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  • Spencer, Bud (Italian actor)

    Bud Spencer, (Carlo Pedersoli), Italian actor (born Oct. 31, 1929, Naples, Italy—died June 27, 2016, Rome, Italy), starred in dozens of spaghetti westerns and comedies that won him many fans throughout the world; his admirers included American filmmaker Quentin Tarantino and Australian actor

  • Spencer, Christopher M. (American inventor and manufacturer)

    Christopher M. Spencer, American inventor and manufacturer. In 1860 he patented a repeating carbine whose seven cartridges could be fired in 18 seconds. It was quickly adopted by the U.S. government for cavalry use, and Spencer built his own factory, which produced 200,000 Spencer carbines and

  • Spencer, Christopher Miner (American inventor and manufacturer)

    Christopher M. Spencer, American inventor and manufacturer. In 1860 he patented a repeating carbine whose seven cartridges could be fired in 18 seconds. It was quickly adopted by the U.S. government for cavalry use, and Spencer built his own factory, which produced 200,000 Spencer carbines and

  • Spencer, Edward John Spencer, 8th Earl (British statesman)

    Diana, princess of Wales: Early life and education: …child and youngest daughter of Edward John Spencer, Viscount Althorp, heir to the 7th Earl Spencer, and his first wife, Frances Ruth Burke Roche (daughter of the 4th Baron Fermoy). Her parents’ troubled marriage ended in divorce when Diana was a child, and she, along with her brother and two…

  • Spencer, Elizabeth (American author)

    American literature: Southern fiction: …in the Southern tradition include Elizabeth Spencer, whose short fiction was collected in The Southern Woman (2001), and Reynolds Price, whose best novels were A Long and Happy Life (1961) and Kate Vaiden (1986). Initially known for his lyrical portraits of Southern eccentrics (Other Voices, Other Rooms [1948]), Truman Capote

  • Spencer, Ellen (American lawyer, educator and reformer)

    Ellen Spencer Mussey, American lawyer, educator, and reformer who, self-tutored in the law, helped establish educational opportunities for women in that field and campaigned to improve women’s legal rights. Ellen Spencer was the daughter of Platt Rogers Spencer, reformer and promoter of the widely

  • Spencer, Herbert (British philosopher)

    Herbert Spencer, English sociologist and philosopher, an early advocate of the theory of evolution, who achieved an influential synthesis of knowledge, advocating the preeminence of the individual over society and of science over religion. His magnum opus was The Synthetic Philosophy (1896), a

  • Spencer, John (American actor)

    John Spencer, (John Speshock), American actor (born Dec. 20, 1946, New York, N.Y.?—died Dec. 16, 2005, Los Angeles, Calif.), was best remembered for his role as Leo McGarry on the hit television show West Wing, for which he won an Emmy Award in 2002. Spencer’s television career began in the 1960s w

  • Spencer, John (British snooker player)

    John Spencer, British snooker player (born Sept. 18, 1935, Radcliffe, Lancashire, Eng.—died July 11, 2006, Bury, Lancashire, Eng.), captured the snooker world championship on his first attempt in 1969 and went on to win twice more (1971 and 1977). He was also a three-time winner (1970, 1971, 1

  • Spencer, John Charles Spencer, 3rd Earl (British statesman)

    John Charles Spencer, 3rd Earl Spencer, statesman, leader of the British House of Commons and chancellor of the Exchequer from 1830 to 1834. He greatly aided Lord John Russell (afterward 1st Earl Russell), chief author of the Reform Bill of 1832, in securing its passage in the Commons. Courageous,

  • Spencer, Lady Diana Frances (British princess)

    Diana, princess of Wales, former consort (1981–96) of Charles, prince of Wales; mother of the heir second in line to the British throne, Prince William, duke of Cambridge (born 1982); and one of the foremost celebrities of her day. (For more on Diana, especially on the effect of her celebrity

  • Spencer, Lilly Martin (American painter)

    Lilly Martin Spencer, American painter who created enormously popular genre paintings, illustrations, and portraits. Angelique Martin was the daughter of French parents who emigrated from England to the United States in 1830. She grew up in Marietta, Ohio, and received a thorough education at home.

  • Spencer, Octavia (American actress)

    Octavia Spencer, American actress who was known for her numerous small, generally comic roles before she shot to stardom as one of the lead characters in the film The Help (2011). Spencer won an Academy Award, a Golden Globe Award, and a BAFTA Award for her performance as an outspoken domestic

  • Spencer, Octavia Lenora (American actress)

    Octavia Spencer, American actress who was known for her numerous small, generally comic roles before she shot to stardom as one of the lead characters in the film The Help (2011). Spencer won an Academy Award, a Golden Globe Award, and a BAFTA Award for her performance as an outspoken domestic

  • Spencer, Platt Rogers (American calligrapher)

    Spencerian penmanship: …style of handwriting developed by Platt Rogers Spencer (died 1864) of Geneva, Ohio. Energetically promoted by Spencer’s five sons and a nephew, the Spencerian method became the most widely known system of writing instruction in the United States after about 1850.

  • Spencer, Robert Sunderland, 2nd Earl of, Baron Spencer of Wormleighton (English statesman)

    Robert Spencer, 2nd Earl of Sunderland, English statesman who was one of the most influential advisers during the reigns of Charles II, James II, and William III. His ability to shift allegiances was both the secret of his success and the cause of his unpopularity. Spencer was the only son and heir

  • Spencer, Sir Baldwin (British anthropologist)

    Sir Baldwin Spencer, English biologist and anthropologist, the first trained and experienced scientist to enter the field of Australian anthropology. After briefly studying art, Spencer went to Owens College and in 1881 to Exeter College, Oxford, receiving his B.A. with first-class honours in

  • Spencer, Sir Stanley (English painter)

    Sir Stanley Spencer, one of the leading painters in England between the World Wars. He used an expressively distorted style of drawing and often drew upon Christian subjects. Spencer studied at the Slade School of Fine Art in London from 1908 to 1912, and he first exhibited at the New English Art

  • Spencer, Sir Walter Baldwin (British anthropologist)

    Sir Baldwin Spencer, English biologist and anthropologist, the first trained and experienced scientist to enter the field of Australian anthropology. After briefly studying art, Spencer went to Owens College and in 1881 to Exeter College, Oxford, receiving his B.A. with first-class honours in

  • Spencer, Thomas (British businessman)

    Marks & Spencer PLC: ” In 1894 he took Thomas Spencer as a business partner. Marks’s son Simon transformed the business from a number of outdoor stalls in various markets in northern England to a number of indoor shops, and he launched the company’s St. Michael brand name—a popular label for decades. In 1988…

  • Spencer, Wallis Warfield (American socialite)

    Wallis Simpson, American socialite who became the wife of Prince Edward, duke of Windsor (Edward VIII), after the latter had abdicated the British throne in order to marry her. Wallis Warfield was born into an old established American family and attended the Oldfields School in Cockeysville,

  • Spencer, Winston Baldwin (prime minister of Antigua and Barbuda)

    Baldwin Spencer, Antiguan trade unionist and politician who served as prime minister of Antigua and Barbuda from 2004 to 2014. His election marked the end of a dynasty in Antiguan politics; since the country’s independence in 1981, the office of prime minister had been held by a member of the Bird

  • Spencerian penmanship (calligraphy)

    Spencerian penmanship, style of handwriting developed by Platt Rogers Spencer (died 1864) of Geneva, Ohio. Energetically promoted by Spencer’s five sons and a nephew, the Spencerian method became the most widely known system of writing instruction in the United States after about 1850. The first

  • Spender, John Humphrey (British photojournalist and artist)

    Humphrey Spender, British photojournalist and artist (born April 19, 1910, London, Eng.—died March 11, 2005, Ulting, Essex, Eng.), chronicled the everyday lives of working-class Britons during the 1930s and ’40s in a series of candid, often surreptitiously taken, photographs for the M

  • Spender, Sir Stephen (English poet)

    Sir Stephen Spender, English poet and critic, who made his reputation in the 1930s with poems expressing the politically conscience-stricken, leftist “new writing” of that period. A nephew of the Liberal journalist and biographer J.A. Spender, he was educated at University College School, London,

  • Spender, Sir Stephen Harold (English poet)

    Sir Stephen Spender, English poet and critic, who made his reputation in the 1930s with poems expressing the politically conscience-stricken, leftist “new writing” of that period. A nephew of the Liberal journalist and biographer J.A. Spender, he was educated at University College School, London,

  • Spener, Philipp Jakob (German theologian and author)

    Philipp Jakob Spener, theologian, author, and a leading figure in German Pietism, a movement among 17th- and 18th-century Protestants that stressed personal improvement and upright conduct as the most important manifestations of Christian faith. During his studies at Strassburg (1651–59) Spener

  • Spengler, Adam (Swiss potter)

    pottery: Switzerland and Russia: … in 1763 and directed by Adam Spengler made both faience and porcelain and, after 1790, creamware. Delicate figures, some modelled by J.V. Sonnenschein from Ludwigsburg, and good-quality service ware were produced.

  • Spengler, Oswald (German philosopher)

    Oswald Spengler, German philosopher whose reputation rests entirely on his influential study Der Untergang des Abendlandes, 2 vol. (1918–22; The Decline of the West), a major contribution to social theory. After taking his doctorate at the University of Halle (1904), Spengler worked as a

  • Spenlow, Dora (fictional character)

    Dora Spenlow, fictional character, the childlike first wife of David Copperfield in the novel David Copperfield (1849–50) by Charles

  • Spens, Major (British sportsman)

    rackets: History.: …Julian Marshall and rackets authority Major Spens. The Tennis, Rackets and Fives Association was formed in 1907 to govern the sport. During and following World War I, private courts closed and rackets play declined. The expense of building courts and playing the game and the rising popularity of squash rackets…

  • Spenser, Edmund (English poet)

    Edmund Spenser, English poet whose long allegorical poem The Faerie Queene is one of the greatest in the English language. It was written in what came to be called the Spenserian stanza. Little is certainly known about Spenser. He was related to a noble Midlands family of Spencer, whose fortunes

  • Spenserian sonnet (poetic form)

    sonnet: …of the sonnet (known as Spenserian) that follows the English quatrain and couplet pattern but resembles the Italian in using a linked rhyme scheme: abab bcbc cdcd ee. Perhaps the greatest of all sonnet sequences is Shakespeare’s, addressed to a young man and a “dark lady.” In these sonnets the…

  • Spenserian stanza (poetic form)

    Spenserian stanza, verse form that consists of eight iambic pentameter lines followed by a ninth line of six iambic feet (an alexandrine); the rhyme scheme is ababbcbcc. The first eight lines produce an effect of formal unity, while the hexameter completes the thought of the stanza. Invented by

  • spent lye (chemical solution)

    soap and detergent: Boiling process: …slightly alkaline salt solution, termed spent lye, is extracted from the bottom of the pan or kettle and subsequently treated for glycerin recovery.

  • Spenta Armaiti (Zoroastrianism)

    amesha spenta: Spenta Armaiti (Beneficent Devotion), the spirit of devotion and faith, guides and protects the believer. She presides over Earth. Haurvatāt (Wholeness or Perfection) and Ameretāt (Immortality) are often mentioned together as sisters. They preside over water and plants and may come to the believer as…

  • Spenta Mainyu (Zoroastrian deity)

    Spenta Mainyu, in Zoroastrianism, the Holy Spirit, created by the Wise Lord, Ahura Mazdā, to oppose the Destructive Spirit, Angra Mainyu. Spenta Mainyu is an aspect of the Wise Lord himself. Through the Holy Spirit, Ahura Mazdā creates life and goodness. According to Zoroastrian belief, Spenta

  • Speothos venaticus (canine)

    Bush dog, (Speothos venaticus), small, stocky carnivore of the family Canidae found in the forests and savannas of Central and South America. The bush dog is a rare species, and its numbers are declining as a result of the destruction of its natural habitat. The bush dog has short legs and long

  • Speotyto cunicularia (bird)

    Burrowing owl, (Speotyto cunicularia), small owl of the family Strigidae (order Strigiformes) that inhabits prairie lands of the Western Hemisphere from southwestern Canada to Tierra del Fuego. Burrowing owls live in holes abandoned by other animals. They eat mainly insects and small rodents. They

  • Speransky, Mikhail Mikhaylovich, Graf (Russian statesman)

    Mikhail Mikhaylovich, Count Speransky, Russian statesman prominent during the Napoleonic period, administrative secretary and assistant to Emperor Alexander I. He later compiled the first complete collection of Russian law, Complete Collection of the Laws of the Russian Empire, 45 vol. (1830),

  • Speratus (North African Christian)

    Scillitan Martyrs: Speratus, the Christians’ principal spokesman, claimed that he and his companions had lived quiet and moral lives, paid their dues, and did no wrong to their neighbours. But for refusing to apostatize (deny their faith) or swear by the “genius” of the emperor, they were…

  • Spergularia rubra (plant)
  • Sperling, John Glen (American businessman)

    John Glen Sperling, American businessman (born Jan. 9, 1921, Willow Springs, Mo.—died Aug. 22, 2014, San Francisco, Calif.), parlayed an investment of $26,000 into the creation (1978) of the University of Phoenix, an online for-profit learning institution aimed at working adult students, which he

  • sperm (physiology)

    Sperm, male reproductive cell, produced by most animals. With the exception of nematode worms, decapods (e.g., crayfish), diplopods (e.g., millipedes), and mites, sperm are flagellated; that is, they have a whiplike tail. In higher vertebrates, especially mammals, sperm are produced in the testes.

  • sperm competition (biology)

    Sperm competition, a special form of mating competition that occurs in sexual species when females accept multiple mating partners over a relatively short period of time. The potential for overlap between the sperm of different males within the female has resulted in a diversity of behavioral

  • sperm count

    semen analysis: …acidity (pH), sperm number (or sperm count), and the motility, shape, and viability of sperm. An examination of seminal fluid is usually undertaken to check for possible male infertility. In addition to obtaining a complete history, performing a physical examination of both partners, and verifying that ovulation does occur in…

  • sperm duct (anatomy)

    Ductus deferens, thick-walled tube in the male reproductive system that transports sperm cells from the epididymis, where the sperm are stored prior to ejaculation. Each ductus deferens ends in an enlarged portion, an ampulla, which acts as a reservoir. There are two ductus deferentes, identical in

  • sperm oil (chemical compound)

    Sperm oil, pale yellow oil obtained with spermaceti from the head cavity (spermaceti organ) and blubber of the sperm whale. Formerly used as a superior lighting oil and later as a lubricant, it was little used in the modern period apart from in certain toiletries and pharmaceuticals, although in

  • sperm washing (human infertility treatment)

    AIDS: HIV and pregnancy: Sperm washing is used when HIV-positive men wish to father a child with an HIV-negative woman. Sperm washing entails the separation of sperm cells from the HIV-infected seminal fluid. That process ensures that the sperm cells are free of the virus. The sperm are then…

  • sperm web

    spider: Courtship: …a special web called the sperm web. The silk for it comes from two sources, the spinnerets at the end of the abdomen and the spigots of the epigastric silk glands located between the book lungs. A drop of fluid containing sperm is deposited onto the sperm web through an…

  • sperm whale (mammal)

    Sperm whale, (Physeter catodon), the largest of the toothed whales, easily recognized by its enormous square head and narrow lower jaw. The sperm whale is dark blue-gray or brownish, with white patches on the belly. It is thickset and has small paddlelike flippers and a series of rounded humps on

  • spermaceti (wax)

    Spermaceti, a wax, liquid at body temperature, obtained from the head of a sperm whale or bottlenose whale. Spermaceti was used chiefly in ointments, cosmetic creams, fine wax candles, pomades, and textile finishing; later it was used for industrial lubricants. The substance was named in the

  • spermaceti organ (zoology)

    sperm oil: … from the head cavity (spermaceti organ) and blubber of the sperm whale. Formerly used as a superior lighting oil and later as a lubricant, it was little used in the modern period apart from in certain toiletries and pharmaceuticals, although in 1950 advances in oil chemistry allowed it to…

  • spermatangia (biology)

    red algae: …in male sex organs, the spermatangia.

  • spermatheca (anatomy)

    arachnid: Reproduction and life cycle: …transferred to a sac (spermatheca) within the female reproductive system. The eggs are fertilized as they are laid. Mating in sunspiders is more active, occurring at dusk or during the night. During courting the male seizes the female, lays her on her side, massages her undersurface, opens her genital…

  • spermathecal duct (insect anatomy)

    orthopteran: General features: …male genital organs to the spermathecal duct of the female. The spermathecal duct opens at the base of the ovipositor valves. Sperm pass to the female during copulation; after sperm transfer is complete, parts of the spermatophore may remain attached to both male and female. In some orthopterans, particularly crickets…

  • spermatic cord (anatomy)

    Spermatic cord, either of a pair of tubular structures in the male reproductive system that support the testes in the scrotum. Each cord is sheathed in connective tissue and contains a network of arteries, veins, nerves, and the first section of the ductus deferens, through which sperm pass in the

  • spermatium (fungal structure)

    fungus: Form and function of lichens: …(male fungal sex cells) or pycnidiospores; it is not certain that these structures have the ability to germinate and develop into a fungal colony. Few lichen fungi produce conidia, a type of asexual spore common among ascomycetes.

  • spermatogenesis (physiology)

    Spermatogenesis, the origin and development of the sperm cells within the male reproductive organs, the testes. The testes are composed of numerous thin, tightly coiled tubules known as the seminiferous tubules; the sperm cells are produced within the walls of the tubules. Within the walls of the

  • spermatogenic cell (anatomy)

    animal reproductive system: Testes: Spermatogenic cells migrate into the cysts from a permanent germinal layer, which, depending on the species, may lie among cysts at the periphery of the testes or in a ridge along one margin of the testis. After invading the thin nongerminal epithelium of a cyst,…

  • spermatogonial cyst (anatomy)

    animal reproductive system: Testes: …there are large numbers of spermatogonial cysts (also called spermatocysts, sperm follicles, ampullae, crypts, sacs, acini, and capsules) in which sperm develop, but in which the epithelium is not germinal. Spermatogenic cells migrate into the cysts from a permanent germinal layer, which, depending on the species, may lie among cysts…

  • spermatogonium (physiology)

    spermatogenesis: The immature cells (called spermatogonia) are all derived from cells called stem cells in the outer wall of the seminiferous tubules. The stem cells are composed almost entirely of nuclear material. (The nucleus of the cell is the portion containing the chromosomes.) The stem cells begin their process by…

  • spermatophore (biology)

    reproductive behaviour: Mollusks: …is structurally modified for carrying spermatophores, or balls of sperm. The male cuttlefish (Sepia) places the spermatophores in a pocket near the female’s mouth, from which the sperm subsequently make their way to the tubes that carry eggs (oviducts). In no squid studied thus far do either of the sexes…

  • Spermatophyta (biology)

    Spermatophyte, any of the flowering plants (angiosperms) and conifers and allies (gymnosperms). An earlier classification considered these plants subgroups of the Spermatophyta, a taxonomic unit no longer generally considered v

  • spermatophyte (biology)

    Spermatophyte, any of the flowering plants (angiosperms) and conifers and allies (gymnosperms). An earlier classification considered these plants subgroups of the Spermatophyta, a taxonomic unit no longer generally considered v

  • spermatozoa (physiology)

    Sperm, male reproductive cell, produced by most animals. With the exception of nematode worms, decapods (e.g., crayfish), diplopods (e.g., millipedes), and mites, sperm are flagellated; that is, they have a whiplike tail. In higher vertebrates, especially mammals, sperm are produced in the testes.

  • spermatozoan (physiology)

    Sperm, male reproductive cell, produced by most animals. With the exception of nematode worms, decapods (e.g., crayfish), diplopods (e.g., millipedes), and mites, sperm are flagellated; that is, they have a whiplike tail. In higher vertebrates, especially mammals, sperm are produced in the testes.

  • spermatozoon (physiology)

    Sperm, male reproductive cell, produced by most animals. With the exception of nematode worms, decapods (e.g., crayfish), diplopods (e.g., millipedes), and mites, sperm are flagellated; that is, they have a whiplike tail. In higher vertebrates, especially mammals, sperm are produced in the testes.

  • spermicide (contraceptive)

    contraception: Barrier devices: Various mechanical devices used with spermicides have fewer risks attached, but they are generally less effective in practice because the user must be well-informed and willing to use them consistently. All barrier devices prevent sperm from entering the uterus—by sheathing the penis with a condom, by covering the uterine cervix…

  • Spermo (Greek mythology)

    Anius: Anius’s three daughters, Oeno, Spermo, and Elais—that is, Wine, Grain Seed, and Oil—were granted by Dionysus the gift of bringing these three crops to fruition. In Ovid’s Metamorphoses the Greek army tries to force Anius’s daughters to come to Troy, whereupon Dionysus turns them into doves, the sacred birds…

  • Spermophilopsis (rodent)

    ground squirrel: Nontropical ground squirrels: …to the single species of long-clawed ground squirrel (genus Spermophilopsis), whereas the deserts of the southwestern United States and northern Mexico are populated by five species of antelope ground squirrel (genus Ammospermophilus). The white-tailed antelope squirrel (A. leucurus) of the southwestern United States is one of the smallest of all…

  • Spermophilus (rodent)

    Suslik, any of the 13 species of Eurasian ground squirrels belonging to the genus

  • Spermophilus armatus (rodent)

    ground squirrel: Nontropical ground squirrels: Others, such as the Uinta ground squirrel (S. armatus) of the Rocky Mountains in the western United States, are primarily vegetarian, eating mostly green plant parts and seeds.

  • Spermophilus beecheyi (rodent)

    dormancy: Entrance into hibernation: …woodchuck, the dormouse, and the California ground squirrel enter hibernation in successive stages, with a complete or nearly complete awakening between each one. In the woodchuck, an initial decline in temperature is followed by an arousal. During the second decline there is a lower and more pronounced fall in body…

  • Spermophilus beldingi (rodent)

    kin selection: The elements of kin selection (that is,…

  • Spermophilus franklinii (rodent)

    ground squirrel: Nontropical ground squirrels: Franklin’s ground squirrel (Spermophilus franklinii) of the north-central United States and southern Canada eats a representative omnivore diet: a wide variety of green plant parts, fruit, insects (caterpillars, grasshoppers, crickets, beetles and their larvae, and ants), vertebrates (toads, frogs, the eggs and chicks of ducks…

  • Spermophilus lateralis (mammal)

    Colorado tick fever: …of the virus is the golden-mantled ground squirrel, Citellus lateralis. The carrier tick is found chiefly in the western parts of the United States, notably in Colorado, and is most active in the late spring and summer.

  • Spermophilus richardsonii (rodent)

    Canada: Grasslands: …the common grassland mammals are Richardson’s ground squirrel and the pocket gopher, both of which damage young grain crops. They continue to proliferate despite predation by badgers, hawks, and owls and farmers’ attempts at control. The first settlers to cross the Canadian prairies encountered enormous herds of bison (often called…

  • Spermophilus tridecemlineatus (rodent)

    ground squirrel: Nontropical ground squirrels: The body temperature of the 13-lined ground squirrel (S. tridecemlineatus) of central North America drops from 37 °C (98.6 °F) to 1 to 3 degrees above burrow temperature. During this time the heart rate decreases from 200 to 350 beats per minute in the active animal to about 5, and…

  • Spermophilus undulatus (rodent)

    dormancy: Causes of dormancy: For example, the Arctic ground squirrel (whose winter period of dormancy is referred to as hibernation), when taken into the laboratory, supplied with adequate amounts of food and water, and exposed to constant temperature and light, exhibits periodic torpor (extreme sluggishness)—an innate behavioral pattern that operates independently of…

  • Spermophilus variegatus (rodent)

    ground squirrel: Nontropical ground squirrels: …of the largest is the rock squirrel (Spermophilus variegatus) of the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. Weighing 450 to 875 grams, it has a body up to 30 cm long and a somewhat shorter, bushy tail. Members of both these genera have internal cheek pouches, which are used to…

  • Spero, Nancy (American artist)

    Nancy Spero, American artist (born Aug. 24, 1926, Cleveland, Ohio—died Oct. 18, 2009, New York, N.Y.), produced politically charged, highly symbolic figurative paintings and mixed-media works that reflected her feminist consciousness. Spero honed her artistic skills at the Art Institute of Chicago

  • Sperostoma giganteum (echinoderm)

    sea urchin: …from a single specimen) is Sperostoma giganteum of deep waters off Japan. Hatpin urchins, such as Centrostephanus longispinus of the Mediterranean and eastern Atlantic, Diadema (formerly Centrechinus) setosum of the Indo-Pacific, and D. antillarum of Florida and the West Indies, have toxic spines up to 30 centimetres (12 inches) long.…

  • Sperrgebiet (region, Namibia)

    Sperrgebiet, (German: “Prohibited Area”) diamond-rich area in the southern Namib (desert), southwestern Namibia, to which access by unauthorized persons was rigidly prohibited from 1908 until the early 21st century. It lies along the Atlantic coast from Oranjemund and the Orange River north to

  • Sperrgebiet National Park (park, Namibia)

    Namaqualand: The Sperrgebiet National Park formally opened in 2009.

  • Sperrin Mountains (mountains, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom)

    Sperrin Mountains, mountain range disposed along an arc about 20 miles (32 km) southeast of Londonderry city, Northern Ireland. The highest peaks—Sawel, Mullaclogher, and Mullaghaneany—all exceed 2,000 feet (608 m) and are capped with crystalline limestone. The Sperrins were extensively glaciated

  • Sperrle, Hugo (German military officer)

    Hugo Sperrle, field marshal of the Luftwaffe (German air force) during World War II. Sperrle joined the German army in 1903 and flew combat aircraft in World War I. After holding various commands in the Reichswehr (postwar German armed forces), he was transferred in 1933 back to the air force,

  • Sperry Corporation (American company)

    Sperry Corporation, American corporation that merged with the Burroughs Corporation in 1986 to form Unisys Corporation (q.v.), a large computer

  • Sperry Rand Corporation (American company)

    Sperry Corporation, American corporation that merged with the Burroughs Corporation in 1986 to form Unisys Corporation (q.v.), a large computer

  • Sperry, Anson M. (United States Army paymaster)

    Freedmen's Bank: Alvord, a Congregational minister, and Anson M. Sperry, a U.S. Army paymaster, individually identified that need and attempted to foster the creation of such an institution in early 1865. Alvord’s efforts culminated in the legislation passed by Congress on March 3 that incorporated the Freedman’s Savings and Trust Company as…

  • Sperry, Elmer Ambrose (American inventor)

    Elmer Ambrose Sperry, versatile American inventor and industrialist, best known for his gyroscopic compasses and stabilizers. As a boy, Sperry developed a keen interest in machinery and electricity. At the age of 19 he persuaded a Cortland manufacturer to finance him in developing an improved

  • Sperry, Lawrence (American inventor)

    rocket and missile system: World War I and after: …Elmer Sperry and his son, Lawrence, in the United States. The Sperrys worked on a concept of an “aerial torpedo,” a pilotless airplane, carrying an explosive charge, that would utilize gyroscopic, automatic control to fly to a preselected target. Numerous flight attempts were made in 1917, some successful. Because of…

  • Sperry, Roger Wolcott (American biologist)

    Roger Wolcott Sperry, American neurobiologist, corecipient with David Hunter Hubel and Torsten Nils Wiesel of the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1981 for their investigations of brain function, Sperry in particular for his study of functional specialization in the cerebral hemispheres.

  • spessartine (gem)

    Spessartine, manganese aluminum garnet that is a semiprecious gem when clear. Found combined with almandine, it ranges in colour from pale orange yellow, when nearly pure, to orange or deep red, when appreciable proportions of almandine are present. It is similar in colour to grossular, but,

  • spessartite (gem)

    Spessartine, manganese aluminum garnet that is a semiprecious gem when clear. Found combined with almandine, it ranges in colour from pale orange yellow, when nearly pure, to orange or deep red, when appreciable proportions of almandine are present. It is similar in colour to grossular, but,

  • Speult, Herman van (Dutch colonial governor)

    Amboina Massacre: …1623 the Dutch local governor, Herman van Speult, believed that the English merchants, helped by Japanese mercenaries, planned to kill him and overwhelm the Dutch garrison as soon as an English ship arrived to support them. He then ordered the arrest of the alleged plotters. Under torture they admitted their…

  • Speusippus (Greek philosopher)

    Speusippus, Greek philosopher who became head, or scholarch, of the Greek Academy after the death in 347 bc of Plato, who had founded it in 387. A nephew and disciple of Plato, Speusippus accompanied him on his journey to Sicily in 361. He was also a partisan in his uncle’s relations with political

  • Spey, River (river, Scotland, United Kingdom)

    River Spey, river in Scotland, flowing for 107 miles (172 km) northeast across the Highlands into the North Sea. It rises at about 1,150 feet (350 metres) in the Corrieyairack Forest and derives tributaries from the Monadhliath Mountains, the Grampian Mountains, and the Cairngorms. In its wider,

  • Speyer (Germany)

    Speyer, city, Rhineland-Palatinate Land (state), southwestern Germany. Speyer is a port on the left bank of the Rhine River at the mouth of the Speyer River, south of Ludwigshafen. An ancient Celtic settlement, about 100 bce it became a Roman military and trading town, Noviomagus, and later became

  • Speyer Cathedral (church, Speyer, Germany)

    Speyer: The city’s Romanesque cathedral, founded in 1030 by the Holy Roman emperor Conrad II, contains a unique crypt and the tombs of eight German emperors and kings and three empresses. Gutted in 1689 and rebuilt several times, it was consecrated in 1961 after its most recent restoration. In…

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