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  • spoor (droppings and odour trail)

    human sensory reception: Odour sensitivity: Hunting dogs can follow a spoor (odour trail) most easily when high humidity retards evaporation and dissipation of the odour. Perfumes contain chemicals called fixatives, added to retard evaporation of the more volatile constituents. The temporary anosmia (absence of sense of smell) following colds may be complete or partial; in…

  • Sporades (island group, Greece)

    Sporades, group of Greek islands in the Aegean Sea, lying northeast of Euboea (Modern Greek: évvoia) island, including Skíathos, Skópelos, Skyros, and Alónnisos, as well as neighbouring islets. In antiquity these were known as the Thessalian, or Northern, Sporades, while the Thracian, or Eastern,

  • Sporádhes, Vórioi (islands, Greece)

    Aegean Sea: Ikaría, and Sámos; (3) the Northern Sporades, including Skyros, a group lying off Thessaly; (4) the Cyclades, including Melos, Páros, Náxos, Thera, and ándros (Euboea, although technically an island, is considered a part of the Greek mainland and is connected to Boeotia by a bridge at Chalcís); (5) the Saronic…

  • sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: Types: …types of CJD: familial (fCJD), sporadic (sCJD), and acquired (aCJD). Both sCJD and aCJD may be further divided into subtypes. The most common sCJD subtype is sCJDMM1. Subtypes of aCJD include iatrogenic (iCJD) and variant (vCJD) forms of the disease (kuru is sometimes considered a third subtype of aCJD).

  • sporadic disease (pathology)

    human genetic disease: Genetics of cancer: …percent of all cancers are sporadic, meaning that they do not seem to run in families, nearly 10 percent of cancers are now recognized as familial, and some are actually inherited in an apparently autosomal dominant manner. Cancer may therefore be considered a multifactorial disease, resulting from the combined influence…

  • sporadic E (atmospheric science)

    ionosphere and magnetosphere: Ionospheric variations: …for the phenomenon known as sporadic E.

  • sporadic meteor (astronomy)

    meteor and meteoroid: Basic features of meteors: …belong to showers are called sporadic.

  • sporangia (biology)

    bryophyte: Reproduction and life cycle: Mature bryophytes have a single sporangium (spore-producing structure) on each sporophyte. The sporangium generally terminates an elongate stalk, or seta, when the sporangium is ready to shed its spores. The sporangium rupture usually involves specialized structures that enhance expulsion of the spores away from the parent gametophyte.

  • sporangiophore (biology)

    Equisetopsida: Life cycle: …of the strobilus are called sporangiophores; each consists of a stalk bearing a flattened disk at its apex, on the lower edge of which is a ring of 5 to 10 sporangia, each one opening and shedding spores by a longitudinal slit on its inner side. The Carboniferous treelike horsetails…

  • sporangiospore (biology)

    bacteria: Sporulation: …aerial or substrate mycelia, or sporangiospores, which are formed in specialized sacs called sporangia.

  • sporangium (biology)

    bryophyte: Reproduction and life cycle: Mature bryophytes have a single sporangium (spore-producing structure) on each sporophyte. The sporangium generally terminates an elongate stalk, or seta, when the sporangium is ready to shed its spores. The sporangium rupture usually involves specialized structures that enhance expulsion of the spores away from the parent gametophyte.

  • Sporazum (Yugoslavian history)

    Croatia: Croatia in Yugoslavia, 1918–41: These culminated in the Sporazum (“Agreement”) of August 26, 1939, which created an autonomous Croatian banovina that was largely self-governing except in defense and foreign affairs. The agreement provoked resentment among the Serbs, even in the opposition.

  • spore (biology)

    Spore, a reproductive cell capable of developing into a new individual without fusion with another reproductive cell. Spores thus differ from gametes, which are reproductive cells that must fuse in pairs in order to give rise to a new individual. Spores are agents of asexual reproduction, whereas

  • Spore (electronic game)

    Spore, electronic artificial-life game, designed by American computer programmer Will Wright, who created SimCity and other life simulation games for his company Maxis Software. Spore was released by the American video-game company Electronic Arts in 2008 for Microsoft Corporation’s Windows OS and

  • spore coat (maceral)

    coal: Macerals: Several varieties are recognized, including sporinite (spores are typically preserved as flattened spheroids), cutinite (part of cross sections of leaves, often with crenulated surfaces), and resinite (ovoid and sometimes translucent masses of resin). The liptinites may fluoresce (i.e., luminesce because of absorption of radiation) under ultraviolet

  • spore mother cell (biology)

    plant development: Preparatory events: …vascular plants produce cells called spore mother cells—since they will give rise to spores—in spore cases (sporangia). Spore mother cells are usually surrounded, during development, by a special nutritive tissue. In the more primitive groups, each sporangium holds many mother cells. This is true also in the pollen-producing sporangia of…

  • sporeling (bryophyte stage)

    bryophyte: Form and function: …a three-dimensional cell mass, the sporeling. This sporeling is rich in chlorophyll and soon forms an apical cell from which the gametophore grows.

  • Sp?rer minimum (astronomy)

    Little Ice Age: Variability in solar output: …Little Ice Age period: the Sp?rer Minimum (1450–1540) and the Maunder Minimum (1645–1715). Both solar minimums coincided with the coldest years of the Little Ice Age in parts of Europe. Some scientists therefore argue that reduced amounts of available solar radiation caused the Little Ice Age. However, the absence of…

  • Sporidiales (order of fungi)

    fungus: Annotated classification: Order Sporidiales Nonpathogenic; basidia may be very long; hyphae with clamp connections; some species emit peachlike odour; example genera include Sporidiobolus and Rhodosporidium. Class Atractiellomycetes Parasitic or saprotrophic; simple septate; some pycnidial members; auricularoid basidia; gastroid; contains 1 order.

  • sporinite (maceral)

    coal: Macerals: Several varieties are recognized, including sporinite (spores are typically preserved as flattened spheroids), cutinite (part of cross sections of leaves, often with crenulated surfaces), and resinite (ovoid and sometimes translucent masses of resin). The liptinites may fluoresce (i.e., luminesce because of absorption of radiation) under ultraviolet

  • Sporobolomyces (genus of fungi)

    basidiocarp: …single cells of the yeastlike Sporobolomyces.

  • sporogony (biology)

    protist: Reproduction and life cycles: …of the surrounding cytoplasm, to sporogony (production of sporozoites by repeated divisions of a zygote) and schizogony (formation of multiple merozoites, as in malarial parasites). The latter two phenomena are characteristic of many protists that are obligate parasites of more advanced eukaryotes. Some multicellular algal protists reproduce via asexual spores,…

  • sporophore (fungi)

    fungus: Size range: …is the fruiting body, or sporophore. Sporophores vary greatly in size, shape, colour, and longevity. Some are microscopic and completely invisible to the unaided eye; others are no larger than a pin head; still others are gigantic structures. Among the largest sporophores are those of mushrooms, bracket fungi, and puffballs.…

  • sporophyll (plant anatomy)

    cycadophyte: Sporophylls and strobili: Cycads are universally dioecious. Male plants produce pollen by leaf homologues called microsporophylls, and female plants produce ovules by leaf homologues known as megasporophylls. In all cycads, the microsporophylls are arranged spirally about a cone axis; in all cycads but Cycas, megasporophylls…

  • sporophyte (biology)

    Sporophyte, in plants and certain algae, the nonsexual phase (or an individual representing the phase) in the alternation of generations—a phenomenon in which two distinct phases occur in the life history of the organism, each phase producing the other. The sexual phase is the gametophyte. In the

  • sporophytic self-incompatibility (plant reproduction)

    angiosperm: Pollination: The most common type is sporophytic self-incompatibility, in which the secretions of the stigmatic tissue or the transmitting tissue prevent the germination or growth of incompatible pollen. A second type, gametophytic self-incompatibility, involves the inability of the gametes from the same parent plant to fuse and form a zygote or,…

  • sporopollenin (botany)

    pollen: …the exine have been termed sporopollenins. The internal parts of the pollen grain are easily broken down, whereas the exine layer, and thus the general form of the pollen grain, is easily preserved in various kinds of sediments; the quality of preservation may vary with different environments.

  • Sporothrix schenckii (fungus)

    sporotrichosis: …chronic infection by the fungus Sporotrichum, or Sporothrix, schenckii, usually characterized by a chancre at the site of inoculation and, extending from the site, a chain of hard, red, pus-generating lumps along the lymphatics of the skin and subcutaneous tissue. The fungus, which is most commonly found in the soil…

  • sporotrichosis (disease)

    Sporotrichosis, subacute or chronic infection by the fungus Sporotrichum, or Sporothrix, schenckii, usually characterized by a chancre at the site of inoculation and, extending from the site, a chain of hard, red, pus-generating lumps along the lymphatics of the skin and subcutaneous tissue. The

  • Sporotrichum schenckii (fungus)

    sporotrichosis: …chronic infection by the fungus Sporotrichum, or Sporothrix, schenckii, usually characterized by a chancre at the site of inoculation and, extending from the site, a chain of hard, red, pus-generating lumps along the lymphatics of the skin and subcutaneous tissue. The fungus, which is most commonly found in the soil…

  • Sporozoa (protozoan)

    Apicomplexan, any protozoan of the (typically) spore-producing phylum Apicomplexa, which is called by some authorities Sporozoa. All apicomplexans are parasitic and lack contractile vacuoles and locomotor processes. Apicomplexans live within the body cavities or the cells of almost every kind of

  • sporozoan (protozoan)

    Apicomplexan, any protozoan of the (typically) spore-producing phylum Apicomplexa, which is called by some authorities Sporozoa. All apicomplexans are parasitic and lack contractile vacuoles and locomotor processes. Apicomplexans live within the body cavities or the cells of almost every kind of

  • sporozoite (biology)

    malaria: The course of the disease: …forms of the parasite, called sporozoites, into the person’s bloodstream. The sporozoites are carried by the blood to the liver, where they mature into forms known as schizonts. Over the next one to two weeks each schizont multiplies into thousands of other forms known as merozoites. The merozoites break out…

  • sport

    Sports, physical contests pursued for the goals and challenges they entail. Sports are part of every culture past and present, but each culture has its own definition of sports. The most useful definitions are those that clarify the relationship of sports to play, games, and contests. “Play,” wrote

  • Sport and a Pastime, A (novel by Salter)

    James Salter: He published another novel, A Sport and a Pastime (1967), while working as a screenwriter; among his filmed works are Three (1969) and the Robert Redford vehicle Downhill Racer (1969). The novels Light Years (1975) and Solo Faces (1979) followed. Salter’s early work enjoyed renewed attention when several of…

  • sport biomechanics (science)

    biomechanics: …orthopedic biomechanics), occupational biomechanics, and sport biomechanics. As an example, sport biomechanics deals with performance improvement and injury prevention in athletes. In occupational biomechanics, biomechanical analysis is used to understand and optimize mechanical interaction of workers with the environment.

  • sport fishing (recreation)

    Fishing, the sport of catching fish, freshwater or saltwater, typically with rod, line, and hook. Like hunting, fishing originated as a means of providing food for survival. Fishing as a sport, however, is of considerable antiquity. An Egyptian angling scene from about 2000 bce shows figures

  • Sport of the Gods, The (novel by Dunbar)

    African American literature: Paul Laurence Dunbar: …the most important of which—The Sport of the Gods (1901)—offered a bleak view of African American prospects in urban America that anticipated the work of Richard Wright.

  • sport parachute

    kite: Kite structure: …radical departure in design, the parafoil, a soft airplane-wing shape with no rigid members, used by the skydiver as a parachute, assumes its efficient flying profile entirely from the wind’s inflating the air channels along the leading edge. Another deviation in form is the rotor, a kinetic kite that manifests…

  • sport parachuting (sport)

    Skydiving, use of a parachute—for either recreational or competitive purposes—to slow a diver’s descent to the ground after jumping from an airplane or other high place. The sport traces its beginnings to the descents made from a hot-air balloon by the French aeronaut André-Jacques Garnerin in

  • sport utility vehicle (automobile)

    automobile: From station wagons to vans and sport utility vehicles: Generically known as sport-utility vehicles (SUVs), the type eventually reached luxury nameplates like Cadillac and Porsche. Derided by some as a frivolous fashion statement and unwise use of resources, the SUV craze was aided by stable fuel prices in the mid-1980s. At the beginning of the 21st century,…

  • sportfishing (recreation)

    Fishing, the sport of catching fish, freshwater or saltwater, typically with rod, line, and hook. Like hunting, fishing originated as a means of providing food for survival. Fishing as a sport, however, is of considerable antiquity. An Egyptian angling scene from about 2000 bce shows figures

  • Sporting Club, The (novel by McGuane)

    Thomas McGuane: McGuane’s first three novels—The Sporting Club (1969), The Bushwhacked Piano (1971), and Ninety-two in the Shade (1973)—present the central plot and theme of his early fiction: a man, usually from a secure family, exiles himself from American society (which he despises for its materialism and triviality), removes himself…

  • sporting dog

    dog: Sporting dogs: These are dogs that scent and either point, flush, or retrieve birds on land and in water. They are the pointers, retrievers, setters, spaniels, and others, such as the vizsla and the Weimaraner.

  • sporting record

    baseball: Records and statistics: Baseball records have long provided benchmarks of individual achievements. No individual accomplishment possesses more drama for fans than the tally of home runs. Babe Ruth’s single-season record for home runs (60 in 1927) stood for 33 seasons until it was broken by…

  • sportive lemur (primate family)

    lemur: Lemur diversity: …species of sportive lemurs (family Megaladapidae) that live throughout Madagascar in both rainforests and dry forests. They are solitary and nocturnal, feeding on leaves and flowers, which are digested in their enormous cecum with the aid of bacteria. Bacterial fermentation enables energy to be extracted from the large quantity of…

  • sports

    Sports, physical contests pursued for the goals and challenges they entail. Sports are part of every culture past and present, but each culture has its own definition of sports. The most useful definitions are those that clarify the relationship of sports to play, games, and contests. “Play,” wrote

  • sports acrobatics (sports)

    gymnastics: The sport: Sports acrobatics has been contested internationally since 1973. In 1998 the International Federation of Sports Acrobatics voted to dissolve and the sport was subsumed by the FIG. The events in sports acrobatics are: women’s pairs, mixed pairs, men’s pairs, women’s trios, and men’s fours. Pairs…

  • sports aerobics (sports)

    gymnastics: The sport: …sanctioned by the FIG is sports aerobics. Aerobics exercise has been a popular form of physical training for the general public since the mid-1970s. The highly competitive sports version of aerobics features routines of less than two minutes’ duration performed by individual men, mixed pairs, individual women, and trios. The…

  • sports car

    sports-car racing: …utterly functional equipment throughout, the sports car is usually a two-seater, sometimes a four-seater, characterized by its nimble abilities (if not speed and power) together with general suitability for high-speed touring on ordinary roads. Unlike a Grand Prix car, it is usually series-produced, seldom handmade. Some manufacturers of Grand Prix…

  • sports drink (beverage)

    energy drink: Energy drinks are distinguished from sports drinks, which are used to replace water and electrolytes during or after physical activity, and from coffee and tea, which are brewed, contain fewer ingredients, and may be decaffeinated. Energy drinks also differ from soft drinks, which either do not contain caffeine or contain…

  • sports game, electronic (electronic game genre)

    Electronic sports game, electronic game genre that simulates a real or imagined sport. The first commercial electronic sports game, as well as the first commercially successful arcade game, was Pong (1972). Produced by the American company Atari Inc., Pong was a simulation of table tennis

  • Sports Illustrated (American magazine)

    Sports Illustrated, weekly sports magazine that originated in 1954 and was developed by Henry Luce, the creator of Time magazine. It is the leading sports magazine in the United States. Sports Illustrated is published by Meredith Corporation, though the magazine’s intellectual property is owned by

  • sports medicine (medicine)

    Sports medicine, medical and paramedical supervision, of athletes in training and in competition, with the goal of prevention and treatment of their injuries. Sports medicine entails the application of scientific research and practice to the optimization of health and athletic performance. Since

  • Sports Medicine, Federation of (American organization)

    American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), U.S. nonprofit professional organization of sports medicine physicians, practitioners, and scientists. The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) was founded in New York City in 1954 as the Federation of Sports Medicine; it changed to its present name

  • Sports Night (American television program)

    Aaron Sorkin: …parlayed into the TV series Sports Night (1998–2000). A comedy that focused on the behind-the-scenes affairs of a nightly cable sports program, the show was lauded for its clever writing, but it languished in the ratings and was eventually cancelled. Buoyed by the possibilities that television offered, however, Sorkin revisited…

  • sports psychology

    sports: Psychology of sports: Although a book titled Psychologie des sports (“Psychology of Sports”) was published in 1927 by the German psychologist Alfred Peters, the field developed slowly. The International Society of Sport Psychology was not established until 1965. At that time, research tended to focus…

  • Sports Roundup

    The year in sports began in an exciting fashion on Jan. 6, 2014, as 2013 Heisman Trophy winner Jameis Winston threw a two-yard touchdown pass with 13 seconds remaining in the fourth quarter to give top-ranked and undefeated Florida State University a thrilling 34–31 victory over number two Auburn

  • Sports Roundup

    The year 2016 in sports was highlighted by incredible individual and team performances as well as several past and present star athletes’ saying good-bye. The marquee event of the year was the Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro (see Special Report), at which Usain Bolt, Michael Phelps, Katie Ledecky,

  • Sports Roundup

    The year 2015 in sports was highlighted by incredible individual and team performances as well as several prominent scandals. Thoroughbred horse racing fans cheered American Pharoah, the first U.S. Triple Crown winner in 37 years. Serena Williams and Novak Djokovic dominated Grand Slam tennis, and

  • Sports Roundup for 2012

    The 2012 year in sports was dominated by the Games of the XXX Olympiad in London during the summer. Other highlights included a stellar European association football (soccer) season, culminating in EURO 2012, and Thoroughbred horse racing Triple Crown challengers in both the U.S. and the U.K.

  • Sports Roundup for 2013

    The year in sports began with a bang in 2013 as linebacker Manti Te’o, who had finished second in the 2012 Heisman Trophy voting, led Notre Dame into the Bowl Championship Series (BCS) title game in Miami on January 7, but the Fighting Irish lost to Alabama, which came away with a 42–14 victory to

  • Sports, Book of (English law)

    Book of Sports, order issued by King James I of England for use in Lancashire to resolve a conflict, on the subject of Sunday recreations, between the Puritans and the gentry, many of whom were Roman Catholics. Permission was given for dancing, archery, leaping and vaulting, and for “having of May

  • Sports, Declaration of (English law)

    Book of Sports, order issued by King James I of England for use in Lancashire to resolve a conflict, on the subject of Sunday recreations, between the Puritans and the gentry, many of whom were Roman Catholics. Permission was given for dancing, archery, leaping and vaulting, and for “having of May

  • sports-car racing

    Sports-car racing, form of motor racing involving cars built to combine aspects of racing and touring cars. Although there are many conflicting definitions of sports cars, it is usually conceded that in normal production form they do not resemble Grand Prix (Formula One) racing machines. Whereas

  • Sports-Related Brain Injuries

    By 2011 it had been estimated that up to 3.8 million Traumatic brain injuries per year were attributable to sports and recreation. A growing body of research revealed that concussions—defined as a type of traumatic brain injury caused by a bump, blow, or jolt to the head that changes the way a

  • sportscasting (journalism)

    radio: Sports: Sports coverage on radio began on April 11, 1921, when KDKA in Pittsburgh broadcast the first live sporting event: a boxing match described by local newspaper reporter Florent Gibson. The first live baseball game was a Pittsburgh Pirates–Philadelphia Phillies game covered by announcer Harold Arlin…

  • SportsCenter (American television program)

    Keith Olbermann: …became a cohost of ESPN’s SportsCenter, a position he held until 1997, when he became the host of his own newscast, The Big Show with Keith Olbermann, on MSNBC. He left the network in frustration after his show was renamed White House in Crisis and dedicated to covering the Monica…

  • Sportsman’s Notebook, A (short stories by Turgenev)

    A Sportsman’s Sketches, collection of short stories by Ivan Turgenev published in Russian as Zapiski okhotnika in 1852; additional stories were included in the 1870s. The collection has also been translated as Sketches from a Hunter’s Album and A Sportsman’s Notebook. The stories concern life in

  • Sportsman’s Sketches, A (short stories by Turgenev)

    A Sportsman’s Sketches, collection of short stories by Ivan Turgenev published in Russian as Zapiski okhotnika in 1852; additional stories were included in the 1870s. The collection has also been translated as Sketches from a Hunter’s Album and A Sportsman’s Notebook. The stories concern life in

  • sportswear (fashion)

    Bill Blass: He made sportswear, but he glamourized the concept by making clothes that possessed a new American casual chic sensibility, which he achieved by merging simple styles with luxurious materials. Classic Blass designs included a pea coat he fashioned from white mink in 1966, a strapless gray flannel…

  • Sportswriter, The (novel by Ford)

    Richard Ford: Frank Bascombe, the protagonist of The Sportswriter (1986), is an alienated middle-aged sportswriter reflecting on his life. He returns in the Pulitzer Prize-winning Independence Day (1995), in which he is divorced and leading an empty life until he spends an emotional and spiritual Fourth of July weekend with his son.…

  • Sportvision (American company)

    sabermetrics: The rise of advanced statistics: …the public—by a company called Sportvision, which set up cameras in every stadium and tracked just about everything that might be recorded. The amount of data compiled by technology systems known as PITCHf/x, HITf/x, COMMANDf/x, and FIELDf/x was astounding. However, by 2015, a new camera-based tracking system had been installed…

  • Sporty Spice (British entertainer)

    Spice Girls: …England), Sporty Spice (byname of Melanie Jayne Chisholm; b. January 12, 1974, Liverpool, England), Posh Spice (byname of Victoria Adams [later Victoria Beckham]; b. April 7, 1975, Hertfordshire, England), Scary Spice (byname of Melanie Janine Brown; b. May 29, 1975, Yorkshire, England), and Baby Spice (byname of Emma Lee Bunton;…

  • sporulation (biology)

    bacteria: Sporulation: Many environmental bacteria are able to produce stable dormant, or resting, forms as a branch of their life cycle to enhance their survival under adverse conditions. These processes are not an obligate stage of the cell’s life cycle but rather an interruption. Such dormant…

  • sporysh (Slavic religion)

    Slavic religion: Folk conceptions: These forms are: bog (“god”); sporysh, anciently an edible herb, today a stalk of grain with two ears, a symbol of abundance; ray (“paradise”); and dobro (“the good”). The word bog is an Indo-Iranian word signifying riches, abundance, and good fortune. Sporysh symbolizes the same concept. In Iranian ray has…

  • sposa fedele, La (opera by Pacini)

    Giovanni Pacini: His opera La sposa fedele (“The Faithful Bride”) premiered in Venice in 1919, and for its revival the following year Pacini provided a new aria to be sung specifically by the renowned soprano Giuditta Pasta. By the mid-1820s Pacini had cemented his reputation as a leading composer…

  • Sposa, Demie James (American television personality)

    Dennis James, American television personality who for nearly 60 years worked as game show and variety show host, sports commentator, actor, commercial spokesman, and charity fund-raising telethon host (b. Aug. 24, 1917--d. June 3,

  • Sposizioni di Vangeli (work by Sacchetti)

    Franco Sacchetti: …his verses, and in the Sposizioni di Vangeli (“Expositions on the Gospels”) he expressed his political and moral views. Although poetry was not his main interest, some of his poems, written to be set to music, are among the best of 14th-century minor poetry. He wrote 300 stories, of which…

  • SPOT (satellite system)

    space exploration: Remote sensing: …launched the first of its SPOT remote-sensing satellites and created a marketing organization, Spot Image, to promote use of its imagery. Six subsequent SPOT satellites have been launched. Both Landsat’s and SPOT’s multispectral images offered a moderate ground resolution of 10–30 metres (about 33–100 feet). Japan and India also launched…

  • spot (plant pathology)

    plant disease: Variable factors affecting diagnosis: …size, shape, and margins of spots and blights (lesions) are often associated with a particular fungus or bacterium. Many fungi produce “signs” of disease, such as mold growth or fruiting bodies that appear as dark specks in the dead area. Early stages of bacterial infections that develop on leaves or…

  • spot fixing (sports)

    cricket: Pakistan: …involved in allegations of “spot fixing”—that is, fixing the results of certain bowls in return for money—and were banned by the ICC. Huge profits could be made in illegal betting markets in Asia by predicting the results of individual bowls. Only a few years earlier several Pakistan players also…

  • spot loader (gambling)

    dice: Cheating with dice: Loaded dice (called tappers, missouts, passers, floppers, cappers, or spot loaders, depending on how and where extra weight has been applied) may prove to be perfect cubes when measured with calipers, but extra weight just below the surface on some sides will make the opposite…

  • spot market (finance)

    futures: Economic functions of the futures contract: …market may be either a spot market concerned with immediate physical delivery of the specified commodity or a forward market, where the delivery of the specified commodity is made at some later date. Futures markets, on the other hand, generally permit trading in a number of grades of the commodity…

  • spot meter (photography)

    motion-picture technology: Light measurement: …to the development of the spot meter.

  • spot price (economics)

    futures: The theory and practice of hedging: …markets, when demand, supply, and spot prices are expected to remain unchanged for some months to come and there is uncertainty in traders’ minds regarding these expectations, the futures price, say, for one month’s delivery is bound to be below the spot price that traders expect to prevail one month…

  • Spot Resolutions (United States history [1847])

    Mexican-American War: Spot Resolutions and Civil Disobedience: American opposition to the war: …1847 Lincoln introduced eight “Spot Resolutions,” which placed the analysis of Polk’s claim in a carefully delineated historical context that sought to

  • spot transaction (finance)

    futures: Economic functions of the futures contract: …market may be either a spot market concerned with immediate physical delivery of the specified commodity or a forward market, where the delivery of the specified commodity is made at some later date. Futures markets, on the other hand, generally permit trading in a number of grades of the commodity…

  • spot welding

    automation: Robots in manufacturing: Examples of such applications include spot welding, continuous arc welding, and spray painting. Spot welding of automobile bodies is one of the most common applications of industrial robots in the United States. The robot positions a spot welder against the automobile panels and frames to complete the assembly of the…

  • spot-exchange market (finance)

    futures: Economic functions of the futures contract: …market may be either a spot market concerned with immediate physical delivery of the specified commodity or a forward market, where the delivery of the specified commodity is made at some later date. Futures markets, on the other hand, generally permit trading in a number of grades of the commodity…

  • spot-nosed guenon (mammal)

    guenon: …the large spot-nosed guenon, or putty-nosed monkey (Cercopithecus nictitans), is a common West African form with gray-flecked black fur and an oval yellowish or white nose spot. Among other species with nose patches are the lesser spot-nosed guenon (C. petaurista) and the redtail (C. ascanius), both with heart-shaped white nose…

  • spotfin butterflyfish

    butterflyfish: …ocellus near its tail; the spotfin butterflyfish (C. ocellatus), a western Atlantic species with yellow fins and a dark spot at the base of its dorsal fin; and the pennant coralfish, or feather-fin bull fish (Heniochus acuminatus), a black-and-white striped Indo-Pacific species with a very long spine in its dorsal…

  • spotfin mojarra (fish)

    mojarra: The spotfin mojarra (Eucinostomus argenteus), which is one of the most widespread species, occurs along the Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico, and Pacific coasts of North America, even entering freshwater habitats in the lower reaches of river systems.

  • Spotify (Swedish digital music service)

    Daniel Ek: …entrepreneur who in 2006 cofounded Spotify, an Internet music-streaming service that provides listeners with legal, ad-supported access to millions of songs, rejecting traditional models of downloading and eliminating per-song costs.

  • spotlight

    Spotlight, device used to produce intense illumination in a well-defined area in stage, film, television, ballet, and opera production. It resembles a small searchlight but usually has shutters, an iris diaphragm, and adjustable lenses to shape the projected light. Coloured light is produced by a

  • Spotlight (film by McCarthy [2015])

    Spotlight, American fact-based dramatic film, released in 2015, that won two Academy Awards, including that for best picture. The movie chronicles the efforts of a team of Boston Globe journalists to bring to light the sexual abuse of children by Roman Catholic priests in Boston. Spotlight opens

  • Spotswood (film by Joffe [1992])

    Toni Collette: …her first film role, in Spotswood (1992), opposite Anthony Hopkins and Russell Crowe. She made her first significant foray into theatre as Sonya in the Sydney Theatre Company production of Anton Chekhov’s Uncle Vanya (1992).

  • Spotswood, Alexander (British colonial governor)

    Alexander Spotswood, one of the first British colonial governors of North America to appreciate the economic value of the Western frontier. After service under the 1st duke of Marlborough in the War of the Spanish Succession (1701–14), he was appointed lieutenant governor of Virginia (1710). In

  • Spotsylvania Court House, Battle of (United States history)

    Battle of Spotsylvania Court House, (8–21 May 1864), Union failure to smash or outflank Confederate forces defending Richmond, Virginia, during the American Civil War (1861–65). A lull might have been expected after the Battle of the Wilderness (5–7 May), with both Union and Confederate armies

  • spottail pinfish (fish)

    pinfish: …rhomboides; Diplodus holbrooki is called spottail pinfish. The name is derived from the presence of numerous spines on the front portion of the dorsal fin. The pinfish characteristically has yellow fins, gold stripes down the body, and a dark spot on the upper rear margin of the operculum. The spotted…

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