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  • Salomon, Erich (German photographer)

    Erich Salomon, pioneering German photojournalist who is best known for his candid photographs of statesmen and celebrities. Salomon’s early interests included carpentry and zoology. He received a doctorate in law from the University of Munich, but he practiced law only briefly. His career as a

  • Salomon, Gotthold (German translator)

    biblical literature: German versions: …German characters was made by Gotthold Salomon (Altona, 1837). An attempt to preserve the quality of the Hebrew style in German garb was the joint translation of two Jewish religious philosophers, Martin Buber and Franz Rosenzweig (15 vol., Berlin, 1925–37; revised in 4 vol., Cologne, 1954–62).

  • Salomon, Haym (American businessman)

    Haym Salomon, Polish-born American businessman who was a principal financier of the fledgling American republic and a founder of the first Philadelphia synagogue, Mikveh Israel. In 1772, probably because of his revolutionary activities for Polish liberty, Salomon fled to New York City, where he

  • salomónica (architecture)

    Salomónica, (Spanish: “Solomon-like”) in architecture, a twisted column, so called because, at the Apostle’s tomb in Old St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome, there were similar columns, which, according to legend, had been imported from the Temple of Solomon in ancient Jerusalem. When Gian Lorenzo Bernini

  • Salomons von Golaw Deutscher Sinn-Getichte Drey Tausend (work by Logau)

    Friedrich von Logau: …polished, appearing in 1654 as Salomons von Golaw Deutscher Sinn-Getichte Drey Tausend, 3 vol. (“Salomon von Golaw’s Three Thousand German Epigrams”; reissued 1872 as Friedrichs von Logau s?mmtliche Sinngedichte). Logau’s epigrams were forgotten until a century after his death, when they were published in 1759 by G.E. Lessing and C.W.…

  • Salomons, Jean-Pierre Philippe (French actor)

    Jean-Pierre Aumont, (Jean-Pierre Philippe Salomons), French actor (born Jan. 5, 1911, Paris, France—died Jan. 30, 2001, St. Tropez, France), employed his suave good looks and Gallic charm in more than 60 French and American motion pictures during a 70-year stage and screen career. Although Aumont w

  • Salon (French art exhibition)

    Salon, official exhibition of art sponsored by the French government. It originated in 1667 when Louis XIV sponsored an exhibit of the works of the members of the Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture, and the salon derives its name from the fact that the exhibition was hung in the Salon d

  • salon (artistic and literary gathering)

    Pierre Marivaux: …1710 he had joined Parisian salon society, whose atmosphere and conversational manners he absorbed for his occasional journalistic writings. He contributed Réflexions…on the various social classes to the Nouveau Mercure (1717–19) and modeled his own periodical, Le Spectateur Fran?ais (1720–24), after Joseph Addison’s The Spectator.

  • Salon d’Automne (French art exhibition)

    Salon d’Automne, (French: Autumn Salon) exhibition of the works of young artists held every fall in Paris since 1903. The Salon d’Automne was established as an alternative to the conservative official Salon. It was also an alternative to the Salon des Indépendants, which was liberal but had a

  • Salon de Monsieur le Prince (room, Chantilly, France)

    Rococo: …of French Rococo are the Salon de Monsieur le Prince (completed 1722) in the Petit Chateau at Chantilly, decorated by Jean Aubert, and the salons (begun 1732) of the H?tel de Soubise, Paris, by Germain Boffrand. The Rococo style was also manifested in the decorative arts. Its asymmetrical forms and…

  • Salon des Indépendants (French art)

    Salon des Indépendants, annual exhibition of the Société des Artistes Indépendants, held in Paris since 1884. In the course of revolutionary developments in painting in late 19th-century France, both artists and the public became increasingly unhappy with the rigid and exclusive policies of the

  • Salon des Réalités Nouvelles (French artists group)

    Abstraction-Création: …World War II by the Salon des Réalités Nouvelles (“Salon of New Realities”).

  • Salon des Refusés (French art exhibition)

    Salon des Refusés, (French: Salon of the Refused), art exhibition held in 1863 in Paris by command of Napoleon III for those artists whose works had been refused by the jury of the official Salon. Among the exhibitors were Paul Cézanne, Camille Pissarro, Armand Guillaumin, Johan Jongkind, Henri

  • Salon Noir (cave area, Ariège, France)

    Niaux: …distinct areas, among them the Salon Noir, which contains panels showing bison and horses drawn in outline. The cave is also important for its surviving drawings engraved into the clay floor, including fish and a bison. Another gallery, known as the Réseau Clastres, although connected to Niaux, actually constitutes a…

  • Salon-de-Provence (France)

    Salon-de-Provence, town, Bouches-du-Rh?ne département, Provence–Alpes–C?te d’Azur région, southeastern France, northwest of Marseille. Founded in pre-Roman times as the oppidum (fortified town) of Le Salounet on a hill in the Val de Cuech, Salon achieved importance in the Middle Ages as a centre of

  • Salona (Greece)

    Amphissa, agricultural centre, Central Greece (Modern Greek: Stereá Elláda) periféreia (region), northern Greece. Amphissa lies at the northwestern limit of the fertile Crisaean plain, between the Gióna Mountains and the Parnassus massif. The economy includes trade in wheat, livestock, and

  • Salonen, Esa-Pekka (Finnish composer and conductor)

    Esa-Pekka Salonen, Finnish composer and conductor who was the music director of the Los Angeles Philharmonic (1992–2009). In 2008 he was appointed principal conductor and artistic advisor of the Philharmonia Orchestra in London. Salonen studied French horn, conducting, and composition at the

  • Salonga National Park (national park, Democratic Republic of the Congo)

    Salonga National Park, largest reserve in Congo (Kinshasa), Africa, covering more than 14,000 square miles (36,000 square km) and located midway between Kinshasa, the national capital, and Kisangani, 720 miles (1,160 km) to the northeast. The administrative headquarters at Monkoto (équateur

  • Salonika (Greece)

    Thessaloníki, city and dímos (municipality), Central Macedonia (Modern Greek: Kendrikí Makedonía), on the western Chalcidice (Chalkidikí) peninsula at the head of a bay on the Gulf of Thérmai (Therma?kós). An important industrial and commercial centre, second to Athens (Athína) in population and to

  • Salonika, Armistice of (European history)

    Paris Peace Conference: …Allies and their adversaries—that of Salonika (Thessaloníka) with Bulgaria on September 29, 1918, that of Mudros with Turkey on October 30, that of Villa Giusti with Austria-Hungary on November 3, and that of Rethondes with Germany on November 11—the conference did not open until January 18, 1919. This delay was…

  • Saloninus (Roman soldier)

    Marcus Cassianius Latinius Postumus: …Colonia (Cologne) with Gallienus’ son Saloninus after the emperor had left the Rhine River for the Danube about 258. When Silvanus demanded that all booty be handed back to the treasury and its original owners, the reluctant troops proclaimed Postumus emperor, defeating and killing both Silvanus and Saloninus. Postumus successfully…

  • Salons (reviews by Baudelaire)

    Charles Baudelaire: Early writings: …Delacroix, he elaborated in his Salons a wide-ranging theory of modern painting, with painters being urged to celebrate and express the “heroism of modern life.” In January 1847 Baudelaire published a novella entitled La Fanfarlo whose hero, or antihero, Samuel Cramer, is widely, if simplistically, seen as a self-portrait of…

  • saloon (place of entertainment)

    music hall and variety: “Saloon” became the name for any place of popular entertainment; “variety” was an evening of mixed plays; and “music hall” meant a concert hall that featured a mixture of musical and comic entertainment.

  • Salop (county, England, United Kingdom)

    Shropshire, geographic and historic county and unitary authority of western England bordering on Wales. Historically, the area has been known as Shropshire as well as by its older, Norman-derived name of Salop. Shrewsbury, in central Shropshire, is the administrative centre. The geographic and

  • Salopian ware (pottery)

    Caughley ware: The bulk of Caughley’s so-called Salopian ware was blue-and-white, mostly blue-printed or powder-blue; in shade, an initial soft blue was succeeded c. 1780 by a stronger violet blue. Blue painting was without distinction, nor was it made in any quantity, and only one form—a mask jug copied from Worcester, molded…

  • Salor (people)

    Turkmenistan: Turkmen tribes and Russian invasion: …in the north, while the Salor tribe was dominant in the south. During the 17th and 18th centuries the ascendancy passed to the Yomuts, Tekkes, Ersaris, and Saryks, who began to move out of the desert into the oases of Khorezm and to the Atrek, Tejen, and Morghāb rivers and…

  • Salor rug

    Salor rug, floor covering handmade by the Salor Turkmen of Turkmenistan. Most consistent in design are the main carpets, with a quartered gul (motif) showing a small animal figure in the inner part of each quadrant. The faces of storage bags are more varied, with several types of guls, most of

  • Saloth Sar (Cambodian political leader)

    Pol Pot, Khmer political leader who led the Khmer Rouge totalitarian regime (1975–79) in Cambodia that imposed severe hardships on the Cambodian people. His radical communist government forced the mass evacuations of cities, killed or displaced millions of people, and left a legacy of brutality and

  • Saloum River (river, Senegal)

    Senegal: Transportation and telecommunications: Activity on the Saloum River centres on peanut shipping from Kaolack, and traffic on the Casamance is to and from the port of Ziguinchor.

  • Salovey, Peter (psychologist)

    human intelligence: Cognitive-contextual theories: …the psychologists John Mayer and Peter Salovey defined the term emotional intelligence as

  • salp (tunicate)

    Salp, any small, pelagic, gelatinous invertebrate of the order Salpida (subphylum Tunicata, phylum Chordata). Found in warm seas, salps are especially common in the Southern Hemisphere. They have transparent barrel-shaped bodies that are girdled by muscle bands and open at each end. For propulsion,

  • Salpausselk? ridges (ridges, Finland)

    Salpausselk? ridges, three parallel ridges traversing the breadth of southern Finland from Hang? (Hanko), at the mouth of the Gulf of Finland in the west, to Joensuu, on Lake Pyh?selk?, near the Russian border in the east. The significance and origin of the Salpausselk? ridges has been a subject

  • Salpeter function (astronomy)

    Milky Way Galaxy: The stellar luminosity function: …a time-independent function, the so-called formation function, which would describe the general initial distribution of luminosities, taking into account all stars at the time of formation. Then, by assuming that the rate of star formation in the solar neighbourhood has been uniform since the beginning of this process and by…

  • Salpeter, Edwin (American astronomer)

    Edwin Ernest Salpeter, Austrian-born American astrophysicist(born Dec. 3, 1924, Vienna, Austria—died Nov. 26, 2008, Ithaca, N.Y.), provided insights into stellar evolution and processes. In 1951 Salpeter showed how carbon atoms could be produced from helium atoms in the nuclear reactions deep

  • Salpeter, Edwin E. (American astronomer)

    Edwin Ernest Salpeter, Austrian-born American astrophysicist(born Dec. 3, 1924, Vienna, Austria—died Nov. 26, 2008, Ithaca, N.Y.), provided insights into stellar evolution and processes. In 1951 Salpeter showed how carbon atoms could be produced from helium atoms in the nuclear reactions deep

  • Salpêtrière (hospital, Paris, France)

    Jean-Martin Charcot: …a lifelong association with the Salpêtrière Hospital, Paris (1862); there, in 1882, he opened what was to become the greatest neurological clinic of the time in Europe. A teacher of extraordinary competence, he attracted students from all parts of the world. In 1885 one of his students was Sigmund Freud,…

  • salpicón (food)

    Guatemala: Daily life and social customs: … (mashed plantain with black beans), salpicón (chopped beef salad with cilantro and onions), arroz con pollo (rice with chicken), and Mayan chicken fricassee (chicken cooked in a pumpkin and sesame seed sauce with chopped almonds). Desserts include pompan (candied sweet papaya) and flan.

  • Salpida (tunicate)

    Salp, any small, pelagic, gelatinous invertebrate of the order Salpida (subphylum Tunicata, phylum Chordata). Found in warm seas, salps are especially common in the Southern Hemisphere. They have transparent barrel-shaped bodies that are girdled by muscle bands and open at each end. For propulsion,

  • Salpinctes obsoletus (bird, Salpinctes species)

    rock wren: …wren of North America (Salpinctes obsoletus; see wren).

  • Salpingidae (insect family)

    coleopteran: Annotated classification: Salpingidae (narrow-waisted bark beetles) Superficial resemblance to Carabidae (ground beetles); adults and larvae predatory; adults occur under rocks, or bark, in leaf litter, on vegetation; few species but widely distributed; examples Salpingus, Lissodema. Family Scraptiidae About 200 species widely distributed; associated with

  • salpingitis (pathology)

    endometritis: …endometritis occurs in conjunction with salpingitis (inflammation of the fallopian tubes) or cervicitis (inflammation of the uterine cervix), symptoms may be more notable and more severe. Another type of endometritis may occur after any gynecological procedure, including childbirth, abortion, and insertion of an intrauterine device (IUD), and can lead to…

  • salpinx (musical instrument)

    wind instrument: Trumpets: Later the salpinx, also a straight trumpet, was known in Greece. A beautiful specimen made of 13 fitted sections of ivory with a bronze bell is believed to date from the 5th century bce. The Roman equivalent, the tuba, was bronze and reached Rome through contact with…

  • salpinx (anatomy)

    Fallopian tube, either of a pair of long, narrow ducts located in the human female abdominal cavity that transport male sperm cells to the egg, provide a suitable environment for fertilization, and transport the egg from the ovary, where it is produced, to the central channel (lumen) of the uterus.

  • salsa (dance)

    Latin American dance: Cuba: Salsa—characterized by vibrant, energetic hip swinging inflamed by an intense beat—coalesced in the 1960s as a blending of Cuban mambo and Latin jazz infused with choreographic and stylistic imprints from Puerto Ricans living in New York City. In Colombia and Venezuela salsa gave expression and…

  • salsa (music)

    Salsa, hybrid musical form based on Afro-Cuban music but incorporating elements from other Latin American styles. It developed largely in New York City beginning in the 1940s and ’50s, though it was not labeled salsa until the 1960s; it peaked in popularity in the 1970s in conjunction with the

  • salsa cruda (food)

    sauce: Mexican salsa cruda is an uncooked mixture of chopped tomatoes, onions, jalape?o peppers, and cilantro, or coriander leaf, that is extensively used as a table condiment.

  • salsa verde (food)

    tomatillo: …then ground together to form salsa verde, a green sauce used as a condiment on meats and other foods. Tomatillos are a good source of dietary fibre, vitamin C, vitamin K, and niacin.

  • Salsette (island, India)

    Mumbai: City site: …embracing the large island of Salsette, which was joined to Bombay Island by a causeway. By 1957 a number of suburban municipal boroughs and some neighbouring villages on Salsette were incorporated into Greater Mumbai—the metropolitan region surrounding Bombay Island and the city itself. Since then Greater Mumbai has continued to…

  • salsify (plant)

    Salsify, (Tragopogon porrifolius), biennial herb of the family Asteraceae, native to the Mediterranean region. The thick white taproot is cooked as a vegetable and has a flavour similar to that of oysters. Salsify has purple flowers and narrow, often keeled leaves whose bases usually clasp the

  • Salsillo, Francisco (Spanish sculptor)

    Francisco Salzillo, sculptor, a prolific creator of figures for the Holy Week procession. He is considered by some authorities to be the greatest sculptor in 18th-century Spain and by others as merely an excellent folk artist. Growing up in provincial Murcia, he received his training from his

  • Salsola kali (plant)

    desert: Flora: (One notable exception is the prickly saltwort [Salsola kali], which occurs in deserts in Central Asia, North Africa, California, and Australia, as well as in many saline coastal areas.) Floristic similarities among desert regions are particularly obvious where no wide barriers of ocean or humid vegetation exist to restrict plant…

  • Salsola laricifolia (plant, Salsola species)

    desert: Origin: …it is thought that the saltbush or chenopod family of plants reached Australia in this way, initially colonizing coastal habitats and later spreading into the inland deserts.

  • salt

    Saltcellar, receptacle for table salt, usually made of metal or glass. Salt was taken from it with small spoons. From the Middle Ages until at least the 16th century, salt was a relatively expensive commodity and was kept at the table in vessels commensurate with this status. A large and elaborate

  • salt (sodium chloride)

    Salt (NaCl), mineral substance of great importance to human and animal health, as well as to industry. The mineral form halite, or rock salt, is sometimes called common salt to distinguish it from a class of chemical compounds called salts. Properties of common salt are shown in the table. Salt is

  • salt (acid-base reactions)

    Salt, in chemistry, substance produced by the reaction of an acid with a base. A salt consists of the positive ion (cation) of a base and the negative ion (anion) of an acid. The reaction between an acid and a base is called a neutralization reaction. The term salt is also used to refer

  • SALT (telescope, South Africa)

    Southern African Large Telescope (SALT), largest telescope in the Southern Hemisphere, with a mirror measuring 11.1 by 9.8 metres (36.4 by 32.2 feet). It is located at the South African Astronomical Observatory near Sutherland, South Africa, at an elevation of 1,798 metres (5,899 feet). SALT is

  • SALT (international negotiations)

    Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT), negotiations between the United States and the Soviet Union that were aimed at curtailing the manufacture of strategic missiles capable of carrying nuclear weapons. The first agreements, known as SALT I and SALT II, were signed by the United States and the

  • Salt (film by Noyce [2010])

    Angelina Jolie: Film roles: …Russia in the action thriller Salt and appeared opposite Johnny Depp in the caper The Tourist. She later assumed the role of the titular villain in Maleficent (2014). The live-action film attempted to cast the evil fairy from the 1959 Disney animated classic Sleeping Beauty in a more sympathetic light.…

  • Salt (novel by Lovelace)

    Earl Lovelace: …The Wine of Astonishment (1982); Salt (1996), which won the Commonwealth Writers’ Prize (later called Commonwealth Book Prize); and Is Just a Movie (2011). Lovelace also published the short-story collection A Brief Conversion and Other Stories (1988), as well as the plays The New Hardware Store and My Name Is…

  • salt (taste classification)

    chemoreception: Taste: …taste are usually recognized: sweet, salt, sour, bitter, and umami. But this is an anthropocentric view of a system that has evolved to give animals information about the nutrient content and the potential dangers of the foods they eat. The major nutrient requirements of all animals are carbohydrates, which act…

  • Salt and Pepper (film by Donner [1968])

    Richard Donner: Early work: …Donner helmed his second film, Salt and Pepper (1968), a lighthearted comedy featuring Sammy Davis, Jr., and Peter Lawford as British club owners in trouble with the mob; the movie was a minor hit. After reteaming with Bronson for the comedy Lola (1970), Donner again focused on TV. In addition…

  • salt anticline (geology)

    diapir: …associated with salt domes or salt anticlines; in some cases the diapiric process is thought to be the mode of origin for a salt dome itself.

  • salt beef (food)

    beef: Corned beef (or salt beef in Britain) is a brisket or rump cut that has been pickled in brine.

  • salt bridge (electronics)

    electricity: Electromotive force: …electrically by a potassium chloride salt bridge. (A salt bridge is a conductor with ions as charge carriers.) In both kinds of batteries, the energy comes from the difference in the degree of binding between the electrons in copper and those in zinc. Energy is gained when copper ions from…

  • salt cedar (plant)

    tamarisk: The salt cedar, or French tamarisk (T. gallica), is planted on seacoasts for shelter; it is cultivated in the United States from South Carolina to California. The Athel tree (T. aphylla), which sometimes grows to about 18 metres (60 feet), has jointed twigs and minute ensheathing…

  • salt depletion (physiology)

    nutritional disease: Sodium: Sodium depletion may occur during prolonged heavy sweating, vomiting, or diarrhea or in the case of kidney disease. Symptoms of hyponatremia, or low blood sodium, include muscle cramps, nausea, dizziness, weakness, and eventually shock and coma. After prolonged high-intensity exertion in the heat,

  • salt deposit (geology)

    Evaporite, any of a variety of individual minerals found in the sedimentary deposit of soluble salts that results from the evaporation of water. A brief treatment of evaporite deposits and their constituent minerals follows. For full treatment, see sedimentary rock: Evaporites. Typically, evaporite

  • salt dome (geology)

    Salt dome, largely subsurface geologic structure that consists of a vertical cylinder of salt (including halite and other evaporites) 1 km (0.6 mile) or more in diameter, embedded in horizontal or inclined strata. In the broadest sense, the term includes both the core of salt and the strata that

  • salt flat (geological feature)

    Alkali flat, a playa, or dried-out desert lake, especially one containing high concentrations of precipitated dry, glistening salts. The term is generally limited to flats in the western United States, the most famous being the Bonneville Salt Flats (q.v.) west of Salt Lake City, where automobile

  • Salt Fork Arkansas River (river, United States)

    Salt Fork Arkansas River, river that rises in several headstreams in southern Kansas, U.S., and flows southeastward to Alva, Okla., and then eastward to join the Arkansas River south of Ponca City, after a course of approximately 190 miles (305 km). The Salt Fork Arkansas River is not navigable. A

  • salt gland (marine bird and reptile anatomy)

    Nasal gland, in marine birds and reptiles that drink saltwater, gland that extracts the salt and removes it from the animal’s body. Its function was unknown until 1957, when K. Schmidt-Nielsen and coworkers solved the long-standing problem of how oceanic birds can live without fresh water. They

  • salt glaze (ceramics)

    Salt glaze, in ceramics, a glaze having the texture of orange peel, formed on stoneware by throwing common salt into the kiln at the peak temperature. Sodium from the salt combines with silica in the clay to form a glassy coating of sodium silicate. The glaze may be colourless or various shades of

  • salt grass (plant)

    Cordgrass, (genus Spartina), genus of 16 species of perennial grasses in the family Poaceae. Cordgrasses are found on marshes and tidal mud flats of North America, Europe, and Africa and often form dense colonies. Some species are planted as soil binders to prevent erosion, and a few are considered

  • Salt in the Wound (work by Sciascia)

    Leonardo Sciascia: …Le parrocchie di Regalpetra (1956; Salt in the Wound), chronicles the history of a small Sicilian town and the effect of politics on the lives of the townspeople. He further examined what he termed sicilitudine (“Sicilian-ness”) in the four stories of Gli zii di Sicilia (1958; Sicilian Uncles). Although Sicilian…

  • salt karst (geology)

    Salt karst, solution phenomena occurring in rock salt by the action of groundwater. Although rock salt is considerably more soluble in water than is the calcite that forms karst topography, rock salt is impervious, and solution can take place only on the exterior surfaces. The brine formed by

  • salt lake

    inland water ecosystem: Saline lakes: Saline lakes (i.e., bodies of water that have salinities in excess of 3 grams per litre) are widespread and occur on all continents, including Antarctica. Saline lakes include the largest lake in the world, the Caspian Sea; the lowest lake, the Dead Sea;…

  • Salt Lake City (Utah, United States)

    Salt Lake City, state capital and seat (1849) of Salt Lake county, north-central Utah, U.S., on the Jordan River at the southeastern end of Great Salt Lake. The world capital of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons), it influences the social, economic, political, and cultural

  • Salt Lake City 2002 Olympic Winter Games

    Salt Lake City 2002 Olympic Winter Games, athletic festival held in Salt Lake City, Utah, U.S., that took place Feb. 8–24, 2002. The Salt Lake City Games were the 19th occurrence of the Winter Olympic Games. Scandal and fears of terrorism marked the 2002 Games long before the Olympic torch arrived

  • Salt Lake Theater (theatre, Salt Lake City, Utah, United States)

    University of Utah: …campus has a replica of Salt Lake Theater, built in 1862, a significant early theatre in the American West. The university’s libraries contain almost three million books. Notable among the school’s research agencies are the Nora Eccles Harrison Cardiovascular Research and Training Institute, the Combustion Research Group, the Center for…

  • Salt March (Indian history)

    Salt March, major nonviolent protest action in India led by Mohandas (Mahatma) Gandhi in March–April 1930. The march was the first act in an even-larger campaign of civil disobedience (satyagraha) Gandhi waged against British rule in India that extended into early 1931 and garnered Gandhi

  • salt marsh (ecology)

    Salt marsh, area of low, flat, poorly drained ground that is subject to daily or occasional flooding by salt water or brackish water and is covered with a thick mat of grasses and such grasslike plants as sedges and rushes. Salt marshes are common along low seacoasts, inside barrier bars and

  • salt marsh snake (reptile)

    water snake: The salt marsh snake (N. clarkii) lives in the brackish water habitats of the southeastern United States, and adults typically grow to 0.3–0.7 metre (1–2 feet) long. There are three morphologically distinct subspecies: the salt marsh snake (N. clarkii clarkii) of the Gulf Coast region is…

  • salt mining

    Eritrea: Resources: Salt mining, based on deposits in the Kobar Sink, is a traditional activity in Eritrea; there is a salt works near the port of Massawa. Granite, gold, copper, zinc, potash, and basalt are also mined. Numerous other minerals have been identified, including feldspar, gypsum, asbestos,…

  • salt monopoly (Russian politics)

    Boris Ivanovich Morozov: …state monopolies on tobacco and salt, which, in the case of the latter commodity, resulted in the quadrupling of the duty exacted. The salt monopoly proved so unpopular that it was abrogated in 1647, but discontent continued; and, when in 1648 commoners were prevented from petitioning the tsar with their…

  • salt nucleus (meteorology)

    Salt nucleus, tiny particle in the atmosphere that is composed of a salt, either solid or in an aqueous solution; it promotes the condensation of water and thus is one form of condensation nucleus

  • Salt of the Earth (work by Wittlin)

    Józef Wittlin: …literature is Sól ziemi (1936; Salt of the Earth). The book is a tale of a “patient infantryman,” an illiterate Polish peasant who is unwillingly drafted into the Austrian army to fight a war he does not understand. The novel treats not war itself but the bewilderment of a man…

  • Salt of the Earth, The (film by Wenders [2014])

    Sebasti?o Salgado: …subject of Wim Wenders’s documentary The Salt of the Earth (2015).

  • salt pan (geology)

    Playa, (Spanish: shore or beach) flat-bottom depression found in interior desert basins and adjacent to coasts within arid and semiarid regions, periodically covered by water that slowly filtrates into the ground water system or evaporates into the atmosphere, causing the deposition of salt, sand,

  • salt pillow (geology)

    salt dome: …is the main component are salt pillows and salt walls, which are related genetically to salt domes, and salt anticlines, which are essentially folded rocks pierced by upward migrating salt. Other material, such as gypsum and shale, form the cores of similar geologic structures, and all such structures, including salt…

  • Salt Plains National Wildlife Refuge (wildlife refuge, Oklahoma, United States)

    Salt Fork Arkansas River: …Lake, which is largely within Salt Plains National Wildlife Refuge. The refuge is noted especially for its great variety of migrating aquatic birds in spring and fall, including the rare and endangered whooping crane.

  • Salt Range (mountains, Pakistan)

    Salt Range, series of hills and low mountains between the valleys of the Indus and Jhelum rivers, located in the northern part of the Punjab region of Pakistan. It derives its name from extensive deposits of rock salt that form one of the richest salt fields in the world; they are of Precambrian

  • salt receptor (physiology)

    chemoreception: Taste: …sweet taste, as well as receptors preferentially tasting salt and receptors preferentially tasting bitter substances. The taste receptor cells of other animals can often be characterized in similar ways to those of humans, because all animals have the same basic needs in selecting food. In addition, some organisms have other…

  • Salt River (river, Arizona, United States)

    Salt River, tributary of the Gila River, east-central Arizona, U.S. The Salt River is formed at the confluence of the Black and White rivers on a plateau in eastern Gila county. It flows 200 miles (320 km) in a westerly direction and empties into the Gila River 15 miles (24 km) west-southwest of

  • Salt River Project (irrigation project, Arizona, United States)

    Arizona: Development of commercial agriculture: The Salt River Project, completed in 1911, delivered water to farmers in the Phoenix area (now the state’s agricultural heartland). Water shortages continued to plague the state, however, and in 1963, after a long and bitter fight with California, Arizona obtained a ruling by the U.S.…

  • Salt River Valley (valley, Arizona, United States)

    Phoenix: The Salt River valley, popularly called the Valley of the Sun, includes not only Phoenix but also nearby cities such as Mesa, Scottsdale, and Tempe. Phoenix plays a prominent role in the economy of the Mountain West region of the country, serving as a financial, communications,…

  • Salt Rock (physical feature, Egypt)

    Djelfa: …imposing physical feature known as Salt Rock (Rocher de Sel) that resulted from the erosion of rock salts and marls by rain, and to the west of the town Megalithic funerary structures are found. Pop. (1998) 154,265; (2008) 265,833.

  • Salt Route (Roman road)

    salt: History of use: …is the Via Salaria (Salt Route) over which Roman salt from Ostia was carried into other parts of Italy. Herodotus tells of a caravan route that united the salt oases of the Libyan Desert. The ancient trade between the Aegean and the Black Sea coast of southern Russia was…

  • Salt Satyagraha (Indian history)

    Salt March, major nonviolent protest action in India led by Mohandas (Mahatma) Gandhi in March–April 1930. The march was the first act in an even-larger campaign of civil disobedience (satyagraha) Gandhi waged against British rule in India that extended into early 1931 and garnered Gandhi

  • Salt Sea (lake, Asia)

    Dead Sea, landlocked salt lake between Israel and Jordan in southwestern Asia. Its eastern shore belongs to Jordan, and the southern half of its western shore belongs to Israel. The northern half of the western shore lies within the Palestinian West Bank and has been under Israeli occupation since

  • salt stock (foodstuff)

    food preservation: Pickled fruits and vegetables: …the salted, fermented cucumber, called salt stock, may be held for several years.

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