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  • spitball (baseball)

    baseball: Records and statistics: …the increased use of the spitball (in which moisture is applied to the surface of a ball to affect its flight), the appearance of a cadre of bigger and stronger pitchers, and conservative managerial styles (called “scientific” or “inside” baseball) all contributed to a sharp fall in total runs and…

  • spite (behaviour)

    animal social behaviour: The ultimate causes of social behaviour: …expense of the recipient), and spite (the actor hurts the recipient and both pay a cost). Mutualistic associations pose no serious evolutionary difficulty since both individuals derive benefits that exceed what they would achieve on their own. In general, altruism is less likely to evolve, since a gene for altruism…

  • Spitfire (British aircraft)

    Spitfire, the most widely produced and strategically important British single-seat fighter of World War II. The Spitfire, renowned for winning victory laurels in the Battle of Britain (1940–41) along with the Hawker Hurricane, served in every theatre of the war and was produced in more variants

  • Spitfire Grill, The (film by Zlotoff [1996])

    Marcia Gay Harden: …and a simple-minded waitress in The Spitfire Grill (1996). Harden continued acting onstage, and in 1993 she made her Broadway debut, playing the troubled wife of a gay Mormon lawyer in Tony Kushner’s Angels in America. She was nominated for a Tony Award for her performance.

  • Spithead (strait, English Channel, Europe)

    Spithead, strait of the English Channel, forming an extensive, deep, and sheltered channel between the northeastern shore of the Isle of Wight and the mainland of England. The Spit Sand forms the western side of the channel leading into Portsmouth harbour. Besides its special association with the

  • Spitsbergen (island, Norway)

    Spitsbergen, largest island of the Svalbard archipelago, part of Norway, in the Arctic Ocean. Spitsbergen, with an area of 15,075 square miles (39,044 square km), is approximately 280 miles (450 km) long and ranges from 25 to 140 miles (40 to 225 km) wide. The terrain is mountainous, and most of

  • Spitta, Julius August Philipp (German musicologist)

    Philipp Spitta, German scholar, one of the principal figures in 19th-century musicology and author of the first comprehensive work on Johann Sebastian Bach. Spitta studied at G?ttingen and in 1874 helped found the Bachverein (Bach Society) in Leipzig. In 1875 he became professor of musical history

  • Spitta, Philipp (German musicologist)

    Philipp Spitta, German scholar, one of the principal figures in 19th-century musicology and author of the first comprehensive work on Johann Sebastian Bach. Spitta studied at G?ttingen and in 1874 helped found the Bachverein (Bach Society) in Leipzig. In 1875 he became professor of musical history

  • Spittal (Austria)

    Spittal, town, southern Austria. It lies along the Drava (Drau) River at the mouth of the Lieser valley, just west of Millst?tter Lake and northwest of Villach. Named for a hospital founded there by the counts of Ortenburg in 1191, it received market rights in 1242 but achieved municipal status

  • Spittal an der Drau (Austria)

    Spittal, town, southern Austria. It lies along the Drava (Drau) River at the mouth of the Lieser valley, just west of Millst?tter Lake and northwest of Villach. Named for a hospital founded there by the counts of Ortenburg in 1191, it received market rights in 1242 but achieved municipal status

  • Spitteler, Carl (Swiss poet)

    Carl Spitteler, Swiss poet of visionary imagination and author of pessimistic yet heroic verse. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1919. Spitteler was a private tutor for eight years in Russia and Finland. After he returned to Switzerland in 1879, he made his living as a teacher and

  • spitting (zoology)

    reptile: Spitting: The spitting of venom by some Asian and African cobras (Naja) and the ringhals (Hemachatus haemachatus) is a purely defensive act directed against large animals. Instead of a straight canal ending in a long opening near the tip of each fang as in most…

  • spitting cobra (snake)

    cobra: The ringhals, or spitting cobra (Hemachatus haemachatus), of southern Africa and the black-necked cobra (Naja nigricollis), a small form widely distributed in Africa, are spitters. Venom is accurately directed at the victim’s eyes at distances of more than two metres and may cause temporary, or even…

  • Spitting Image (British television program)

    puppetry: Puppetry in the contemporary world: …puppetry could be seen in “Spitting Image,” a program introduced in 1984 with caricatured puppets designed by Roger Law and Peter Fluck. It consisted of satiric sketches, originally of English politicians and personalities, and represented a revival of the 18th-century tradition of adult satiric puppet theatre.

  • spitting spider (arachnid)

    Spitting spider, any member of the family Scytodidae (order Araneida). Most species have six pearly-white eyes rather than the usual eight. Spitting spiders ensnare their prey by spitting a mucilaginous saliva. They are most common in shady spots in the tropics. Scytodes thoracica, common in the

  • spittle (insect secretion)

    homopteran: Spittle: Exuded from the alimentary tract by nymphs of the Cercopidae (i.e., spittlebugs) are spittle masses commonly found on stems of meadow plants. The spittle fluid is voided from the anus after it has been mixed with a mucilaginous substance excreted by epidermal glands of…

  • spittlebug (insect)

    Froghopper, (family Cercopidae), any of numerous species of small (less than 1.5 cm [0.6 inch] long) hopping insects (order Homoptera), worldwide in distribution, that produce a frothy substance known as spittle. The whitish nymph secretes a fluid through the anus that is mixed with a secretion

  • spitz (dog)

    Spitz, any of a group of northern dogs—such as the chow chow, Pomeranian, and Samoyed—characterized by dense, long coats, erect pointed ears, and tails that curve over their backs. In the United States the name spitz is often given to any small, white, long-haired dog. It is also used for the

  • Spitz, Mark (American athlete)

    Mark Spitz, American swimmer who, at the 1972 Olympics in Munich, became the first athlete to win seven gold medals in a single Games. Like many other outstanding American swimmers, Spitz trained for several years at the Santa Clara (California) Swim Club. He served as captain of the

  • Spitz, Mark Andrew (American athlete)

    Mark Spitz, American swimmer who, at the 1972 Olympics in Munich, became the first athlete to win seven gold medals in a single Games. Like many other outstanding American swimmers, Spitz trained for several years at the Santa Clara (California) Swim Club. He served as captain of the

  • Spitz, René (Austrian-born psychoanalyst)

    infant stimulation program: Emergence of modern infant stimulation programs: …the 1940s, when Austrian-born psychoanalyst René Spitz showed that long-term hospitalization of foundling infants with little or no stimulation was associated with abnormal behavioral development. In the 1950s, American psychologist Harry Harlow showed that monkeys raised in isolation (i.e., without maternal stimulation) displayed abnormal development. These findings indicated a potential…

  • Spitzenk?rper (fungal structure)

    fungus: Growth: …by its German name, the Spitzenk?rper, and its position determines the direction of growth of a hypha.

  • Spitzer Space Telescope (United States satellite)

    Spitzer Space Telescope, U.S. satellite, the fourth and last of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration fleet of “Great Observatories” satellites. It studied the cosmos at infrared wavelengths. The Spitzer observatory began operating in 2003 and spent more than 16 years gathering

  • Spitzer, Eliot (American lawyer and politician)

    Eliot Spitzer, American lawyer and politician who was governor of New York from 2007 to 2008. As the state’s attorney general (1999–2006), he gained national attention for his aggressive pursuit of corruption in the financial industry. Spitzer was educated at Princeton University (B.A., 1981) and

  • Spitzer, Leo (Austrian literary critic)

    stylistics: … (1865–1947), the Swiss philologist, and Leo Spitzer (1887–1960), the Austrian literary critic. According to followers of these thinkers, style in language arises from the possibility of choice among alternative forms of expression, as for example, between “children,” “kids,” “youngsters,” and “youths,” each of which has a different evocative value. This…

  • Spitzer, Lyman (American astrophysicist)

    Lyman Spitzer, American astrophysicist who studied the physical processes occurring in interstellar space and pioneered efforts to harness nuclear fusion as a source of clean energy. After Spitzer earned a B.A. from Yale University in 1935, he spent a year at the University of Cambridge. He

  • Spitzer, Lyman, Jr. (American astrophysicist)

    Lyman Spitzer, American astrophysicist who studied the physical processes occurring in interstellar space and pioneered efforts to harness nuclear fusion as a source of clean energy. After Spitzer earned a B.A. from Yale University in 1935, he spent a year at the University of Cambridge. He

  • Spitzweg, Carl (German painter)

    Carl Spitzweg, German painter who is recognized as the most representative of the Biedermeier (early Victorian) artists in Germany. Trained in pharmacy at the University of Vienna, Spitzweg was a pharmacist and newspaper illustrator before becoming a painter in 1833. Though widely travelled in

  • Spivak, Gayatri Chakravorty (Indian literary theorist and critic)

    Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak, Indian literary theorist, feminist critic, postcolonial theorist, and professor of comparative literature noted for her personal brand of deconstructive criticism, which she called “interventionist.” Educated in Calcutta (B.A., 1959) and at the University of Cambridge

  • Spivak, Lawrence Edmund (American journalist)

    Lawrence Edmund Spivak, U.S. broadcast journalist (born June 11, 1900, Brooklyn, N.Y.—died March 9, 1994, Washington, D.C.), was a founder of the pioneering radio and television show "Meet the Press," which set the standard for a generation of political interview programs. Spivak graduated from H

  • Spix’s disk bat (mammal)

    disk-winged bat: Spix’s disk-winged bat (Thyroptera tricolor) lives in small, cohesive colonies that roost in rolled-up leaves. It is unique among bats for its “heads-up” roosting posture.

  • Spix’s macaw (bird)

    macaw: …confirmed sighting of a non-captive Spix’s macaw (Cyanopsitta spixii)—the bird that inspired the popular children’s films Rio (2011) and Rio 2 (2014)—occurred in 2000, and the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and other authorities considered the species extinct in the wild by 2018. In addition, ornithologists hold out…

  • Spiza americana (bird)

    Dickcissel, (Spiza americana), American bird usually placed in the family Cardinalidae. The male dickcissel—named for its song—is a streaky brown bird 16 cm (6.5 inches) long, with a black bib on its yellow breast, looking somewhat like a miniature meadowlark. Dickcissels are seedeaters. They breed

  • Spizaetus (bird genus)

    eagle: Members of the Spizaetus species—e.g., the ornate hawk eagle (S. ornatus) of tropical America—have short wide wings, long rounded tails, and ornamented heads. Bonelli’s eagle (Hieraaetus fasciatus), of Mediterranean areas and parts of southern Asia, is about 60 cm (24 inches) long, is dark above and light below,…

  • Spizella arborea (bird)

    sparrow: …sparrow (Spizella passerina) and the tree sparrow (S. arborea), trim-looking little birds with reddish-brown caps; the savanna sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis) and the vesper sparrow (Pooecetes gramineus), finely streaked birds of grassy fields; the song sparrow (Melospiza melodia) and the fox sparrow (Passerella iliaca), heavily streaked

  • Spizella passerina (bird)

    sparrow: …in North America are the chipping sparrow (Spizella passerina) and the tree sparrow (S. arborea), trim-looking little birds with reddish-brown caps; the savanna sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis) and the vesper sparrow (Pooecetes gramineus), finely streaked birds of grassy fields; the song sparrow (Melospiza melodia) and the

  • Spizellomycetales (order of fungi)

    fungus: Annotated classification: Order Spizellomycetales Parasitic on soil organisms and plants; holocarpic (having all the thallus involved in the formation of the fruiting body) or eucarpic; example genera include Spizellomyces and Powellomyces. Class Monoblepharidomycetes Asexual reproduction by zoospores or autospores; filamentous, branched or unbranched thallus;

  • SPL (acoustics)

    Loudness, in acoustics, attribute of sound that determines the intensity of auditory sensation produced. The loudness of sound as perceived by human ears is roughly proportional to the logarithm of sound intensity: when the intensity is very small, the sound is not audible; when it is too great, it

  • SPLA/SPLM (Sudanese revolutionary organization)

    Sudan: Resumption of civil war: …under the banner of the Sudanese People’s Liberation Army (SPLA) and its political wing, the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement (SPLM).

  • Splachnaceae (plant family)

    bryophyte: Ecology and habitats: …species in the moss family Splachnaceae), somewhat shaded cavern mouths (the liverwort Cyathodium and the mosses Mittenia and Schistostega), leaf surfaces (the moss Ephemeropsis and the liverwort genus Metzgeria and many species of the liverwort family Lejeuneaceae), salt pans

  • Splash (film by Howard [1984])

    Bruce Jay Friedman: …notably Stir Crazy (1980) and Splash (1984; written with others). Lucky Bruce: A Literary Memoir was published in 2011.

  • splash-form tektite (geology)

    tektite: Form and markings: Splash-form tektites have shapes like the microtektites but are about one million times as massive. Spheres (the majority), oblate spheroids, and a few dumbbells, teardrops, disks, and cylinders are found. Splash-form tektites are always marked by corrosion. The two most common kinds of corrosion are…

  • splashback (culture)

    cultural globalization: Borrowing and translating popular culture: An earlier example of splashback—when a cultural innovation returns, somewhat transformed, to the place of its origin—was the British Invasion of the American popular music market in the mid-1960s. Forged in the United States from blues and country music, rock and roll crossed the Atlantic in the 1950s to…

  • splashed ink (Chinese painting)

    Pomo, either of two different phrases (two different Chinese characters are pronounced po) that describe two kinds of textured surface given to Chinese paintings (see cun). The more common interpretation of pomo is “broken ink,” which, though it is now difficult to identify, was supposedly an

  • splat quenching (materials science)

    amorphous solid: Melt quenching: …shown in Figure 4C, called splat quenching, can quench a droplet of a molten metal roughly 1,000 °C in one millisecond, producing a thin film of metal that is an amorphous solid. In enormous contrast to this, the silicate glass that forms the rigid ribbed disk of the Hale telescope…

  • splatter dash (architecture and construction)

    plaster: Splatter dash and pebble dash are textured surfaces resulting from throwing mortar or pebble with some force on the finish coat while it is still soft.

  • splaying crevasse (glaciology)

    glacier: Surface features: Splaying crevasses, parallel to the flow in midchannel, are caused by a transverse expansion of the flow. The drag of the valley walls produces marginal crevasses, which intersect the margin at 45°. Transverse and splaying crevasses curve around to become marginal crevasses near the edge…

  • SPLC (American organization)

    Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC), a nonprofit organization based in Montgomery, Alabama, that is committed to advocacy for civil rights and racial equality. Formally incorporated in 1971 by Alabama lawyers Morris Dees and Joe Levin, the Southern Poverty Law Center was founded as a small law firm

  • Spleen (work by Moore)

    Nicholas Moore: Spleen (1973) presented 30 variations on a poem by Charles Baudelaire. Longings of the Acrobats (1990), a selection of his poetry, was published posthumously.

  • spleen (anatomy)

    Spleen, organ of the lymphatic system located in the left side of the abdominal cavity under the diaphragm, the muscular partition between the abdomen and the chest. In humans it is about the size of a fist and is well supplied with blood. As the lymph nodes are filters for the lymphatic

  • Spleen de Paris, Le (work by Baudelaire)

    Charles Baudelaire: Prose poems: Baudelaire’s Petits poèmes en prose was published posthumously in 1869 and was later, as intended by the author, entitled Le Spleen de Paris (translated as The Parisian Prowler). He did not live long enough to bring these poems together in a single volume, but it is…

  • spleenwort (fern genus)

    fern: Hybridization: …certain fern genera, such as spleenworts (Asplenium), wood ferns (Dryopteris), and holly ferns (Polystichum), hybridization between species (interspecific crossing) may be so frequent as to cause serious taxonomic problems. Hybridization between genera is rare but has been reported between closely related groups. Fern hybrids are conspicuously intermediate in characteristics between…

  • spleenwort family (plant family)

    Aspleniaceae, the spleenwort family of ferns, with 1–10 genera and some 800 species, in the division Pteridophyta (the lower vascular plants). Some botanists treat Aspleniaceae as comprising a single genus, Asplenium (spleenwort), but up to nine small segregate genera are recognized by other

  • Splendeurs et misères des courtisanes (novel by Balzac)

    A Harlot High and Low, novel in four parts by Honoré de Balzac, published in 1839–47 as Splendeurs et misères des courtisanes. It was also translated into English as The Splendors and Miseries of Courtesans and A (or The) Harlot’s Progress. It belongs to the “Scenes of Parisian Life” portion of

  • splendid fairy wren (bird)

    fairy wren: The splendid fairy wren (M. splendens) of Western Australia, unlike the bluecap in the east, avoids settled areas.

  • Splendid Splinter, The (American baseball player and manager)

    Ted Williams, American professional baseball player who compiled a lifetime batting average of .344 as an outfielder with the American League Boston Red Sox from 1939 to 1960. He was the last player to hit .400 in Major League Baseball (.406 in 1941). Williams was an excellent ballplayer as a child

  • splendid sunbird (bird)

    sunbird: …distributed African species is the splendid sunbird (Cinnyris coccinigaster), with purple head, green back, and black wings and tail. A related group, the spider hunters (Arachnothera), are plain species with longer bills and shorter tails; they are found in Southeast Asia.

  • Splendor in the Grass (film by Kazan [1961])

    Splendor in the Grass, American film drama, released in 1961, that examines repressed love and the sexual frustrations of a teenage couple. Natalie Wood and Warren Beatty, in his first screen role, play high school lovers Deanie and Bud in a small Kansas town in the 1920s. They struggle to stay

  • Splendor solis (work by Trismosin)

    alchemy: Latin alchemy: SalomonTrismosin, purported author of the Splendor solis, or “Splendour of the Sun” (published 1598), engaged in extensive visits to alchemical adepts (a common practice) and claimed success through “kabbalistic and magical books in the Egyptian language.” The impression given is that many had the secret of gold making but that…

  • Splendors and Miseries of Courtesans, The (novel by Balzac)

    A Harlot High and Low, novel in four parts by Honoré de Balzac, published in 1839–47 as Splendeurs et misères des courtisanes. It was also translated into English as The Splendors and Miseries of Courtesans and A (or The) Harlot’s Progress. It belongs to the “Scenes of Parisian Life” portion of

  • Splendour in the Grass (film by Kazan [1961])

    Splendor in the Grass, American film drama, released in 1961, that examines repressed love and the sexual frustrations of a teenage couple. Natalie Wood and Warren Beatty, in his first screen role, play high school lovers Deanie and Bud in a small Kansas town in the 1920s. They struggle to stay

  • splenectomy (medicine)

    blood disease: Hemolytic anemias: In a number of instances, splenectomy—removal of the spleen—is necessary and is usually partially or wholly effective in relieving the anemia. The effectiveness of splenectomy is attributed to the removal of the organ in which red cells, coated with antibody, are selectively trapped and destroyed.

  • splenic artery (anatomy)

    human cardiovascular system: The aorta and its principal branches: …serves the liver; and the splenic artery, which supplies the stomach, pancreas, and spleen.

  • splenic fever (disease)

    Anthrax, acute, infectious, febrile disease of animals and humans caused by Bacillus anthracis, a bacterium that under certain conditions forms highly resistant spores capable of persisting and retaining their virulence for many years. Although anthrax most commonly affects grazing animals such as

  • splenic lymph follicle (anatomy)

    spleen: …lymphocytes, and lymphatic nodules, called follicles in the spleen. Germinal centres in the white pulp serve as the sites of lymphocyte production. Similar to the lymph nodes, the spleen reacts to microorganisms and other antigens that reach the bloodstream by releasing special phagocytic cells known as macrophages. Splenic macrophages reside…

  • splenic vein (anatomy)

    splenomegaly: …of impaired flow through the splenic vein, which empties into the portal vein. Such impairment may be caused by liver disease, portal vein or splenic vein pathology, constrictive pericarditis, or congestive cardiac failure.

  • splenitis (pathology)

    Splenitis, enlargement and inflammation of the spleen as a result of infection, parasite infestation, or cysts. Infections spread readily to the spleen from other parts of the body. In pneumonia the spleen is moderately enlarged and soft; the cut surface is reddish to gray, while the tissue may be

  • splenomegaly (pathology)

    Splenomegaly, enlargement of the spleen, the abdominal organ that serves as a temporary storage site for blood and filters out degenerated and old blood cells. Splenomegaly may arise as a symptom of a number of diseases, including certain systemic infections, inflammatory diseases, hematologic

  • splice (knot)

    Splice, permanent joining of two ropes by interweaving their strands. In the short splice the strands of each rope are unlayed (untwisted), interwoven, and tucked into the lay (twist) of the other rope. For neatness the strands are usually trimmed down before the final tuck is made. For making a

  • spline approximation (mathematics)

    numerical analysis: Approximation theory: …rational functions, trigonometric polynomials, and spline functions (made by connecting several polynomial functions at their endpoints—they are commonly used in statistics and computer graphics).

  • splint coal (fuel)

    coal: Banded and nonbanded coals: …than 80 percent vitrinite, and splint coal, which contains more than 30 percent opaque matter. The nonbanded varieties include boghead coal, which has a high percentage of algal remains, and cannel coal, which has a high percentage of spores in its attritus (that is, pulverized or finely divided matter). The…

  • splintering (radio)

    radio: In the United States: …the industry known as “splintering,” in which one programming format (such as rock music) “splinters” into at least two more narrowly focused kinds of music (such as hip-hop or classic rock), in an effort to appeal to specific audiences with carefully defined demographic and psychographic profiles. About a dozen…

  • splintery fracture (crystallography)

    mineral: Cleavage and fracture: Splintery fracture is breakage into elongated fragments like splinters of wood, while hackly fracture is breakage along jagged surfaces.

  • Splish Splash (song by Darin)

    Bobby Darin: …singles, but in 1958 “Splish Splash,” a novelty song he reputedly wrote in 12 minutes, became an international hit. Other hit singles followed, but, not content to remain a teenage sensation, Darin changed tack in 1959 and began recording adult standards à la Frank Sinatra, whom Darin famously aspired…

  • Split (Croatia)

    Split, seaport, resort, and chief city of Dalmatia, southern Croatia. It is situated on a peninsula in the Adriatic Sea with a deep, sheltered harbour on the south side. A major commercial and transportation centre, the city is best known for the ruins of the Palace of Diocletian (built 295–305

  • split (bowling)

    bowling: Principles of play: A split can occur on the first ball when two or more pins are left standing, separated by at least one fallen pin. Stepping over the foul line is a foul and results in loss of all pins knocked down on that delivery. There are depressed…

  • split brush (painting technique)

    Xia Gui: Life: …his use of a “split brush” (i.e., the brush tip divided so as to make two or more strokes at once) in painting tree foliage and of his freehand drawing of architecture, bridges, and so forth, “without employing a ruler.” They say that he liked to use a brush…

  • split choirs (music)

    antiphonal singing: The term cori spezzati (“split choirs”) was used to describe polychoral singing in Venice in the later 16th century. Compare responsorial singing.

  • split gene (biology)

    Richard J. Roberts: …for his independent discovery of “split genes.”

  • split mold (prehistoric technology)

    hand tool: Casting: With experience, closed but longitudinally split and, hence, two-piece molds were devised, each side having a groove down the middle to furnish a strengthening rib on both sides of the blade.

  • split personality (psychology)

    Dissociative identity disorder, mental disorder in which two or more independent and distinct personality systems develop in the same individual. Each of these personalities may alternately inhabit the person’s conscious awareness to the exclusion of the others. In some cases all of the

  • split stitch coiling (basketry)

    basketry: Sewed coiling: …preceding coil (split stitch, or furcate). This sewed type of coiled ware has a very wide distribution: it is almost the exclusive form in many regions of North and West Africa; it existed in ancient Egypt and occurs today in Arabia and throughout the Mediterranean basin as far as western…

  • split-brain syndrome (pathology)

    Split-brain syndrome, condition characterized by a cluster of neurological abnormalities arising from the partial or complete severing or lesioning of the corpus callosum, the bundle of nerves that connects the right and left hemispheres of the brain. Although it is not fully understood whether the

  • split-film fibre (fibre)

    man-made fibre: Split-film fibres: Very cheap fibres for use in applications that cannot justify the cost of fibres spun by the usual methods (for instance, packaging materials) may be prepared by the split-film method. This process consists of extruding a polymer such as polypropylene through a die…

  • split-finger fastball (baseball)

    baseball: The pitching repertoire: …pitcher Bruce Sutter introduced the split-fingered fastball, which broke downward at the plate in a motion often compared, with some exaggeration, to a ball rolling off a table.

  • split-fingered fastball (baseball)

    baseball: The pitching repertoire: …pitcher Bruce Sutter introduced the split-fingered fastball, which broke downward at the plate in a motion often compared, with some exaggeration, to a ball rolling off a table.

  • split-image wedge (optics)

    technology of photography: Focusing aids: …focusing aids such as a split-image wedge alone or with a microprism area, in the screen centre. The split-image wedge consists of a pair of prism wedges that split an out-of-focus image into two sharp halves laterally displaced relative to one another. When the lens is correctly focused the image…

  • split-leaf philodendron (plant)

    houseplant: Foliage plants: …deliciosa, or Philodendron pertusum, the Swiss cheese plant, has showy, glossy, perforated leaves slashed to the margins.

  • split-phase motor (motor)

    electric motor: Split-phase motors: An alternative means of providing a rotating field for starting is to use two stator windings, as in the figure, where the auxiliary winding b-b′ is made of more turns of smaller conductors so that its resistance is much larger than that of…

  • split-rate system (economics)

    income tax: Integration: …is the case in a split-rate system. With a zero rate on distributed profits, the corporate tax would apply only to undistributed profits. The same effect could be achieved by allowing corporations a deduction for dividends it has paid. The split-rate system offers a tax incentive for distribution of profits…

  • split-ring resonator (physics)

    metamaterial: …as metallic wire arrays and split-ring resonators (SRRs), proposed by English physicist John Pendry in the 1990s and now widely adopted. By adjusting the spacing and size of the elements in metallic wire arrays, a material’s electric permittivity (a measure of the tendency of the electric charge within the material…

  • split-S (aerial maneuver)

    air warfare: Air superiority: …diving maneuver called the split-S, half-roll, or Abschwung was frequently executed against bombers. Heavily armed fighters such as the British Hurricane or the German Fw-190, instead of approaching from the side or from below and to the rear, would attack head-on, firing until the last moment and then rolling just…

  • split-screen (television)

    television: Special techniques: …particularly in sports broadcasting, of split-screen techniques and the related methods of inserting a portion of the image from another camera into an area cut out from the main image. These techniques employ an electronic switching circuit that turns off the signal circuit of one camera for a portion of…

  • split-skin graft (medicine)

    transplant: Split or partial-thickness skin grafts: Split, or partial-thickness, skin grafts are by far the most commonly used grafts in plastic surgery. Superficial slices of skin the thickness of tissue paper are cut with a hand or mechanical razor. The graft, which contains living cells, is…

  • split-sphere device (machine)

    high-pressure phenomena: Large-volume apparatuses: Many high-pressure researchers now employ split-sphere or multianvil devices, which compress a sample uniformly from all sides. Versions with six anvils that press against the six faces of a cube-shaped sample or with eight anvils that compress an octahedral sample are in widespread use. Unlike the simple squeezer, piston-cylinder, and…

  • split-thickness skin graft (medicine)

    transplant: Split or partial-thickness skin grafts: Split, or partial-thickness, skin grafts are by far the most commonly used grafts in plastic surgery. Superficial slices of skin the thickness of tissue paper are cut with a hand or mechanical razor. The graft, which contains living cells, is…

  • splitter (baseball)

    baseball: The pitching repertoire: …pitcher Bruce Sutter introduced the split-fingered fastball, which broke downward at the plate in a motion often compared, with some exaggeration, to a ball rolling off a table.

  • Splurge (album by Puffy AmiYumi)

    Puffy AmiYumi: …tour and releasing the album Splurge. With what seemed an ever-expanding fan base, the duo subsequently recorded more albums, including Hit & Fun (2007), Honeycreeper (2007), Puffy AmiYumi X Puffy (2009), Bring It! (2009), and Thank You (2011).

  • SPMS (pathology)

    multiple sclerosis: Prevalence and types of multiple sclerosis: …types of MS: relapsing-remitting (RRMS), secondary-progressive (SPMS), primary-progressive (PPMS), and progressive-relapsing (PRMS). About 80–85 percent of patients are diagnosed initially with RRMS. In this form of the disease, onset is usually gradual, and there are alternating intervals of symptom exacerbation and complete symptom remission. In many patients with RRMS, symptoms…

  • SP? (political party, Austria [1889])

    Schutzbund: …workers’ guards by the Austrian Social Democratic Party, of which the Schutzbund remained an adjunct. It was also descended from the People’s Guard of 1918, a Social Democratic weapon against the Communists; it considered as its main objective the protection of a social reform program hated by Austria’s conservative bourgeois…

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