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  • spiral spring (machine component)

    spring: The spiral spring is made from flat strip or wire coiled up in the manner of the groove on a phonograph record. As a mainspring or hairspring, it provides a compact source of energy in clocks and watches; it is also used on typewriters and parking…

  • Spiral Staircase, The (film by Siodmak [1945])

    Robert Siodmak: The gothic thriller The Spiral Staircase (1945) starred Dorothy McGuire as a woman hunted by a serial killer. Arguably better was The Killers (1946), which took the original Ernest Hemingway short story as its opening point and developed it in an elaborate series of flashbacks. The film noir…

  • spiral valve (anatomy)

    circulatory system: Fishes: …spiral pattern and called the spiral valve. The ventral aorta is also subdivided internally. The result is that oxygenated blood from the left side of the ventricle is directed into the ventral division of the ventral aorta and passes to the anterior of the arterial arches, while deoxygenated blood from…

  • spiral vessel (anatomy)

    human ear: Structure of the cochlea: These vessels, called spiral vessels, do not enter the organ of Corti but are thought to supply most of the oxygen and other nutrients to its cells. Although the outer spiral vessel is seldom found in adult animals of certain species such as the dog, cat, and rat…

  • Spirale, La (French music group)

    André Jolivet: …La Spirale, later to become La Jeune France (the name originated with Hector Berlioz), dedicated to fostering modern nationalistic music. During his service in the French Army during World War II, Jolivet grew interested in primitive religion and magic—influences that may be detected in his style.

  • spirant (phonetics)

    Fricative, in phonetics, a consonant sound, such as English f or v, produced by bringing the mouth into position to block the passage of the airstream, but not making complete closure, so that air moving through the mouth generates audible friction. Fricatives (also sometimes called “spirants”)

  • Spiranthes (plant)

    Ladies’ tresses, (genus Spiranthes), genus of about 45 species of terrestrial orchids (family Orchidaceae), found in woods and grasslands throughout most of the world. Ladies’ tresses have a fleshy root system, and most species have narrow basal leaves. Species of Spiranthes vary greatly in size

  • Spiranthes cernua (plant)

    ladies' tresses: …bloom in autumn, such as nodding ladies’ tresses, or autumn tresses (S. cernua), in North America and autumn ladies’ tresses (S. spiralis) in Europe. Slender ladies’ tresses (S. lacera) of North America has a single spiral of small white flowers.

  • Spiranthes lacera (plant)

    ladies' tresses: Slender ladies’ tresses (S. lacera) of North America has a single spiral of small white flowers.

  • Spiranthes spiralis (plant)

    ladies' tresses: cernua), in North America and autumn ladies’ tresses (S. spiralis) in Europe. Slender ladies’ tresses (S. lacera) of North America has a single spiral of small white flowers.

  • spire (architecture)

    Spire, in architecture, steeply pointed pyramidal or conical termination to a tower. In its mature Gothic development, the spire was an elongated, slender form that was a spectacular visual culmination of the building as well as a symbol of the heavenly aspirations of pious medieval men. The spire

  • SPIRE (navigation)

    Charles Stark Draper: …for aircraft, Projects FEBE and SPIRE, were tested in 1949 and 1953. Production systems were installed in aircraft and submarines beginning in 1956 and in the Polaris missile in 1960. The “black boxes” of spinning gyroscopes and integrating circuits developed by Draper and his students were eventually deployed in the…

  • Spire of Dublin (monument, Dublin, Ireland)

    Dublin: Character of the city: …marked since 2002 by the Spire of Dublin, a 394-foot (120-metre) stainless steel landmark that proclaimed the street’s transformation with a pedestrian plaza and tree-lined boulevard. Together with a rash of new high-rise buildings, the spire has changed the character of the city and of the north side. Though Dublin…

  • Spire, The (novel by Golding)

    William Golding: …novels, Free Fall (1959) and The Spire (1964), also demonstrate Golding’s belief that “man produces evil as a bee produces honey.” Darkness Visible (1979) tells the story of a boy horribly burned in the London blitz during World War II. His later works include Rites of Passage (1980), which won…

  • Spire, Wendelin of (German printer)

    typography: Italy: Wendelin von Speyer (sometimes called da Spira and sometimes of Spire) opened the first press in Venice in 1469 and, until Johann died in 1470, had a one-year monopoly on all printing in that city. They used a clear and legible typeface that represented another…

  • spirea (plant)

    Spirea, (genus Spiraea), genus of nearly 100 species of flowering shrubs in the rose family (Rosaceae). Native to the north temperate zone, many spirea species are commonly cultivated for their pleasing growth habit and attractive flower clusters. Members of the genus Spiraea are hardy deciduous

  • spirea subfamily (plant subfamily)

    Rosales: Evolution: …genus Spiraea, of the subfamily Spiraeoideae, is known from fossil fruits and leaves, and the related genus Physocarpus is represented in fossils dating to the middle of the Cenozoic Era. In the subfamily Maloideae, fruit and seed remains have been recognized from the genera Crataegus and Pyrus. Leaf fossils are…

  • Spires (Germany)

    Speyer, city, Rhineland-Palatinate Land (state), southwestern Germany. Speyer is a port on the left bank of the Rhine River at the mouth of the Speyer River, south of Ludwigshafen. An ancient Celtic settlement, about 100 bce it became a Roman military and trading town, Noviomagus, and later became

  • Spiriferida (brachiopod order)

    lamp shells: Annotated classification: Order Spiriferida Lophophore supported by a calcareous spiral structure (brachidium); punctate or impunctate, usually biconvex; delthyrium open or closed; more than 300 genera; mid-Ordovician to Jurassic. Order Terebratulida Pedicle functional, cyrtomatodont teeth; lophophore supported wholly or in part by a calcareous loop, short or long and…

  • spirilla (bacterial shape)

    bacteria: Diversity of structure of bacteria: or curved (vibrio, spirillum, or spirochete). Considerable variation is seen in the actual shapes of bacteria, and cells can be stretched or compressed in one dimension. Bacteria that do not separate from one another after cell division form characteristic clusters that are helpful in their identification. For example,…

  • spirillary rat-bite fever (pathology)

    Rat-bite fever, relapsing type of infection caused by the bacterium Spirillum minus (also called Spirillum minor) and transmitted to humans by the bite of an infected rat. It is characterized by infection at the site of inoculation, inflammation of the regional lymph nodes, relapsing fever, chills,

  • Spirillum (genus of bacteria)

    Spirillum, genus of spiral-shaped bacteria of the family Spirillaceae, aquatic except for one species (S. minus) that causes a type of rat-bite fever in man. The term spirillum is used generally for any of the corkscrew-like species. Spirillum is microbiologically characterized as a gram-negative,

  • spirillum (bacterial shape)

    bacteria: Diversity of structure of bacteria: or curved (vibrio, spirillum, or spirochete). Considerable variation is seen in the actual shapes of bacteria, and cells can be stretched or compressed in one dimension. Bacteria that do not separate from one another after cell division form characteristic clusters that are helpful in their identification. For example,…

  • Spirillum minor (bacteria)

    rat-bite fever: …infection caused by the bacterium Spirillum minus (also called Spirillum minor) and transmitted to humans by the bite of an infected rat. It is characterized by infection at the site of inoculation, inflammation of the regional lymph nodes, relapsing fever, chills, and skin rash. The rat-bite wound usually first heals…

  • Spirillum minus (bacteria)

    rat-bite fever: …infection caused by the bacterium Spirillum minus (also called Spirillum minor) and transmitted to humans by the bite of an infected rat. It is characterized by infection at the site of inoculation, inflammation of the regional lymph nodes, relapsing fever, chills, and skin rash. The rat-bite wound usually first heals…

  • spirit (alcoholic beverage)

    Distilled spirit, alcoholic beverage (such as brandy, whisky, rum, or arrack) that is obtained by distillation from wine or other fermented fruit or plant juice or from a starchy material (such as various grains) that has first been brewed. The alcoholic content of distilled liquor is higher than

  • Spirit (Christianity)

    Holy Spirit, in Christian belief, the third person of the Trinity. Numerous outpourings of the Holy Spirit are mentioned in the Acts of the Apostles, in which healing, prophecy, the expelling of demons (exorcism), and speaking in tongues (glossolalia) are particularly associated with the activity

  • spirit (religious being)

    inheritance: Inheritance and individual ownership of property: …with the belief that the spirits of the slaughtered goats would follow the dead owner into the realm of spirits, where he would need them. Belief in providing for the needs of the dead seems to have been the root of the widespread custom of burying with the body or…

  • spirit (philosophy)

    Spiritualism, in philosophy, a characteristic of any system of thought that affirms the existence of immaterial reality imperceptible to the senses. So defined, spiritualism embraces a vast array of highly diversified philosophical views. Most patently, it applies to any philosophy accepting the n

  • Spirit (Mars rover)

    Mars: Spacecraft exploration: …which comprised twin robotic landers, Spirit and Opportunity. Spirit touched down in Gusev Crater (15° S 175° E) on January 3, 2004. Three weeks later, on January 24, Opportunity landed in Meridiani Planum (2° S 6° W), on the opposite side of the planet. The six-wheeled rovers, each equipped with…

  • spirit (theatre)

    stagecraft: Role of the scenic designer: The terms mood and spirit can be further defined. Generally, mood refers to the production’s overall emotional quality—happy, sad, tragic, comic, and so forth. Spirit refers to the production concept—the style or manner in which a particular production is to be presented, as decided by the production design team.…

  • Spirit (aircraft)

    B-2, U.S. long-range stealth bomber that first flew in 1989 and was delivered to the U.S. Air Force starting in 1993. Built and maintained by Northrop Grumman Corporation, the B-2 is a “flying wing,” a configuration consisting essentially of a short but very broad wing with no fuselage and tail.

  • Spirit Church (South African religion)

    Zionist church, any of several prophet-healing groups in southern Africa; they correspond to the independent churches known as Aladura (q.v.) in Nigeria, “spiritual” in Ghana, and “prophet-healing churches” in most other parts of Africa. The use of the term Zion derives from the Christian Catholic

  • spirit dance (North American Indian culture)

    Northwest Coast Indian: Religion and the performing arts: …Coast peoples; known as the spirit dances, they were performed during the winter months.

  • Spirit Lake (lake, Iowa, United States)

    Iowa Great Lakes: Spirit Lake, the largest—4 miles (6 km) long and 3 miles (5 km) wide—lies just north of the town of Spirit Lake, which is the chief community of the region. West Okoboji Lake is noted for the crystalline clarity of its waters.

  • Spirit Lake Massacre (United States history [1857])

    Spirit Lake Massacre, (March 8–12, 1857), incident in northwestern Iowa, U.S., in which a band of Sioux Indians led by Inkpaduta killed more than 30 white people. In 1856 five cabins had been built and occupied by whites near Okoboji lakes and Spirit Lake. After a severe winter, the Sioux attacked,

  • spirit level (tool)

    surveying: Height determination: In spirit leveling the surveyor has for centuries used a surveying level, which consists of a horizontal telescope fitted with cross hairs, rotating around a vertical axis on a tripod, with a very sensitive spirit level fixed to it; the instrument is adjusted until the bubble…

  • Spirit of ’46 (political party, Malaysia)

    Malaysia: Malaysia from independence to c. 2000: Mahathir’s opponents countered by forming Semangat ’46 (Spirit of ’46), which claimed to embody the ideals of the original UMNO (established in 1946) and attempted to unite the disparate opposition groups against the ruling BN coalition headed by UMNO.

  • Spirit of Freedom (hot-air balloon)

    Steve Fossett: Northam, Western Australia, in the Spirit of Freedom and drifted eastward. On July 2 he made history as he crossed his starting point, eventually landing in the outback of Queensland.

  • Spirit of Judaism, The (work by Aguilar)

    Grace Aguilar: In The Spirit of Judaism (1842) she attacked contemporary Judaism for its formalism and traditionalism. Her novels, although they evinced strong religious feeling, were free of sectarian bias. Home Influence was the only one published during her lifetime.

  • Spirit of Laws, The (treatise by Montesquieu)

    Montesquieu: Major works: (The Spirit of Laws, 1750). It consisted of two quarto volumes, comprising 31 books in 1,086 pages.

  • Spirit of Mediaeval Philosophy, The (work by Gilson)

    étienne Gilson: Among these are L’Esprit de la philosophie médiévale (1932; The Spirit of Medi?val Philosophy), his exposition and defense of the idea of a Christian philosophy; The Unity of Philosophical Experience (1937) and Being and Some Philosophers (1949), perhaps the best examples of his use of the history of…

  • Spirit of Solitude: Conventions and Continuities in Late Romance, The (poetry by Macpherson)

    Jay Macpherson: …study of the pastoral romance, The Spirit of Solitude: Conventions and Continuities in Late Romance, was published in 1982. Biblical and Classical Myths: The Mythological Framework of Western Culture (2004), written with Frye, was based on a course the two had taught together and included Four Ages of Man.

  • Spirit of St. Louis (aircraft)

    Spirit of St. Louis, airplane in which Charles Lindbergh made the first nonstop solo flight across the Atlantic Ocean, from Long Island, New York, to Le Bourget, near Paris, May 20–21, 1927. His flight was sponsored by a group of businessmen in St. Louis, Missouri. The plane was a Ryan NYP

  • Spirit of St. Louis, The (film by Wilder [1957])

    Billy Wilder: Films of the 1950s: Wilder’s next project, The Spirit of St. Louis (1957), would be the only biographical film that he would ever make. James Stewart played famed aviator Charles Lindbergh, whose 1927 New York-to-Paris solo flight is the centrepiece around which Wilder constructed a first-rate story.

  • Spirit of St. Louis, The (book by Lindbergh)

    Charles Lindbergh: World War II and postwar life: …books about his life, including The Spirit of St. Louis (1953), which described the flight to Paris and gained him a Pulitzer Prize. He was also the author, with Alexis Carrel, of The Culture of Organs (1938), concerning the operation of the perfusion pump and related research on which he…

  • Spirit of the Border, The (work by Grey)

    Zane Grey: …writing, he published in 1905 The Spirit of the Border—also based on Zane’s notes—which became a best-seller. Grey subsequently wrote more than 80 books, a number of which were published posthumously; more than 50 were in print in the last quarter of the 20th century. The novel Riders of the…

  • Spirit of the Bush (song by Kernaghan)

    Lee Kernaghan: …where his hit song “Spirit of the Bush” (2007), recorded with fellow country music luminaries Adam Brand and Steve Forde, won the best single, best vocal collaboration, and best video awards. Kernaghan’s memoir, Boy from the Bush, appeared in 2015.

  • Spirit of the Laws, The (treatise by Montesquieu)

    Montesquieu: Major works: (The Spirit of Laws, 1750). It consisted of two quarto volumes, comprising 31 books in 1,086 pages.

  • Spirit of the Revolution and the Constitution of France, The (work by Saint-Just)

    Louis de Saint-Just: Publication of Esprit de la révolution: In 1791 he finally published Esprit de la révolution et de la constitution de France (The Spirit of the Revolution and the Constitution of France). The exposition was bold, vigorous, and lofty. The brief, forceful, and elliptical formulations characterized the author. According to him, the constitution framed by the Assembly…

  • Spirit of the Times (work by Arndt)

    Ernst Moritz Arndt: …his Geist der Zeit (Spirit of the Times, 1808), in which he called on his countrymen to shake off the French yoke. To escape the vengeance of Napoleon, he took refuge in Sweden, from where he continued to communicate his patriotic ideals to his countrymen in pamphlets, poems, and…

  • spirit of turpentine (essential oil)

    turpentine: …called oil (or spirit) of turpentine and a nonvolatile portion called rosin. Although the term turpentine originally referred to the whole oleoresinous exudate, it now commonly refers to its volatile turpentine fraction only, which has various uses in industry and the visual arts.

  • spirit possession (religion)

    Possession, in religious and folk traditions, condition characterized by unusual behaviour and a personality change that is interpreted as evidence that the person is under the direct control of an external supernatural power. Symptoms of spirit possession include violent unusual movements,

  • spirit process (printing)

    hectograph: The spirit method is also referred to as the direct, or fluid, process. The master copy is prepared by typewriter, handwriting, punched card, or computer-printing devices. Master copies can also be prepared by copying machines and microfilm reader-printers. The master sheet is then fastened to a…

  • spirit rapper (occult)

    magic: European traditions and the modern world: Notably, spirit rappers, mediums who “conversed” with spirits who replied by knocking on a table, were easily exposed as the ones doing the knocking. Modern popular magic has appeared in the realm of entertainment, generally as a plot device in stories and movies, as tricks aimed…

  • spirit, philosophy of (philosophy)

    Benedetto Croce: Croce’s philosophy of the spirit: (1) In the first aspect, philosophy of spirit designates the construction of a philosophical system on the remote pattern of the rationalism (i.e., idealism) of classical Romantic philosophy. Its principle is the “circularity” of spirit (mind, or consciousness) within the structure of the system and in historical time. The phases,…

  • Spiritans (religious order)

    Holy Ghost Father, a Roman Catholic society of men founded in 1703 at Paris by Claude-Fran?ois Poullart des Places. Originally intended only for the training of seminarians, the congregation gradually took an active part in missionary work. Suppressed by the French Revolution, it was restored under

  • Spirited Away (film by Miyazaki)

    Miyazaki Hayao: …to Chihiro no kamikakushi (2001; Spirited Away) captured the top prize at the 2002 Berlin International Film Festival, won best Asian film at the Hong Kong Film Awards, and was named best animated feature at the 2003 Academy Awards. In his native Japan it won best picture at the 2002…

  • spiritual (music)

    Spiritual, in North American white and black folk music, an English-language folk hymn. White spirituals include both revival and camp-meeting songs and a smaller number of other hymns. They derived variously, notably from the “lining out” of psalms, dating from at least the mid-17th century.

  • Spiritual Aeneid, A (work by Knox)

    Ronald Knox: …struggle and its resolution in A Spiritual Aeneid (1918). The final expression of his position appeared in The Belief of Catholics (1927). Six volumes of Knox’s sermons were published, including Heaven and Charing Cross (1935) and Captive Flames (1940). Knox also wrote inventive and complex detective novels; Still Dead (1934)…

  • spiritual assembly (Bahā?ī Faith)

    Spiritual assembly, in the Bahā?ī faith, any of numerous administrative units that conduct an extensive work of missions, publication, education, and general philanthropy. Spiritual assemblies consist of nine members elected or designated annually on the local, national, and world levels during the

  • Spiritual Canticle, The (work by John of the Cross)

    Christianity: Trinitarian mysticism: …the Most Holy Trinity” (Spiritual Canticle, stanza 39.3). Such strong Trinitarian emphasis is rarer, but not absent from Protestant mysticism.

  • Spiritual Communities of Christ, Union of (Russian religious sect)

    Dukhobor, (Russian: “Spirit Wrestler”), member of a Russian peasant religious sect, prominent in the 18th century, that rejected all external authority, including the Bible, in favour of direct individual revelation. The liturgical reforms of Patriarch Nikon in 1652 and the opening of Russia to

  • Spiritual Dragon (Chinese mythology)

    long: …and the Spiritual Dragon (Shenlong), who controls the rain and winds. In popular belief only the latter two were significant; they were transformed into the Dragon Kings (Longwang), gods who lived in the four oceans, delivered rain, and protected seafarers.

  • Spiritual Espousals, The (work by Ruysbroeck)

    Jan van Ruysbroeck: …Chierheit der gheesteliker Brulocht (1350; The Spiritual Espousals), considered to be his masterpiece, develops his view of the Trinity and is a guide for the soul in search of God. Though his many writings were produced for his contemporary Augustinians, they spread rapidly through Latin translations and anticipated the 15th-century…

  • Spiritual Exercises, The (work by Ignatius of Loyola)

    St. Ignatius of Loyola: Spiritual awakening: …fundamentals of his little book The Spiritual Exercises. Until the close of his studies at Paris (1535), he continued to make some additions to it. Thereafter there were only minor changes until Pope Paul III approved it in 1548. The Spiritual Exercises is a manual of spiritual arms containing a…

  • Spiritual Franciscans (religious order)

    Spiritual, member of an extreme group within the Franciscans, a mendicant religious order founded by St. Francis of Assisi in 1209; the Spirituals firmly espoused the austerity and poverty prescribed in the original Rule of St. Francis. Called the Fraticelli, they were opposed, to some extent, by

  • spiritual gifts (Christianity)

    Christianity: Conflict between order and charismatic freedom: As the uncontrollable principle of life in the church, the Holy Spirit considerably upset Christian congregations from the very outset. Paul struggled to restrict the anarchist elements, which are connected with the appearance of free charismata (spiritual phenomena), and, over against these, to…

  • Spiritual Guide, The (work by Molinos)

    Christianity: Western Catholic Christianity: …Molinos, author of the popular Spiritual Guide (1675), was condemned for his doctrine of the “One Act,” that is, the teaching that the will, once fixed on God in contemplative prayer, cannot lose its union with the divine. In France Mme Guyon and her adviser, Fran?ois Fénelon, archbishop of Cambrai,…

  • spiritual healing

    Faith healing, recourse to divine power to cure mental or physical disabilities, either in conjunction with orthodox medical care or in place of it. Often an intermediary is involved, whose intercession may be all-important in effecting the desired cure. Sometimes the faith may reside in a

  • spiritual marriage

    Christianity: The readjustment: …frequently spoken of as a spiritual marriage involving God and the soul. This unitive life has two main aspects. First, while the consciousness of self and the world remains, that consciousness is accompanied by a continuous sense of union with God, as Teresa of ávila clearly shows in discussing the…

  • spiritual philosophy (theology)

    Saint Nilus of Ancyra: …an early master of Christian spirituality, balancing religious insight with worldly astuteness. He seems to have coined the term “spiritual philosophy” to indicate his central theme of casting Christ as man’s effective exemplar for controlling his impulses. The object of this discipline, initiated by a divine gift or grace, is…

  • Spiritual Quixote, The (novel by Graves)

    English literature: Other novelists: … (1752) and Richard Graves in The Spiritual Quixote (1773) responded inventively to the influence of Miguel de Cervantes, also discernible in the writing of Fielding, Smollett, and Sterne. Cervantes’s influence was much increased by a series of translations of his Don Quixote, including Smollett’s of 1755. This particular work of…

  • Spiritual Regulation (work by Prokopovich)

    Feofan Prokopovich: …drawing up in 1720 the Spiritual Regulations, a new constitution for Orthodoxy. Appointed synodal first vice president, he was responsible for the legislative reform of the entire Russian church, subordinating it to the secular and spiritual authority of Tsar Peter, and for effecting a church-state relationship, sometimes termed a Protestantized…

  • spiritualism (religion)

    Spiritualism, in religion, a movement based on the belief that departed souls can interact with the living. Spiritualists sought to make contact with the dead, usually through the assistance of a medium, a person believed to have the ability to contact spirits directly. Some mediums worked while in

  • spiritualism (philosophy)

    Spiritualism, in philosophy, a characteristic of any system of thought that affirms the existence of immaterial reality imperceptible to the senses. So defined, spiritualism embraces a vast array of highly diversified philosophical views. Most patently, it applies to any philosophy accepting the n

  • spirituality (human quality)

    Spirituality, the quality or state of being spiritual or of being attached to or concerned with religious questions and values broadly conceived. The term is also frequently used in a non- (or even anti-) religious sense to designate a preoccupation with or capacity for understanding fundamental

  • Spirituals (religious order)

    Spiritual, member of an extreme group within the Franciscans, a mendicant religious order founded by St. Francis of Assisi in 1209; the Spirituals firmly espoused the austerity and poverty prescribed in the original Rule of St. Francis. Called the Fraticelli, they were opposed, to some extent, by

  • Spirochaeta (bacteria)

    spirochete: Spirochaeta are free-living nonpathogenic inhabitants of mud and water, typically thriving in anaerobic (oxygen-deprived) environments. Leptospirosis, caused by Leptospira, is principally a disease of domestic and wild mammals and is a secondary infection of humans.

  • Spirochaetales (bacteria order)

    Spirochete, (order Spirochaetales), any of a group of spiral-shaped bacteria, some of which are serious pathogens for humans, causing diseases such as syphilis, yaws, Lyme disease, and relapsing fever. Examples of genera of spirochetes include Spirochaeta, Treponema, Borrelia, and Leptospira.

  • spirochaete (bacteria order)

    Spirochete, (order Spirochaetales), any of a group of spiral-shaped bacteria, some of which are serious pathogens for humans, causing diseases such as syphilis, yaws, Lyme disease, and relapsing fever. Examples of genera of spirochetes include Spirochaeta, Treponema, Borrelia, and Leptospira.

  • spirochete (bacteria order)

    Spirochete, (order Spirochaetales), any of a group of spiral-shaped bacteria, some of which are serious pathogens for humans, causing diseases such as syphilis, yaws, Lyme disease, and relapsing fever. Examples of genera of spirochetes include Spirochaeta, Treponema, Borrelia, and Leptospira.

  • spirochete (bacterial shape)

    bacteria: Diversity of structure of bacteria: or curved (vibrio, spirillum, or spirochete). Considerable variation is seen in the actual shapes of bacteria, and cells can be stretched or compressed in one dimension. Bacteria that do not separate from one another after cell division form characteristic clusters that are helpful in their identification. For example,…

  • Spirogyra (green algae)

    Spirogyra, (genus Spirogyra), any member of a genus of some 400 species of free-floating green algae (division Chlorophyta) found in freshwater environments around the world. Named for their beautiful spiral chloroplasts, spirogyras are filamentous algae that consist of thin unbranched chains of

  • spirogyra (green algae)

    Spirogyra, (genus Spirogyra), any member of a genus of some 400 species of free-floating green algae (division Chlorophyta) found in freshwater environments around the world. Named for their beautiful spiral chloroplasts, spirogyras are filamentous algae that consist of thin unbranched chains of

  • Spirometra (flatworm genus)

    cestodiasis: …Sparganosis is caused by the Spirometra mansoni larva, which may be acquired by drinking water that contains water fleas harbouring the first larval stage. The larvae may grow to a length of 30 cm (12 inches) in the abdominal wall or in the region of the eye socket; surgical removal…

  • spirometry

    respiratory disease: Methods of investigation: Spirometry, the measurement of the rate and quantity of air exhaled forcibly from a full respiration, allows measurement of the ventilation capacity of the lungs and quantification of the degree of airflow obstruction. Ventilatory capability can be measured with a peak flow meter, which is…

  • spironolactone (drug)

    antiandrogen: Spironolactone, a diuretic, is also a weak inhibitor of the androgen receptor and a weak inhibitor of testosterone synthesis. Androgen-receptor antagonists such as flutamide and bicalutamide can be used in combination with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analog in the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer.

  • spirotrich (microorganism)

    Spirotrich, (class Spirotrichea), any of a group of ciliated protozoans characterized by nonuniform, sparse ciliation and prominent membranelles of fused cilia around the mouth opening. The subclass contains a number of orders. See heterotrich; hypotrich; odontostome; oligotrich;

  • Spirotrichia (microorganism)

    Spirotrich, (class Spirotrichea), any of a group of ciliated protozoans characterized by nonuniform, sparse ciliation and prominent membranelles of fused cilia around the mouth opening. The subclass contains a number of orders. See heterotrich; hypotrich; odontostome; oligotrich;

  • Spirula (mollusk genus)

    skeleton: Buoyancy devices: …coiled, lightly constructed shell of Spirula sinks into the body, the animal has internal air spaces that can control its buoyancy and also its direction of swimming. In cuttlefish and squids, a shell that was originally chambered has become transformed into a laminated cuttlebone. Secretion and absorption of gases to…

  • Spirulina (cyanobacteria)

    Spirulina, Any cyanobacteria in the genus Spirulina. A traditional food source in parts of Africa and Mexico, spirulina is an exceptionally rich source of vitamins, minerals, and protein, and one of the few nonanimal sources of vitamin B12. It is now being widely studied for its possible antiviral,

  • spirulina (cyanobacteria)

    Spirulina, Any cyanobacteria in the genus Spirulina. A traditional food source in parts of Africa and Mexico, spirulina is an exceptionally rich source of vitamins, minerals, and protein, and one of the few nonanimal sources of vitamin B12. It is now being widely studied for its possible antiviral,

  • ?pis (region, Slovakia)

    Cipszer: …present-day north-central Slovakia known as ?pis (Hungarian: Szepes; German: Zips). The Cipszers originated in the lower Rhine region, Flanders, Saxony, and Silesia. King Géza II (ruled 1141–62) of Hungary moved them to the Szepes area in the middle of the 12th century. Their local self-government was first recognized in writing…

  • Spi?sky ?tvrtok (ancient site, Slovakia)

    history of Europe: The Bronze Age: …Bronze Age fortified site at Spi?sky ?tvrtok, Slovakia, strategically located to control the trade routes running through a mountain pass across the Carpathians along the Hornád River, and by the Late Bronze Age Lusatian hilltop site in the Moravian Pforte passes. The development of aggression and its formalization played a…

  • Spisula (bivalve genus)

    bivalve: Internal features: The burrowing Spisula illustrates these changes. It, like Nucula, is equivalve and anteriorly and posteriorly symmetrical (isomyarian). The mantle margin is fused ventrally, allowing the foot to extend through an anterior pedal gape. The posterior inhalant and exhalant orifices are formed into tentacle-fringed siphons. The gills are…

  • spit (coastal feature)

    Spit, in geology, narrow coastal land formation that is tied to the coast at one end. Spits frequently form where the coast abruptly changes direction and often occur across the mouths of estuaries; they may develop from each headland at harbour mouths. Spits, which may be composed of sand or

  • Spitak (Armenia)

    Armenia: Relief: …destroyed the northwestern town of Spitak and caused severe damage to Leninakan (now Gyumri), Armenia’s second most populous city. About 25,000 people were killed.

  • Spitalfields (area, Tower Hamlets, London, United Kingdom)

    Spitalfields, neighbourhood in the London borough of Tower Hamlets. It is situated just east of the Bishopsgate section of the former London Wall. In the Middle Ages it belonged to the priory and hospital, or “spital,” of St. Mary, which was founded in 1197 by Walter and Rose Brown. Like other

  • Spitamenes (Sogdian ruler)

    Alexander the Great: Campaign eastward to Central Asia: …been overthrown by the Sogdian Spitamenes. Bessus was captured, flogged, and sent to Bactra, where he was later mutilated after the Persian manner (losing his nose and ears); in due course he was publicly executed at Ecbatana.

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