speculum (“mirror”), indicating a belief that language reflects the reality underlying the physical

  • Speculum de l’autre femme (work by Irigaray)

    Luce Irigaray: …Speculum de l’autre femme (1974; Speculum of the Other Woman), which was highly critical of Freudian and Lacanian psychoanalysis, resulted in her dismissal from her teaching positions at Vincennes and the école Freudienne. From 1964 Irigaray held a research position at the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (National Centre…

  • Speculum Dianae (lake, Italy)

    Lake Nemi, crater lake in Lazio (Latium) regione, central Italy. It lies in the outer ring of the ancient Alban crater, in the Alban Hills, east of Lake Albano and 15 miles (24 km) southeast of Rome. About 3.5 miles (5.5 km) in circumference and 110 feet (34 m) deep, it is drained via a tunnel

  • Speculum ecclesiae (work by Saint Edmund of Abingdon)

    St. Edmund of Abingdon: …Edmund, those assuredly authentic include Speculum ecclesiae (Eng. trans. by F.M. Steele, 1905), a widely known devotional treatise considered a major contribution to medieval theology.

  • Speculum iudiciale (work by Durand)

    Guillaume Durand: …writer rests chiefly on his Speculum iudiciale (first published 1271–76, revised and reissued c. 1289–91), an encyclopaedic treatise of canon law (and, to some extent, civil law) from the viewpoint of court procedure. The book remains valuable for its information on the judicial practice of the medieval church courts, especially…

  • Speculum majus (encyclopaedia by Vincent of Beauvais)

    Vincent Of Beauvais: …French scholar and encyclopaedist whose Speculum majus (“Great Mirror”) was probably the greatest European encyclopaedia up to the 18th century.

  • Speculum meditantis (work by Gower)

    John Gower: The Speculum meditantis, or Mirour de l’omme, in French, is composed of 12-line stanzas and opens impressively with a description of the devil’s marriage to the seven daughters of sin; continuing with the marriage of reason and the seven virtues, it ends with a searing examination…

  • Speculum Mentis (work by Collingwood)

    R.G. Collingwood: …followed by a major work, Speculum Mentis (1924), which proposed a philosophy of culture stressing the unity of the mind. Structured around five forms of experience—art, religion, science, history, and philosophy—the work sought a synthesis of levels of knowledge.

  • speculum metal

    coin: Ancient Britain: …of small, cast pieces of speculum, a brittle bronze alloy with 20 percent tin. These coins copied the bronze of Massilia (Marseille) of the 2nd century bce and circulated, mainly in southeastern Britain, early in the 1st century bce their relationship with contemporary iron currency bars is uncertain. At the…

  • Speculum musicae (work by Liège)

    Ars Nova: …theorist Jacques de Liège, whose Speculum musicae (“The Mirror of Music”) extolls the virtues of the older masters of the Ars Antiqua.

  • Speculum of the Other Woman (work by Irigaray)

    Luce Irigaray: …Speculum de l’autre femme (1974; Speculum of the Other Woman), which was highly critical of Freudian and Lacanian psychoanalysis, resulted in her dismissal from her teaching positions at Vincennes and the école Freudienne. From 1964 Irigaray held a research position at the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (National Centre…

  • Speculum universale (work by Ardent)

    encyclopaedia: Historical development of topical works: …alternative title of the 12th-century Speculum universale (“Universal Mirror”) of a French preacher, Raoul Ardent (a follower of Gilbert de La Porrée, a French theologian), was the Summa de vitiis et virtutibus (“Summa [Exposition] of Faults and Virtues”). Raoul’s intent was to provide a modern authoritative account of the Christian…

  • Spedding process (metallurgy)

    thorium processing: Reduction to the metal: …metal is obtained by the Spedding process, in which powdered ThF4 is mixed with finely divided calcium (Ca) and a zinc halide (either zinc chloride or zinc fluoride) and placed in a sealed, refractory-lined “bomb.” Upon heating to approximately 650 °C (1,200 °F), an exothermic reaction ensues that reduces the…

  • Spedding, Frank Harold (American chemist)

    Frank Harold Spedding, American chemist who, during the 1940s and ’50s, developed processes for reducing individual rare-earth elements to the metallic state at low cost, thereby making these substances available to industry at reasonable prices. He also helped to purify the uranium used in 1942

  • Spedding, Sir David Rolland (British government official)

    Sir David Rolland Spedding, British intelligence agent and administrator (born March 7, 1943—died June 13, 2001, London, Eng.), was from 1994 to 1999 chief of the Secret Intelligence Service (MI-6), the branch of the British government responsible for foreign intelligence and espionage a

  • Spedizione dei Mille (Italian campaign)

    Expedition of the Thousand, campaign undertaken in 1860 by Giuseppe Garibaldi that overthrew the Bourbon Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (Naples) and permitted the union of southern Italy and Sicily with the north. The expedition was one of the most dramatic events of the Risorgimento (movement for

  • Spee, Maximilian Johannes Maria Hubert, Graf von (German admiral)

    Maximilian, Graf von Spee, admiral who commanded German forces in the battles of Coronel and the Falkland (Malvinas) Islands early in World War I. He entered the German navy in 1878, and in 1887–88 he commanded the port in German Cameroon. In 1908 he was made chief of staff of the German Ocean

  • Spee, Maximilian, Graf von (German admiral)

    Maximilian, Graf von Spee, admiral who commanded German forces in the battles of Coronel and the Falkland (Malvinas) Islands early in World War I. He entered the German navy in 1878, and in 1887–88 he commanded the port in German Cameroon. In 1908 he was made chief of staff of the German Ocean

  • speech (language)

    Speech, human communication through spoken language. Although many animals possess voices of various types and inflectional capabilities, humans have learned to modulate their voices by articulating the laryngeal tones into audible oral speech. Human speech is served by a bellows-like respiratory

  • speech act theory (philosophy)

    Speech act theory, Theory of meaning that holds that the meaning of linguistic expressions can be explained in terms of the rules governing their use in performing various speech acts (e.g., admonishing, asserting, commanding, exclaiming, promising, questioning, requesting, warning). In contrast to

  • Speech Acts: An Essay in the Philosophy of Language (work by Searle)

    John Searle: Dimensions and taxonomy: In his first major work, Speech Acts: An Essay in the Philosophy of Language (1969), Searle treated speech acts much more systematically than Austin had. He proposed that each kind of speech act can be defined in terms of a set of rules that identify the conditions that are individually…

  • Speech and Hearing (work by Fletcher)

    Harvey Fletcher: …is described in his book Speech and Hearing (1922).

  • speech code (education)

    academic freedom: …the measures, known as “speech codes,” defended them as necessary to protect minorities and women against discrimination and harassment, opponents contended that they unconstitutionally infringed the free-speech rights of students and teachers and effectively undermined academic freedom. Many of these mostly conservative critics charged that the codes amounted to…

  • speech disorder (medicine)

    Speech disorder, any of the disorders that impair human speech. Human communication relies largely on the faculty of speech, supplemented by the production of certain sounds, each of which is unique in meaning. Human speech is extraordinarily complex, consisting of sound waves of a diverse range of

  • speech impediment (medicine)

    Speech disorder, any of the disorders that impair human speech. Human communication relies largely on the faculty of speech, supplemented by the production of certain sounds, each of which is unique in meaning. Human speech is extraordinarily complex, consisting of sound waves of a diverse range of

  • speech measure (literature)

    Icelandic literature: The Eddaic verse forms: …poetry: the epic measure, the speech measure, and the song measure. Most narrative poems are in the first measure, which consists of short lines of two beats joined in pairs by alliteration. The number of weakly stressed syllables might vary, but the total number of syllables in the line is…

  • speech pathology (medicine)

    Speech disorder, any of the disorders that impair human speech. Human communication relies largely on the faculty of speech, supplemented by the production of certain sounds, each of which is unique in meaning. Human speech is extraordinarily complex, consisting of sound waves of a diverse range of

Your preference has been recorded
Check out Britannica's new site for parents!
Subscribe Today!
色色影院-色色影院app下载