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  • Salix (plant genus)

    Willow, shrubs and trees of the genus Salix, family Salicaceae, mostly native to north temperate areas and valued for ornament, shade, erosion control, and timber. Salicin, source of salicylic acid used in pain relievers, is derived from certain willows. All species have alternate, usually narrow

  • Salix alba (tree)

    willow: fragilis), and white (S. alba), all reaching 20 metres (65 feet) or more; the first named is North American, the other two Eurasian but naturalized widely. All are common in lowland situations.

  • Salix babylonica (tree)

    willow: …are called weeping willows, especially S. babylonica and its varieties from East Asia. From northern Asia, S. matsudana has sharply toothed leaves, whitish beneath. One variety, S. matsudana tortuosa, is called corkscrew willow for its twisted branches.

  • Salix fragilis (plant)

    willow: nigra), crack, or brittle (S. fragilis), and white (S. alba), all reaching 20 metres (65 feet) or more; the first named is North American, the other two Eurasian but naturalized widely. All are common in lowland situations.

  • Salix nigra (plant)

    willow: …of the largest willows are black (S. nigra), crack, or brittle (S. fragilis), and white (S. alba), all reaching 20 metres (65 feet) or more; the first named is North American, the other two Eurasian but naturalized widely. All are common in lowland situations.

  • Salix viminalis (tree)

    willow: … fastigiata) is a variety especially common at Xochimilco near Mexico City.

  • Salk Institute for Biological Studies (building, La Jolla, Calif, United States)

    David Baltimore: …worked with Dulbecco at the Salk Institute in La Jolla, California (1965–68), studying the mechanism of replication of the poliovirus.

  • Salk vaccine (medicine)

    John Franklin Enders: …to the development of the Salk vaccine for polio in 1954. Similarly, their production in the late 1950s of a vaccine against the measles led to the development of a licensed vaccine in the United States in 1963. Much of Enders’ research on viruses was conducted at the Children’s Hospital…

  • Salk, Jonas (American physician and medical researcher)

    Jonas Salk, American physician and medical researcher who developed the first safe and effective vaccine for polio. Salk received an M.D. in 1939 from New York University College of Medicine, where he worked with Thomas Francis, Jr., who was conducting killed-virus immunology studies. Salk joined

  • Salk, Jonas Edward (American physician and medical researcher)

    Jonas Salk, American physician and medical researcher who developed the first safe and effective vaccine for polio. Salk received an M.D. in 1939 from New York University College of Medicine, where he worked with Thomas Francis, Jr., who was conducting killed-virus immunology studies. Salk joined

  • Salka Valka (novel by Laxness)

    Halldór Laxness: …the social life of Iceland: Salka Valka (1931–32; Eng. trans. Salka Valka), which deals with the plight of working people in an Icelandic fishing village; Sjálfst?tt fólk (1934–35; Independent People), the story of an impoverished farmer and his struggle to retain his economic independence; and Heimsljós (1937–40; World Light), a…

  • Salkey, Andrew (Caribbean author)

    Andrew Salkey, Caribbean author, anthologist, and editor whose work reflected a commitment to Jamaican culture. Raised in Jamaica, Salkey attended the University of London and became part of the London community of emerging West Indian writers. He became a freelance writer and journalist and

  • Salkey, Felix Andrew Alexander (Caribbean author)

    Andrew Salkey, Caribbean author, anthologist, and editor whose work reflected a commitment to Jamaican culture. Raised in Jamaica, Salkey attended the University of London and became part of the London community of emerging West Indian writers. He became a freelance writer and journalist and

  • Salkind, Alexander (film producer)

    Alexander Salkind, German-born film producer best known for the popular Superman movies that featured Christopher Reeve as the superhero (b. June 2, 1921--d. March 8,

  • Sall, Macky (president of Senegal)

    Macky Sall, Senegalese geologist and politician who served as prime minister (2004–07) and as president (2012– ) of Senegal. Sall was raised in a family of modest means in the town of Fatick in western Senegal. He studied geological engineering and geophysics at University Cheikh Anta Diop in Dakar

  • Sallāl, ?Abd Allāh al- (president of Yemen [?an?ā?])

    ’Abd Allah as-Sallal, Yemeni army officer and politician (born 1917?, San’a`, Yemen—died March 5, 1994, San’a`), was the first president and prime minister of the Yemen Arab Republic (North Yemen) after having led a military coup against the last imam, Saif al-Islam Muhammad al-Badr, on Sept. 27, 1

  • Sallārid dynasty (Iranian dynasty)

    Mosāferīd Dynasty, (ad c. 916–1090), Iranian dynasty that ruled in northwestern Iran. The founder of the dynasty was Mo?ammad ebn Mosāfer (ruled c. 916–941), military commander of the strategic mountain fortresses of ?ārom and Samīrān in Daylam, in northwestern Iran. With the increasing weakness of

  • salle d’asile (education)

    Maternal school, a French school for children between two and six years old. Private schools for young children were founded in France around 1779, under the influence of Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s émile. The central government took over most of them in 1833 and named them maternal schools, hoping

  • Salle des Machines (theatre, Paris, France)

    theatre: Developments in France and Spain: …from Italy to build the Salle des Machines, the largest theatre in Europe. It was 226 feet long, only 94 feet of which was occupied by the auditorium. Its stage, 132 feet deep, had a proscenium arch only 32 feet wide. One of Vigarani’s machines, 60 feet deep itself, was…

  • Salle, Antoine de La (French writer)

    Antoine de La Sale, French writer chiefly remembered for his Petit Jehan de Saintré, a romance marked by a great gift for the observation of court manners and a keen sense of comic situation and dialogue. From 1400 to 1448 La Sale served the dukes of Anjou, Louis II, Louis III, and René, as squire,

  • Salle, David (American artist)

    David Salle, American painter who, together with such contemporaries as Julian Schnabel and Robert Longo, regenerated big, gestural, expressionist painting after years of pared-down minimalism and conceptual art. Salle is known for mixing modes of representation and appropriated ready-made motifs

  • Sallé, Marie (French dancer)

    Marie Sallé, innovative French dancer and choreographer who performed expressive, dramatic dances during a period when displays of technical virtuosity were more popular. The first woman to choreograph the ballets in which she appeared, she anticipated the late 18th-century reforms of Jean-Georges

  • Salle, René-Robert Cavelier, sieur de La (French explorer)

    René-Robert Cavelier, sieur de La Salle, French explorer in North America, who led an expedition down the Illinois and Mississippi rivers and claimed all the region watered by the Mississippi and its tributaries for Louis XIV of France, naming the region “Louisiana.” A few years later, in a

  • Salle, Saint Jean-Baptiste de La (French educator)

    Saint Jean-Baptiste de La Salle, ; canonized 1900; feast day April 7), French educator and founder of the Brothers of the Christian Schools (sometimes called the de La Salle Brothers), the first Roman Catholic congregation of male nonclerics devoted solely to schools, learning, and teaching. Of

  • sallekhanā (Jainism)

    Jainism: Monks, nuns, and their practices: …rigours is the act of sallekhana, in which he lies on one side on a bed of thorny grass and ceases to move or eat. This act of ritual starvation is the monk’s ultimate act of nonattendance, by which he lets go of the body for the sake of his…

  • Sallisaw (Oklahoma, United States)

    Sallisaw, city, seat (1907) of Sequoyah county, eastern Oklahoma, U.S., just north of the Arkansas River and the Robert S. Kerr Reservoir, near the Arkansas state line. Settled in the 1880s, it was named for nearby Sallisaw Creek (from the French salaison, meaning “salt provisions,” because of

  • Sallman, Warner (American artist)

    Christology: Early 20th century to the present: The works of Warner Sallman, for example, became the most widely reproduced paintings of Jesus; his Head of Christ (1940) was distributed to U.S. soldiers during World War II. Sallman continued to paint Jesus in various settings, as in Christ in Gethsemane (1941), The Lord Is My Shepherd…

  • sallow thorn (shrub and fruit)

    Sea buckthorn, (Hippophae rhamnoides, family Elaeagnaceae), willowlike shrub growing to about 2.5 m (about 8 feet) high with narrow leaves that are silvery on the underside and globose, orange-yellow fruits about 8 mm (13 inch) in diameter. It is common on sand dunes along the eastern and

  • Sallust (Roman historian)

    Sallust, Roman historian and one of the great Latin literary stylists, noted for his narrative writings dealing with political personalities, corruption, and party rivalry. Sallust’s family was Sabine and probably belonged to the local aristocracy, but he was the only member known to have served in

  • Salluste, Guillaume de (French poet)

    Guillaume de Salluste, seigneur du Bartas, author of La Semaine (1578), an influential poem about the creation of the world. Though he tried to avoid participating in the Wars of Religion, du Bartas was an ardent Huguenot and a trusted counsellor of Henry of Navarre. His aim was to use the new

  • Sally Bowles (novella by Isherwood)

    Sally Bowles: of Christopher Isherwood’s novella Sally Bowles (1937) and of his collected stories Goodbye to Berlin (1939). Bowles is a young iconoclastic, minimally talented English nightclub singer in the Berlin of the Weimar Republic period (1919–33). She paints her fingernails green, affects an artless decadent manner, and has woeful luck…

  • Sally in Our Alley (work by Carey)

    Henry Carey: …for his ballads, especially “Sally in Our Alley,” which appeared in a collection of his best poems set to music, called The Musical Century (1737). Despite the popularity of his work, Carey suffered great poverty, largely because his plays and poems were widely pirated by unscrupulous printers.

  • Sally Jesse Raphael (American television show)

    Television in the United States: Tabloid TV: That year, Sally Jessy Raphael (syndicated, 1985–2002) debuted, using the Donahue format but specializing in more titillating subjects. The Oprah Winfrey Show (later Oprah; syndicated, 1986–2011) did the same a year later. It quickly became a hit. Imitations began appearing, and the competition grew so fierce that…

  • Sálmabók (hymnbook by Thorláksson)

    Gudbrandur Thorláksson: …1589 Thorláksson published a new Sálmabók (hymnbook) intended expressly to compete with the ballads about trolls and heroes, and the songs of love and invective so popular in Icelandic tradition. He made a second attempt with the Vísnabók (verse book, 1612), an anthology including Catholic poems such as Lilja—purged of…

  • Salmacis and Hermaphroditus (work by Beaumont)

    Francis Beaumont: …1602 there appeared the poem Salmacis and Hermaphroditus, generally attributed to Beaumont, a voluptuous and voluminous expansion of the Ovidian legend that added to the story humour and a fantastic array of episodes and conceits. At age 23 he prefixed to Ben Jonson’s Volpone (1607) some verses in honour of…

  • Salmagundi (American periodical)

    Washington Irving: …of 20 periodical essays entitled Salmagundi. Concerned primarily with passing phases of contemporary society, the essays retain significance as an index to the social milieu.

  • Salmān al-Fārisī (companion of Mu?ammad)

    Salmān al-Fārisī, popular figure in Muslim legend and a national hero of Iran. He was a companion of the Prophet Muhammad. While still a boy he became a Christian, left his father’s house, and began a long religious quest. He traveled to Syria and then to central Arabia, seeking the prophet who, he

  • Salman ibn ?Abd al-?Aziz (king of Saudi Arabia)

    Salman ibn ?Abd al-?Aziz Al Sa?ud, (born Dec. 31, 1935, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia), On Jan. 23, 2015, Salman ibn ?Abd al-?Aziz Al Sa?ud was proclaimed king of Saudi Arabia following the death of his half brother King ?Abd Allah, who had ruled the country since 2005. Although many observers had predicted

  • Salmantica (Spain)

    Salamanca, city, capital of Salamanca provincia (province), in the comunidad autónoma (autonomous community) of Castile-León, western Spain. The city lies at an elevation of 2,552 feet (778 metres) above sea level on the north bank of the Tormes River. It is one of Spain’s greatest historical and

  • Salmās (Iran)

    ancient Iran: Art and literature: At Salmās, near Lake Urmia, Ardashīr I is shown on horseback while receiving the surrender of a Parthian personage. There are also later Sāsānian sculptures at ?āq-e Bostān, near Kermānshāh, showing Ardashīr II, Shāpūr III, and Khosrow II. In many of these representations the Sāsānian kings…

  • Salmasius, Claudius (French scholar)

    Claudius Salmasius, French classical scholar who, by his scholarship and judgment, acquired great contemporary influence. Salmasius studied at Paris (1604–06), where he became a Calvinist, and at Heidelberg (1606–09), where he discovered the Palatine manuscript of the Greek Anthology. In 1610 he

  • Salmāwī, Mu?ammad (Egyptian dramatist)

    Arabic literature: Modern Arabic drama: Of these, Mu?ammad Salmāwī and Lenīn al-Ramlī were the playwrights whose works were most often performed.

  • Salming, B?rje (Swedish ice-hockey player)

    Toronto Maple Leafs: …centre Darryl Sittler and defenseman B?rje Salming for most of that time. In the following decade, Toronto fell farther from contention, finishing no higher than third in its division and never getting past the second round of the playoffs over the course of the 1980s. In 1994 the Leafs acquired…

  • Salmini, Carlo (Italian businessman)

    Ted Ligety: …2006 Ligety and Italian businessman Carlo Salmini founded Shred, a company that specialized in creating bright-coloured helmets, goggles, and sunglasses for ski racers.

  • Salminus maxillosus (fish, Salminus species)

    Dorado, (Salminus maxillosus), powerful game fish of the characin family, Characidae, found in South American rivers. The dorado is golden, with red fins and with lengthwise rows of dots on its body, and superficially resembles a salmon. It reaches a length of about 1 m (39 inches) and a weight of

  • Salmo (fish genus)

    Salmo, fish genus that includes the popular food and sport fishes known as Atlantic salmon and brown trout. See also

  • Salmo salar (fish)

    Atlantic salmon, (species Salmo salar), oceanic trout of the family Salmonidae, a highly prized game fish. It averages about 5.5 kg (12 pounds) and is marked with round or cross-shaped spots. Found on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean, it enters streams in the fall to spawn. After spawning, adults

  • Salmo salar ouananiche (fish)

    Atlantic salmon: The ouananiche (Salmo salar ouananiche) of rivers and the sebago, or lake, salmon (S. salar sebago) are smaller, landlocked forms of Atlantic salmon, also prized for sport. The Atlantic salmon has also been successfully introduced into the Great Lakes of the United States. (See also salmon.)

  • Salmo salar sebago (fish)

    Atlantic salmon: …ouananiche) of rivers and the sebago, or lake, salmon (S. salar sebago) are smaller, landlocked forms of Atlantic salmon, also prized for sport. The Atlantic salmon has also been successfully introduced into the Great Lakes of the United States. (See also salmon.)

  • Salmo trutta (fish)

    Brown trout, prized and wary European game fish favoured for the table. The brown trout, which includes several varieties such as the Loch Leven trout of Great Britain, is of the family Salmonidae. It has been introduced to many other areas of the world and is recognized by the light-ringed black

  • salmon (fish)

    Salmon, originally, the large fish now usually called the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), though more recently the name has been applied to similar fishes of the same family (Salmonidae), especially the Pacific salmon, which constitute the genus Oncorhynchus. The six species of Pacific salmon

  • Salmon Fishing in the Yemen (film by Hallstr?m [2011])

    Emily Blunt: …roles in such movies as Salmon Fishing in the Yemen (2011), a comedy-drama about a quixotic quest to introduce salmon to Yemen, and she also voiced the romantic heroine in the animated hit Gnomeo and Juliet (2011) and its sequel, Sherlock Gnomes (2018). Blunt joined the cast of the time-travel…

  • Salmon River (river, United States)

    Salmon River, river rising in the Sawtooth and Salmon River mountains, south Custer county, central Idaho, U.S. It flows generally northeast past the city of Salmon, where it is joined by the Lemhi River, and then northwest to join the Snake River several miles south of the Idaho-Oregon-Washington

  • Salmon River Canyon (gorge, United States)

    Salmon River: Salmon River Canyon, a gorge 30 miles (48 km) long, 1 mile (1.6 km) deep, and in places 10 miles (16 km) wide, is formed by the river in its lower course.

  • salmon shark (fish)

    mackerel shark: nasus), and the salmon shark (L. ditropis). The name mackerel shark is also used as the common name for the family Lamnidae (which contains the genus Lamna) and the order Lamniformes (which contains the family Lamnidae). For example, some authorities refer to white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) and mako…

  • salmon trout (fish)

    Lake trout, (Salvelinus namaycush), large, voracious char, family Salmonidae, widely distributed from northern Canada and Alaska, U.S., south to New England and the Great Lakes basin. It is usually found in deep, cool lakes. The fish are greenish gray and covered with pale spots. In spring, lake

  • Salmon, Lucy Maynard (American historian)

    Lucy Maynard Salmon, American historian who extended the offerings in history during her long tenure at Vassar College. She also was instrumental in building a library there of high scholarly merit. Salmon graduated from the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor in 1876, and during the following five

  • Salmon, Wesley (philosopher)

    philosophy of science: Other approaches to explanation: Wesley Salmon (1925–2001) argued that probabilistic explanation should be taken as primary and that probabilistic explanations proceed by advancing information that raises the probability of the event (or fact) to be explained. Building on insights of Reichenbach, Salmon noted that there are cases in which…

  • Salmon, Yves (French journalist)

    Victor Noir, journalist whose death at the hands of Prince Pierre Napoleon Bonaparte, a first cousin of Emperor Napoleon III, led to an increase in the already mounting revival of republican and radical agitation that plagued the Second Empire in its final months. Accompanied by a colleague, Ulric

  • Salmona, Rogelio (Colombian architect)

    Rogelio Salmona, Colombian architect (born April 28, 1929, Paris, France—died Oct. 3, 2007, Bogotá, Colom.), was regarded as one of Latin America’s preeminent architects, though his structures (which evoked pre-Hispanic edifices and cities) were largely built in Bogotá. Salmona apprenticed with

  • salmonberry (plant)

    Cloudberry, (Rubus chamaemorus), creeping herbaceous plant in the rose family (Rosaceae), native to the Arctic and subarctic regions of the north temperate zone, and its edible raspberry-like fruit. Eskimos and Sami collect the sweet juicy fruits in autumn to freeze for winter food. In markets of

  • Salmond on Jurisprudence (treatise by Fitzgerald)

    animal rights: Animals and the law: Fitzgerald’s 1966 treatise Salmond on Jurisprudence declared, “The law is made for men and allows no fellowship or bonds of obligation between them and the lower animals.” The most important consequence of this view is that animals have long been categorized as “legal things,” not as “legal persons.”…

  • Salmond, Alex (Scottish politician)

    Alex Salmond, Scottish politician who served in the British House of Commons (1987–2010 and 2015–17) and who was first minister of Scotland (2007–14). Salmond studied economics at the University of St. Andrews and joined the civil service as an assistant economist (1978–80) for the Department of

  • Salmond, Dame Anne (New Zealand anthropologist and historian)

    Dame Anne Salmond, New Zealand anthropologist and historian best known for her writings on New Zealand history, her study of Maori culture, and her efforts to improve intercultural understanding between Maori and Pakeha (people of European ancestry) New Zealanders. Salmond grew up in Gisborne, a

  • Salmond, Dame Mary Anne (New Zealand anthropologist and historian)

    Dame Anne Salmond, New Zealand anthropologist and historian best known for her writings on New Zealand history, her study of Maori culture, and her efforts to improve intercultural understanding between Maori and Pakeha (people of European ancestry) New Zealanders. Salmond grew up in Gisborne, a

  • Salmonella (bacteria)

    Salmonella, (genus Salmonella), group of rod-shaped, gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic bacteria in the family Enterobacteriaceae. Their principal habitat is the intestinal tract of humans and other animals. Some species exist in animals without causing disease symptoms; others can result in

  • Salmonella arizonae (bacteria)

    Salmonella: gallinarum causes fowl typhoid; and S. arizonae has been isolated from reptiles in the southwestern United States.

  • Salmonella choleraesuis (bacteria)

    Salmonella: S. choleraesuis, from swine, can cause severe blood poisoning in humans; S. gallinarum causes fowl typhoid; and S. arizonae has been isolated from reptiles in the southwestern United States.

  • Salmonella enterica (bacteria)

    typhoid fever: …disease caused by the bacterium Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. The bacterium usually enters the body through the mouth by the ingestion of contaminated food or water, penetrates the intestinal wall, and multiplies in lymphoid tissue; it then enters the bloodstream and causes bacteremia.

  • Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (bacterium)

    Salmonella: Salmonella typhi causes typhoid fever; paratyphoid fever is caused by S. paratyphi, S. schottmuelleri, and S. hirschfeldii, which are considered variants of S. enteritidis.

  • Salmonella enterica typhi (bacterium)

    Salmonella: Salmonella typhi causes typhoid fever; paratyphoid fever is caused by S. paratyphi, S. schottmuelleri, and S. hirschfeldii, which are considered variants of S. enteritidis.

  • Salmonella enteritidis (bacteria)

    Salmonella: …which are considered variants of S. enteritidis.

  • Salmonella gallinarum (bacteria)

    Salmonella: …severe blood poisoning in humans; S. gallinarum causes fowl typhoid; and S. arizonae has been isolated from reptiles in the southwestern United States.

  • Salmonella hirschfeldii (bacteria)

    Salmonella: schottmuelleri, and S. hirschfeldii, which are considered variants of S. enteritidis.

  • Salmonella parathyphi (bacteria)

    Salmonella: …paratyphoid fever is caused by S. paratyphi, S. schottmuelleri, and S. hirschfeldii, which are considered variants of S. enteritidis.

  • Salmonella schottmuelleri (bacteria)

    Salmonella: paratyphi, S. schottmuelleri, and S. hirschfeldii, which are considered variants of S. enteritidis.

  • Salmonella typhi (bacterium)

    Salmonella: Salmonella typhi causes typhoid fever; paratyphoid fever is caused by S. paratyphi, S. schottmuelleri, and S. hirschfeldii, which are considered variants of S. enteritidis.

  • Salmonella typhimurium (bacteria)

    salmonellosis: …latter is caused primarily by S. typhimurium and S. enteritidis; it occurs following ingestion of the bacteria on or in food, in water, or on fingers and other objects. Contamination is mainly from two sources: food products from diseased poultry, hogs, and cattle; and wholesome food subsequently exposed to infected…

  • Salmonella typhosa (bacterium)

    Salmonella: Salmonella typhi causes typhoid fever; paratyphoid fever is caused by S. paratyphi, S. schottmuelleri, and S. hirschfeldii, which are considered variants of S. enteritidis.

  • salmonellosis (pathology)

    Salmonellosis, any of several bacterial infections caused by certain species of Salmonella, important as the cause of a type of food poisoning in humans and of several diseases in domestic animals. The term salmonellosis has been used generally for two main kinds of gastrointestinal diseases in

  • Salmonia: Or Days of Fly Fishing (work by Davy)

    Sir Humphry Davy: Later years: …and field sports, Davy wrote Salmonia: or Days of Fly Fishing (1828), a book on fishing (after the manner of Izaak Walton) that contained engravings from his own drawings. After a last, short visit to England, he returned to Italy, settling at Rome in February 1829—“a ruin amongst ruins.” Though…

  • Salmonidae (fish family)

    protacanthopterygian: Reasons for interest in the superorder: …and graylings of the family Salmonidae are the most widely known and intensively studied family of fishes. Their famed sporting qualities and excellent taste ensure their economic importance. At the other extreme, some deep-sea families of osmeriform fishes are known only to a few ichthyologists and often only on the…

  • Salmoniformes (fish order)

    fish: Annotated classification: Order Salmoniformes (salmons, trouts, and allies) Cartilaginous epicentrals; absence of ossified epipleurals; separate dermethmoid and supraethmoid; scales without radii. Length about 10–150 cm (roughly 4–60 inches); weight to about 50 kg (roughly 110 pounds). 1 family, 11 genera, and about 66 species. Marine and freshwater, worldwide.…

  • Salmos (work by Cardenal)

    Ernesto Cardenal: The poems in Salmos (1964; The Psalms of Struggle and Liberation) represent Cardenal’s rewriting of the biblical psalms of David and condemn modern-day evils. These poems, like many of his others, express the tension between his revolutionary political fervour and his religious faith. The book culminates in an apocalyptic view…

  • Salmuth, Hans von (German military officer)

    Hans von Salmuth, German army staff officer and field commander in World War II. The son of a Prussian officer, Salmuth entered the German army in 1907 and rose to the rank of captain during World War I. He remained in the army after the war, becoming a brigadier general in 1937 and chief of staff

  • Salnikov, Vladimir (Russian athlete)

    Vladimir Salnikov, Russian swimmer who won four Olympic gold medals and was the first to break the 15-minute barrier in the 1,500-metre freestyle. Salnikov became the first Soviet swimmer to excel at the international level, winning the European championship at 1,500 metres in 1977 and the world

  • Salodurum (Switzerland)

    Solothurn, capital of Solothurn canton, northwestern Switzerland. It lies along the Aare River, south of Basel. It originated as the Celtic and Roman stronghold of Salodurum, occupying a strategic position at the approach to the Rhine from the southwest. The medieval town grew around the remains of

  • Salom, Jaime (Spanish playwright)

    Spanish literature: Theatre: Jaime Salom, like Gala, defies ideological classification. His psychological drama of the Spanish Civil War, La casa de las Chivas (1968; “House of the Chivas”), holds Madrid box-office records. His later works pose political, social, or religious questions; La piel del limón (1976; “Bitter Lemon”),…

  • Salomé (play by Wilde)

    Salome: Oscar Wilde’s one-act play Salomé (published 1893; first performed 1896) was translated by Hedwig Lachmann as the libretto for Richard Strauss’s one-act opera of the same name (first produced 1905), in which Herod is portrayed as lusting after Salome, while Salome, in her turn, desires John the Baptist; she…

  • Salome (mother of John the Apostle)

    St. John the Apostle: …Zebedee, a Galilean fisherman, and Salome. John and his brother St. James were among the first disciples called by Jesus. In The Gospel According to Mark he is always mentioned after James and was no doubt the younger brother. His mother was among those women who ministered to the circle…

  • Salome (opera by Strauss)

    Richard Strauss: Life: …his first operatic success with Salome, based on Oscar Wilde’s play. Although Salome was regarded by some as blasphemous and obscene, it triumphed in all the major opera houses except Vienna, where the censor forbade Gustav Mahler to stage it.

  • Salome (stepdaughter of Herod Antipas)

    Salome, according to the Jewish historian Josephus, the daughter of Herodias and stepdaughter of Herod Antipas, tetrarch (ruler appointed by Rome) of Galilee, a region in Palestine. In Biblical literature she is remembered as the immediate agent in the execution of John the Baptist. Josephus states

  • Salome (film by Dieterle [1953])

    William Dieterle: Later films: …popular biblical adventure genre with Salome. Even Rita Hayworth and a cast of British all-stars, however, were unable to disguise the shortcomings of the lavish Technicolor production. Elephant Walk (1954) was begun with Vivien Leigh, but she left the film when her health collapsed. Elizabeth Taylor took her place as…

  • Salome (sister of Herod I)

    Herod: …attacks of jealousy; his sister Salome (not to be confused with her great-niece, Herodias’s daughter Salome) made good use of his natural suspicions and poisoned his mind against his wife in order to wreck the union. In the end Herod murdered Mariamne, her two sons, her brother, her grandfather, and…

  • Salomon ben Joshua (Jewish philosopher)

    Salomon Maimon, Jewish philosopher whose acute Skepticism caused him to be acknowledged by the major German philosopher Immanuel Kant as his most perceptive critic. He combined an early and extensive familiarity with rabbinic learning with a proficiency in Hebrew, and, after acquiring a special

  • Salomon Inc. (American corporation)

    Sanford I. Weill: …Group’s $9 billion purchase of Salomon Inc., parent company of the prestigious Salomon Brothers investment bank. It was at the time the second largest acquisition in Wall Street history. But, even as Weill’s comeback was hailed on Wall Street, he still sought the greater size and diversity that a merger…

  • Salomon Maimons Lebensgeschichte (work by Maimon)

    Salomon Maimon: …as Salomon Maimons Lebensgeschichte (1792; Solomon Maimon: An Autobiography, 1888) and his major critique of Kantian philosophy, Versuch über die Transcendentalphilosophie (1790; “Search for the Transcendental Philosophy”).

  • Salomon Smith Barney Holdings Inc. (American company)

    Citigroup: …merger with Travelers Group included Salomon Smith Barney Inc., a leading U.S. investment bank and brokerage firm. In 2001 Citigroup acquired European American Bank from Dutch bank ABN AMRO. In 2002 Citigroup retained the red “umbrella” logo that had originated with Travelers Insurance but spun off the property and casualty…

  • Salomon, Alice (German social worker)

    Alice Salomon, American founder of one of the first schools of social work and an internationally prominent feminist. She was one of the first women to receive the Ph.D. degree from the University of Berlin (1906); her doctoral thesis dealt with the inequality of pay for men and women doing

  • Salomon, Bernard (French artist)

    pottery: Majolica: …taken from the woodcuts of Bernard Salomon (c. 1506–61), are frequently represented. Majolica was often called Raffaelle ware, a tribute to the influence of the painter Raphael (1483–1520), although he, in fact, never made any designs for pottery. In particular the majolica painters copied his grotteschi (grotesques), motifs adapted from…

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