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  • spotted babbler (bird)

    Jungle babbler, any of about 32 species of songbirds constituting the tribe Pellorneini of the babbler family Timaliidae. Found from Africa to Malaysia and the Philippines, these drab birds with slender, often hook-tipped bills skulk in forest undergrowth. An example is the striped jungle babbler,

  • spotted bowerbird (bird)

    bowerbird: …and its relatives; and the spotted bowerbird (Chlamydera maculata) and its relatives. Satin and regent bowerbirds make a paint of vegetable pulp, charcoal, and saliva and apply it to the interior walls; a daub of green leaves may be used—a rare instance of a bird using a tool.

  • spotted calla lily (plant)

    calla: The spotted, or black-throated, calla lily (Z. albomaculata), with white-spotted leaves, has a whitish to yellow or pink spathe that shades within to purplish brown at the base.

  • spotted cavy (rodent species)

    paca: The paca (Cuniculus paca) is found from eastern Mexico to northern Argentina and northern Uruguay, living in tropical forests at elevations ranging from sea level to 3,000 metres (9,800 feet). It weighs 5 to 13 kg (11 to 29 pounds) and has a body length of…

  • spotted coralroot (plant)

    coralroot: The spotted coralroot (Corallorhiza maculata) is found throughout most of the United States and has white flowers spotted with purple.

  • spotted crake (bird)

    crake: … (13 species), typified by the spotted crake (P. porzana) found in Europe and eastward to Mongolia; in winter it reaches southern Asia and northern Africa. It is a brown bird 25 cm (10 inches) long with a light-spotted breast and buffy undertail. Its New World counterpart is the sora, or…

  • spotted cucumber beetle (insect)

    cucumber beetle: …wing cover (elytron), and the spotted cucumber beetle (D. undecimpunctata) has black spots on each wing cover. They both feed on garden plants, and their larvae feed on the roots. The green-coloured D. longicornis eats corn pollen and silk; the root-feeding larvae are known as corn rootworms.

  • spotted cuscus (marsupial)

    cuscus: In the spotted cuscus (P. maculatus) of Australia and New Guinea, the male usually is brown, with large pale blotches; the female is plain-coloured. Some other cuscuses are nearly black, with faint spotting (males); still others are plain whitish.

  • spotted deer (mammal)

    Chital, (Cervus axis, sometimes Axis axis), Asiatic deer, belonging to the family Cervidae (order Artiodactyla). It lives in grasslands and forests in India and Sri Lanka in herds of up to 100 or more. It stands 90–95 cm (35–37 inches) at the shoulder. Its spotted coat is reddish brown above and

  • spotted dove (bird)

    turtledove: senegalensis) and spotted dove (S. chinensis) have also been introduced outside their native habitats. The use of the term turtle in this pigeon’s common name is derived from the sound of its call; the bird has no association with shelled reptiles.

  • spotted duckbill ray (fish)

    stingray: …the spotted duckbilled ray (Aetobatus narinari), a large Atlantic and Pacific species that can cause deep wounds with its tail spines, and the bat stingray (Myliobatis californicus), a Pacific form noted for its depredations on the shellfish of San Francisco Bay.

  • spotted eagle ray (fish)

    stingray: …the spotted duckbilled ray (Aetobatus narinari), a large Atlantic and Pacific species that can cause deep wounds with its tail spines, and the bat stingray (Myliobatis californicus), a Pacific form noted for its depredations on the shellfish of San Francisco Bay.

  • Spotted Elk (Miniconjou Lakota chief)

    Wounded Knee: …reservation, the Indians gathered around Chief Big Foot (byname of Chief Spotted Elk), who was dying of pneumonia. However, they surrendered quietly to pursuing troops of the 7th Cavalry on the night of December 28. Following an overnight encampment near Wounded Knee Creek, the Sioux were surrounded and were nearly…

  • spotted fever (pathology)

    meningococcus: …bacterium Neisseria meningitidis, which causes meningococcal meningitis in humans, who are the only natural hosts in which it causes disease. The bacteria are spherical, ranging in diameter from 0.6 to 1.0 μm (micrometre; 1 μm = 10-6 metre); they frequently occur in pairs, with adjacent sides flattened. They are strongly…

  • spotted hyena (mammal)

    Laughing hyena, African species of hyena

  • spotted jewelweed (plant)

    Impatiens: Spotted jewelweed (I. capensis) and pale touch-me-not (or pale snapweed, I. pallida) are common weeds native to extensive regions of eastern North America. Spotted jewelweed grows up to 150 cm (59 inches) tall and bears orange flowers spotted with red or brown, while pale touch-me-not…

  • spotted linsang (mammal)

    viverrid: Viverrid diversity: …the viverrid family is the spotted linsang (Prionodon pardicolor), which weighs 0.6 kg (1.3 pounds). The two largest species are the African civet (Civettictis civetta) and the fossa (Cryptoprocta ferox) of Madagascar, both of which can reach 20 kg. The most common viverrid, however, is the European genet (Genetta genetta),…

  • spotted munia (bird)

    mannikin: …in southern Asia are the nutmeg mannikin (L. punctulata), also called spice finch or spotted munia, and the striated mannikin (L. striata), also called white-backed munia. The former is established in Hawaii, where it is called ricebird. A domestic strain of the latter is called Bengal finch.

  • spotted oak (plant)

    willow oak: Water oak (Q. nigra), laurel oak (Q. laurifolia), shingle oak (Q. imbricaria), and live oak (see live oak) are other willow oaks planted as ornamentals in the southern U.S.

  • spotted orchid (plant)

    Dactylorhiza: sambucina), and spotted orchid (D. fuchsii) are common European species.

  • spotted owl (bird)

    wood owl: The spotted owl (S. occidentalis), of western North America, spotted above and barred beneath, is about 40 to 50 cm long.

  • spotted pardalote (bird)

    pardalote: The spotted pardalote (P. punctatus), with a yellow throat and rump, digs tunnels in sandbanks or in level ground.

  • spotted redshank (bird)

    redshank: The slightly larger spotted redshank (T. erythropus), also called dusky or black redshank, has reddish brown legs and a straight red bill with a brown tip. In breeding season, its plumage is black; in winter, gray. It breeds across sub-Arctic Eurasia and winters from the Mediterranean region into…

  • spotted sandpiper (bird)

    sandpiper: The closely related spotted sandpiper (A. macularia) is the best-known New World sandpiper; this species breeds beside streams and ponds of sub-Arctic and temperate North America and winters as far south as Argentina.

  • spotted sea hare (gastropod)

    sea hare: …example is the 10-centimetre (4-inch) spotted sea hare (Aplysia dactylomela), a ring-spotted green species living in grassy shallows of the Caribbean. Research involving sea hares has greatly increased the scientific understanding of the biochemical basis of learning.

  • spotted sea trout (fish)

    weakfish: The spotted sea trout (C. nebulosus), found along the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts of Florida, is slightly smaller than the weakfish. Although the sea trouts are similar to the true trouts (order Salmoniformes) in appearance, the two groups are not related.

  • spotted seal (mammal)

    Harbour seal, (Phoca vitulina), nonmigratory, earless seal (family Phocidae) found throughout the Northern Hemisphere. The harbour seal is whitish or grayish at birth and as an adult is generally gray with black spots. The adult male may attain a length and weight of about 1.8 m (6 feet) and 130 kg

  • spotted skunk (mammal)

    skunk: Spotted skunks (genus Spilogale) live from southwestern Canada to Costa Rica. Except for a white spot between the eyes, their spots are actually a series of interrupted stripes running down the back and sides. These are about the size of a tree squirrel and are…

  • spotted slate (geology)

    metamorphic rock: Slate: …such slates are sometimes called spotted slates. As metamorphism proceeds, the average crystal size increases, and mineral segregation develops; the rock then may be termed a phyllite.

  • spotted snake eel (marine fish)

    snake eel: The spotted snake eel (Ophichthus ophis) of the southern Atlantic and Caribbean attains a length of 120 centimetres (4 feet).

  • Spotted Tail (Sioux leader)

    Spotted Tail, chief of the Brule Teton Indians and, briefly, the Oglala Sioux who sought compromise and accommodation with the invading whites. Spotted Tail was not a member of a ruling family, but he won the chieftainship over the hereditary claimant on the basis of his prowess as a warrior. In

  • spotted tinamou (bird)

    tinamou: Habitat selection and food habits: …primarily on seeds, but the spotted tinamou (Nothura maculosa) occasionally eats ticks in pastures. The forest-inhabiting solitary tinamou generally prefers small fruits and berries, collected on the ground. However, it may also devour a frog when it finds one. The members of the genus Nothoprocta are considered beneficial to agriculture…

  • spotted turtle (reptile)

    Spotted turtle, (Clemmys guttata), small freshwater turtle (family Emydidae) found from southern Canada to the southern and central United States. The spotted turtle has a shell about 10 centimetres (4 inches) long. The upper shell is smooth, with round, bright-yellow or orange spots on a brown

  • spotted wilt (plant disease)

    wilt: Spotted wilt: Spotted wilt, caused by a virus, is transmitted by the larvae of several species of insect called thrips. Plants commonly are stunted and bunchy. Brown, purplish, pale green, red, yellow, or white rings (often zoned) and spots form in leaves, flowers, and fruit.…

  • spotted wintergreen (plant)

    pipsissewa: …called striped pipsissewa, rheumatism root, dragon’s tongue, and spotted wintergreen, occurs in North America from Canada to the southern United States. The name pipsissewa derives from a Cree Indian word referring to the diuretic properties of the leaves when eaten.

  • spotted-limb borer (beetle)

    branch and twig borer: The spotted-limb borer (Psoa maculata) breeds only in dead wood, and the genus Polycaon is often destructive in orchards.

  • spotted-tailed native cat (marsupial)

    native cat: The largest species, the spotted-tailed native cat (D. maculatus, also called the tiger cat), has a length of 75 to 130 cm, including its 35- to 55-cm tail. This species occurs in the dense, moist forests of Tasmania and eastern Australia.

  • spotting (ballet)

    Carlo Blasis: …preventing dizziness while turning, called spotting, by which the dancer can snap his head around more quickly than the rest of his body, and so be able to maintain a focus on one “spot” and not become dizzy. Many of Blasis’ traditions and innovations, which were handed down directly through…

  • SPPF (political party, Seychelles)

    flag of Seychelles: …under the leadership of the Seychelles People’s United Party (SPUP). The new flag had red-over-green horizontal stripes separated by a wavy white band, which was the same as the SPUP flag except for the omission of a yellow sun in the centre.

  • Sprague (steamer)

    Mississippi River: Modern commercial activity: …1907, for instance, the steamer Sprague established a new world record for size of tow. Its raft of 60 coal barges weighed 67,307 tons and covered an area of 6.5 acres (2.6 hectares).

  • Sprague, Elizabeth Penn (American philanthropist)

    Elizabeth Penn Sprague Coolidge, American philanthropist, herself a trained pianist, who is remembered for her generous support of musicians and the world of music. Elizabeth Sprague was of a wealthy family that early encouraged her to study music. In her youth she appeared on a few occasions as a

  • Sprague, Kate Chase (American socialite)

    Kate Chase Sprague, daughter of Abraham Lincoln’s secretary of the treasury, Salmon Chase; while continually attempting to advance her father’s political fortunes, she became a national fashion and social celebrity. Educated by her father and in private schools, Kate Chase became the emotional

  • sprain (medicine)

    Sprain, overstretching or tearing of fibres in one or more of the ligaments that support a joint, caused by forced movement beyond their range. Symptoms include sudden severe pain, then swelling around the joint, tenderness, stiffness, and often black-and-blue marks as a result of bleeding into

  • Spranger van den Schilde, Bartholomaeus (Dutch painter)

    Bartholomaeus Spranger, Antwerp painter noted for his paintings of nudes executed in the late Mannerist style. In his efforts to develop a Northern artistic canon of the human figure, Spranger employed mannered poses, slender, elongated bodies, and a gleaming, brittle texture in his work. The

  • Spranger, Eduard (German educator and philosopher)

    Eduard Spranger, German educator and philosopher. He served as professor of philosophy in Leipzig (1911–20), Berlin (1920–45), and Tübingen (from 1946), and in 1937–38 he lectured in Japan. He was briefly imprisoned in Berlin late in World War II (1944) but was released at the request of the

  • Spranger, Franz Ernst Eduard (German educator and philosopher)

    Eduard Spranger, German educator and philosopher. He served as professor of philosophy in Leipzig (1911–20), Berlin (1920–45), and Tübingen (from 1946), and in 1937–38 he lectured in Japan. He was briefly imprisoned in Berlin late in World War II (1944) but was released at the request of the

  • Sprangers, Bartholomeus (Dutch painter)

    Bartholomaeus Spranger, Antwerp painter noted for his paintings of nudes executed in the late Mannerist style. In his efforts to develop a Northern artistic canon of the human figure, Spranger employed mannered poses, slender, elongated bodies, and a gleaming, brittle texture in his work. The

  • Sprangerson, Bartholomeus (Dutch painter)

    Bartholomaeus Spranger, Antwerp painter noted for his paintings of nudes executed in the late Mannerist style. In his efforts to develop a Northern artistic canon of the human figure, Spranger employed mannered poses, slender, elongated bodies, and a gleaming, brittle texture in his work. The

  • sprat (fish)

    Bristling, (Sprattus sprattus), edible fish of the herring family Clupeidae (order Clupeiformes). Bristlings are silver-coloured marine fishes that form enormous schools in western European waters. They contribute to the worldwide fishing industry. They are smaller than Atlantic herrings (Clupea

  • Sprat, Thomas (English bishop)

    Thomas Sprat, English man of letters, bishop of Rochester and dean of Westminster. A prose stylist, wit, and founding member and historian of the Royal Society, he is chiefly remembered for his influence on language reform and for his biography of the poet Abraham Cowley. Sprat was educated at

  • Spratling, William (American architect)

    William Spratling, American designer and architect, who spent more than 30 years in Mexico developing and promoting the silvercraft that made the city of Taxco famous. A graduate of the New York Fine Arts Institute and Auburn University, in Alabama (where he studied architecture), Spratling taught

  • Spratly Islands (reefs, shoals, atolls, and islets, South China Sea)

    Spratly Islands, large group of reefs, shoals, atolls, and small islets in the South China Sea of the Pacific Ocean. They are located north of insular Malaysia and are roughly midway between Vietnam and the Philippines, and they are claimed—wholly or in part—by several countries in the region. The

  • Sprattus sprattus (fish)

    Bristling, (Sprattus sprattus), edible fish of the herring family Clupeidae (order Clupeiformes). Bristlings are silver-coloured marine fishes that form enormous schools in western European waters. They contribute to the worldwide fishing industry. They are smaller than Atlantic herrings (Clupea

  • Sprawiedliwy, Kazimierz (duke of Poland)

    Casimir II, duke of Kraków and of Sandomierz from 1177 to 1194. A member of the Piast dynasty, he drove his brother Mieszko III from the throne and spent much of his reign fighting him. Mieszko actually regained power briefly in 1190–91, retaking Kraków. Casimir became Poland’s most powerful ruler

  • sprawl

    Urban sprawl, the rapid expansion of the geographic extent of cities and towns, often characterized by low-density residential housing, single-use zoning, and increased reliance on the private automobile for transportation. Urban sprawl is caused in part by the need to accommodate a rising urban

  • spray (floral decoration)

    floral decoration: Forms of floral decoration: Sprays are large, flat bouquets of long-stem plant material. They are either carried or placed on caskets or at tombs as commemorative offerings. If the plant material used is short-stemmed, wire is used to add length. The ends of the stems or wire extensions are…

  • Spray (boat)

    Joshua Slocum: 1-metre) Spray, an old fishing boat built about 1800 that he had rebuilt. He sailed alone, following a route that took him to Nova Scotia, the Azores, Gibraltar, South America, Samoa, Australia, South Africa, the West Indies, and finally, in June 1898, to Newport, R.I., to…

  • spray dryer (food processing)

    dairy product: Spray dryers: Spray dryers are more commonly used since they do less heat damage and produce more soluble products. Concentrated liquid dairy product is sprayed in a finely atomized form into a stream of hot air. The air may be heated by steam-heated “radiators” or…

  • spray gun (pneumatic device)

    Spray gun, painting tool using compressed air from a nozzle to atomize a liquid into a controlled pattern. The spray nozzle operates by impinging high-velocity turbulent air on the surface of filaments or films of liquid, causing them to collapse to droplets with a wide range of sizes. The spray

  • spray roasting (chemistry)

    advanced ceramics: Spray roasting: Spray roasting involves spray atomization of solutions of water-soluble salts into a heated chamber. The temperature and transit time are adjusted so as to accomplish rapid evaporation and oxidation. The result is a high-purity powder with fine particle size. A modification of spray…

  • spray-and-chip seal

    roads and highways: Pavement: …coated with stone (called a spray-and-chip seal) or by a thin asphalt layer. The spray-and-chip seal is used over McAdam-style base courses for light to moderate traffic volumes or to rehabilitate existing asphalt surfaces. It is relatively cheap, effective, and impermeable and lasts about 10 years. Its main disadvantage is…

  • spray-on skin (medical treatment)

    Fiona Wood: Her spray-on skin repair technique involved taking a small patch of healthy skin from a burn victim and using it to grow new skin cells in a laboratory. The new cells were then sprayed onto the patient’s damaged skin. With traditional skin grafts, 21 days were…

  • spray-tower scrubber (technology)

    air pollution control: Scrubbers: In a spray-tower scrubber, an upward-flowing airstream is washed by water sprayed downward from a series of nozzles. The water is recirculated after it is sufficiently cleaned to prevent clogging of the nozzles. Spray-tower scrubbers can remove 90 percent of particulates larger than about 8 μm.

  • spraying and dusting (pest-control method)

    Spraying and dusting, in agriculture, the standard methods of applying pest-control chemicals and other compounds. In spraying, the chemicals to be applied are dissolved or suspended in water or, less commonly, in an oil-based carrier. The mixture is then applied as a fine mist to plants, animals,

  • spraying characin (fish)

    characin: …among aquatic plants, but the spraying characin (Copeina arnoldi), placed in a separate family, Lebiasinidae, deposits its spawn out of water on an overhanging leaf or other suitable object, the male keeping the eggs moist by periodically splashing water on them with his tail.

  • spread (geology)

    landslide: Types of landslides: A spread is the complex lateral movement of relatively coherent earth materials resting on a weaker substrate that is subject to liquefaction or plastic flow. Coherent blocks of material subside into the weaker substrate, and the slow downslope movement frequently extends long distances as a result…

  • spread footing (construction)

    soil mechanics: …may be either of the spread footing (made with wide bases placed directly beneath the load-bearing beams or walls), mat (consisting of slabs, usually of reinforced concrete, which underlie the entire area of a building), or floating types. A floating foundation consists of boxlike rigid structures set at such a…

  • spread vowel (phonetics)

    rounding: …the opposite of rounding; in unrounded vowels the lips are slack or may be drawn back, as in pronouncing the ee in “meet.” Generally speaking, front vowels tend to be unrounded and back vowels rounded, and this tendency is recognized in the classification of vowels (see vowel). However, the French…

  • spread-spectrum multiple access (communications)

    telecommunication: Code-division multiple access: …is sometimes referred to as spread-spectrum multiple access (SSMA), because the process of multiplying the signal by the code sequence causes the power of the transmitted signal to be spread over a larger bandwidth. Frequency management, a necessary feature of FDMA, is eliminated in CDMA. When another user wishes to…

  • spreading (clothing manufacturing)

    clothing and footwear industry: Cutting processes: …basic operations: making the marker, spreading the fabric, and chopping the spread fabric into the marked sections. The marker, or cutting lay, is the arrangement of patterns on the spread fabrics. When hides are cut, the lay length is the hide size; many hides are cut in single plies. Short…

  • spreading centre (geology)

    Spreading centre, in oceanography and geology, the linear boundary between two diverging lithospheric plates on the ocean floor. As the two plates move apart from each other, which often occurs at a rate of several centimetres per year, molten rock wells up from the underlying mantle into the gap

  • spreading club moss (plant)

    spike moss: Major species: Spreading club moss, or Krauss’s spike moss (S. kraussiana), from southern Africa, roots readily along its trailing stems of bright green branches. It sometimes is grown as a houseplant, as are S. emmeliana from tropical America, variegated spike moss (S. martensii) from Mexico, blue spike…

  • spreading lupine (plant)

    lupine: Spreading lupine (L. diffusus) and lady lupine (L. villosus) are distributed throughout the southern United States. Bigleaf lupine (L. polyphyllus), from the Pacific Northwest, is an invasive species in parts of Europe and New Zealand, where its ornamental Russell hybrids have escaped cultivation.

  • spreading machine (clothing manufacturing)

    clothing and footwear industry: History: The first spreading machines in the late 1890s, often built of wood, carried fabrics in either bolt or book-fold form as the workers propelled the spreading machines manually and aligned the superposed plies vertically on the cutting table, thus making the cutting lay. Although most of the…

  • spreading yew (plant)

    Japanese yew, (Taxus cuspidata), an ornamental evergreen shrub or tree of the yew family (Taxaceae), native to Japan and widely cultivated in the Northern Hemisphere. Rising to a height of 16 metres (about 52 feet), it resembles the English yew but is hardier and faster-growing. Each leaf has two

  • spreadsheet (computing)

    Spreadsheet, computer program that represents information in a two-dimensional grid of data, along with formulas that relate the data. Historically, a spreadsheet is an accounting ledger page that shows various quantitative information useful for managing a business. Electronic spreadsheets all but

  • Sprechgesang (music)

    Sprechstimme, (German: “speech-voice”), in music, a cross between speaking and singing in which the tone quality of speech is heightened and lowered in pitch along melodic contours indicated in the musical notation. Sprechstimme is frequently used in 20th-century music. Its introduction is

  • Sprechstimme (music)

    Sprechstimme, (German: “speech-voice”), in music, a cross between speaking and singing in which the tone quality of speech is heightened and lowered in pitch along melodic contours indicated in the musical notation. Sprechstimme is frequently used in 20th-century music. Its introduction is

  • Spree River (river, Germany)

    Spree River, river in northeastern Germany, rising in the Lusatian Mountains just above Neugersdorf and flowing north past Bautzen and Spremberg, where it splits temporarily into two arms. After it passes Cottbus, the river divides into a network of channels, forming a marshy wooded region that is

  • spree serial murder (crime)

    serial murder: Definition and motives: …is often sexually motivated, and spree serial murder, which is usually motivated by thrill seeking. Although some serial murders have been committed for profit, most lack an obvious rational motive, a fact that distinguishes them from political assassinations and terrorism and from professional murders committed by gangsters. Serial murderers are…

  • Spreewald (region, Germany)

    Spree River: …that is known as the Spree Forest as far as Lübben. It then passes Fürstenwalde and K?penick and winds through Berlin in several branches to join the Havel River (a tributary of the Elbe) at Spandau after a course of 250 miles (403 km). The Spree drains an area of…

  • Sprengel explosive (explosive compound)

    explosive: Sprengel explosives: In England in 1871, Hermann Sprengel patented combinations of oxidizing agents such as chlorates, nitrates, and nitric acid with combustible substances such as nitronaphthalene, benzene, and nitrobenzene. These differed from previous explosives in that one of the ingredients was liquid and the mixture…

  • Sprengel, Christian Konrad (German botanist)

    Christian Konrad Sprengel, German botanist and teacher whose studies of sex in plants led him to a general theory of fertilization which, basically, is accepted today. Sprengel studied theology and languages, spent some years as a schoolmaster in Spandau and Berlin, and became rector of Spandau. In

  • Sprengel, Hermann Johann Philipp (English chemist)

    explosive: Sprengel explosives: In England in 1871, Hermann Sprengel patented combinations of oxidizing agents such as chlorates, nitrates, and nitric acid with combustible substances such as nitronaphthalene, benzene, and nitrobenzene. These differed from previous explosives in that one of the ingredients was liquid and the mixture was made just prior to use.…

  • Sprenger’s fern (plant)

    asparagus: Other species: Sprenger’s fern (A. aethiopicus), African asparagus fern (or bridal creeper, A. asparagoides), and asparagus fern (A. densiflorus) are grown for their attractive lacy foliage and are common ornamentals.

  • Sprenger, Johann (German Dominican friar)

    Malleus maleficarum: …the work of two Dominicans: Johann Sprenger, dean of the University of Cologne in Germany, and Heinrich (Institoris) Kraemer, professor of theology at the University of Salzburg, Austria, and inquisitor in the Tirol region of Austria. In 1484 Pope Innocent VIII issued the bull Summis Desiderantes, in which he deplored…

  • Sprengtporten, G. M. (soldier and politician)

    G.M. Sprengtporten, soldier and politician who successfully conspired to bring Sweden’s grand duchy, Finland, into the Russian Empire. Sprengtporten first achieved prominence in August 1772, when, as a major in the Swedish Army in Finland, he joined his half brother, Baron J.M. Sprengtporten, in

  • Sprengtporten, Georg Magnus (soldier and politician)

    G.M. Sprengtporten, soldier and politician who successfully conspired to bring Sweden’s grand duchy, Finland, into the Russian Empire. Sprengtporten first achieved prominence in August 1772, when, as a major in the Swedish Army in Finland, he joined his half brother, Baron J.M. Sprengtporten, in

  • Sprengtporten, G?ran Magnus (soldier and politician)

    G.M. Sprengtporten, soldier and politician who successfully conspired to bring Sweden’s grand duchy, Finland, into the Russian Empire. Sprengtporten first achieved prominence in August 1772, when, as a major in the Swedish Army in Finland, he joined his half brother, Baron J.M. Sprengtporten, in

  • Sprengtporten, J. M., Friherre (soldier and political conspirator)

    J.M. Sprengtporten, soldier and political conspirator who planned and led the August 1772 coup d’etat that enabled the absolutist King Gustav III to seize full power in Sweden. Prompted by royalist sentiment and by concern that Finland would be taken over by Russia, Sprengtporten and other officers

  • Sprengtporten, Jakob Magnus, Friherre (soldier and political conspirator)

    J.M. Sprengtporten, soldier and political conspirator who planned and led the August 1772 coup d’etat that enabled the absolutist King Gustav III to seize full power in Sweden. Prompted by royalist sentiment and by concern that Finland would be taken over by Russia, Sprengtporten and other officers

  • Spreuerbrücke (bridge, Lucerne, Switzerland)

    Lucerne: The Spreuerbrücke (1407), now the oldest bridge, is roofed and decorated with some 56 paintings, scenes from the Dance of Death, dating from the early 17th century. Until its destruction by fire in 1993, the Kapellbrücke (1333; “Chapel Bridge”) was the oldest bridge. It was similarly…

  • Sprickorna i muren (work by Gustafsson)

    Swedish literature: Political writing: …known for his partially autobiographical Sprickorna i muren (1971–78; “The Cracks in the Wall”), called by some his Divine Comedy for its richness and broad scope. In it the protagonist progresses from his childhood hell to the terminal cancer patient’s private paradise of pain relief.

  • Spriggina (paleontology)

    trilobite: …arthropods, may be represented by Spriggina, which is known from Precambrian shallow-water marine deposits in Australia. Trilobites are frequently used for stratigraphic correlations.

  • sprigging (pottery)

    Astbury-Whieldon ware: The process was known as sprigging.

  • Sprimont, Nicolas (British silversmith)

    Chelsea porcelain: …1743 by Charles Gouyn and Nicolas Sprimont, the latter a silversmith. By the 1750s the sole manager was Sprimont, from whose genius stemmed Chelsea’s greatest achievements. In 1769 the factory was sold to James Cox; and he sold it a year later to William Duesbury of Derby, Derbyshire, who maintained…

  • spring (season)

    Spring, in climatology, season of the year between winter and summer during which temperatures gradually rise. It is generally defined in the Northern Hemisphere as extending from the vernal equinox (day and night equal in length), March 20 or 21, to the summer solstice (year’s longest day), June

  • spring (architecture)

    arch: …supports is known as the spring, or springing line. During construction of an arch, the voussoirs require support from below until the keystone has been set in place; this support usually takes the form of temporary wooden centring. The curve in an arch may be semicircular, segmental (consisting of less…

  • spring (water)

    Spring, in hydrology, opening at or near the surface of the Earth for the discharge of water from underground sources. A spring is a natural discharge point of subterranean water at the surface of the ground or directly into the bed of a stream, lake, or sea. Water that emerges at the surface

  • spring (machine component)

    Spring, in technology, elastic machine component able to deflect under load in a prescribed manner and to recover its initial shape when unloaded. The combination of force and displacement in a deflected spring is energy, which may be stored when moving loads are being arrested or when the spring

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