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  • stability (chemistry)

    hydrocarbon: Aromatic hydrocarbons: …properties, especially that of special stability, and eventually aromaticity came to be defined in terms of stability alone. The modern definition states that a compound is aromatic if it is significantly more stable than would be predicted on the basis of the most stable Lewis structural formula written for it.…

  • stability (radioactivity)

    isotope: Nuclear stability: Isotopes are said to be stable if, when left alone, they show no perceptible tendency to change spontaneously. Under the proper conditions, however, say in a nuclear reactor or particle accelerator or in the interior of a star, even stable isotopes may be transformed,…

  • stability (solution of equations)

    Stability, in mathematics, condition in which a slight disturbance in a system does not produce too disrupting an effect on that system. In terms of the solution of a differential equation, a function f(x) is said to be stable if any other solution of the equation that starts out sufficiently

  • stability (psychology)

    motivation: Attribution theory: …falling along three dimensions: locus, stability, and controllability. Locus refers to the location, internal or external, of the perceived cause of a success or failure. Ability and effort, for example, are seen as internal dispositions of a person, while task difficulty and luck are situational factors external to the person.…

  • stability (physics)

    mechanics: Simple harmonic oscillations: …point, a brief discussion of stability is useful.

  • stability (of structures)

    mechanics: Statics: …statics is to study the stability of structures, such as edifices and bridges. In these cases, gravity applies a force to each component of the structure as well as to any bodies the structure may need to support. The force of gravity acts on each bit of mass of which…

  • stability diagram (physics)

    Phase diagram, graph showing the limiting conditions for solid, liquid, and gaseous phases of a single substance or of a mixture of substances while undergoing changes in pressure and temperature or in some other combination of variables, such as solubility and temperature. The Figure shows a

  • stabilization (vehicle operation)

    tank: Fire control: …of tanks were fitted with stabilized gun controls to enable them to fire more accurately on the move (i.e., to keep their gun barrels at a constant angle of elevation even while the tank was riding over bumps or depressions). At first some tanks, such as the T-54, had their…

  • stabilization

    Economic stabilizer, any of the institutions and practices in an economy that serve to reduce fluctuations in the business cycle through offsetting effects on the amounts of income available for spending (disposable income). The most important automatic stabilizers include unemployment compensation

  • Stabilization and Association Agreement (European Union)

    Kosovo: Self-declared independence: …to begin negotiations for a Stabilisation and Association Agreement—a critical step toward accession to the EU. In April 2013 Kosovo and Serbia reached a milestone agreement that granted a degree of autonomy to ethnic Serbs in northern Kosovo in exchange for de facto recognition of Kosovo’s authority in the region.…

  • Stabilization Plan of 1959 (Spanish history)

    Spain: Franco’s Spain, 1939–75: …forced Franco to implement a stabilization plan in 1959, which provided a fierce dose of orthodox finance. Economic nationalism, protectionism, and the state intervention characteristic of autarky were abandoned in favour of a market economy and the opening of Spain to international trade and much-needed foreign investment. The stabilization plan…

  • stabilization pond (sanitation engineering)

    wastewater treatment: Oxidation pond: Oxidation ponds, also called lagoons or stabilization ponds, are large, shallow ponds designed to treat wastewater through the interaction of sunlight, bacteria, and algae. Algae grow using energy from the sun and carbon dioxide and inorganic compounds released by bacteria in water. During…

  • stabilization processing (photography)

    technology of photography: Stabilization processing: Certain rapid-processing papers incorporate developing agents in their emulsions and are processed on a roller processor. This processor runs the paper through an activating bath for instant development and then through a stabilizing bath, followed by a pair of squeegeeing rollers from which…

  • stabilized pavement

    roads and highways: Pavement: …base course, it can be “stabilized” with relatively small quantities of lime, portland cement, pozzolana, or bitumen. The strength and stiffness of the mix are increased by the surface reactivity of the additive, which also reduces the material’s permeability and hence its susceptibility to water. Special machines distribute the stabilizer…

  • stabilizer (chemistry)

    emulsifier: Closely related to emulsifiers are stabilizers, substances that maintain the emulsified state. The consistency of food products may also be improved by the addition of thickeners, used to add body to sauces and other liquids, and texturizers. This class of additives has a dual purpose: they make food more appetizing…

  • stabilizer (vehicle operation)

    tank: Fire control: …of tanks were fitted with stabilized gun controls to enable them to fire more accurately on the move (i.e., to keep their gun barrels at a constant angle of elevation even while the tank was riding over bumps or depressions). At first some tanks, such as the T-54, had their…

  • stabilizer, economic

    Economic stabilizer, any of the institutions and practices in an economy that serve to reduce fluctuations in the business cycle through offsetting effects on the amounts of income available for spending (disposable income). The most important automatic stabilizers include unemployment compensation

  • stabilizing selection (genetics)

    evolution: Stabilizing selection: Natural selection can be studied by analyzing its effects on changing gene frequencies, but it can also be explored by examining its effects on the observable characteristics—or phenotypes—of individuals in a population. Distribution scales of phenotypic traits such as height, weight, number of…

  • stabillite (explosive)

    Hudson Maxim: …a new smokeless powder, called stabillite because of its high stability, and motorite, a self-combustive substance to propel torpedoes.

  • stable allocations, theory of (game theory)

    Lloyd Shapley: …be paired off until a stable arrangement has been reached where no pair of mates would prefer another match. Roth and others later applied the Gale-Shapley algorithm to such diverse problems as matching new doctors with hospitals and prospective students with high schools. In 1974 Shapley and American economist Herbert…

  • stable cell (biology)

    human disease: Repair and regeneration: …multiply throughout life, (2) the stable cells, which do not multiply continuously but can do so when necessary, and (3) the permanent cells, incapable of multiplication in the adult—only the permanent cells are incapable of regeneration. These are the brain cells and the cells of the skeletal and heart muscles.

  • stable community (ecology)

    Climax, in ecology, the final stage of biotic succession attainable by a plant community in an area under the environmental conditions present at a particular time. For example, cleared forests in the eastern United States progress from fields to old fields with colonizing trees and shrubs to

  • stable equilibrium (physics)

    equilibrium: …equilibrium is said to be stable if small, externally induced displacements from that state produce forces that tend to oppose the displacement and return the body or particle to the equilibrium state. Examples include a weight suspended by a spring or a brick lying on a level surface. An equilibrium…

  • stable fly (insect)

    Stable fly, (Stomoxys calcitrans), a species of vicious bloodsucking fly in the family Muscidae (sometimes placed in the family Stomoxyidae) in the fly order, Diptera. Stable flies are usually found in open sunny areas, although they may enter a house during bad weather. Often known as biting

  • stable isotope (chemistry)

    isotope: Nuclear stability: …interior of a star, even stable isotopes may be transformed, one into another. The ease or difficulty with which these nuclear transformations occur varies considerably and reflects differing degrees of stability in the isotopes. Accordingly, it is important and useful to measure stability in more quantitative terms.

  • stable transfection (biology)

    transfection: …other cases, transfection may be stable, resulting in the integration of the nucleic acid into the cellular genome (its full complement of genes). This approach allows the effects of the nucleic acid to be investigated over a long period of time.

  • St?blein, Bruno (German musicologist)

    Old Roman chant: …again raised in 1950 by Bruno St?blein, a German musicologist, who held that the Old Roman tradition was sung at the time of Pope Gregory the Great (reigned 590–604) and was therefore the authentic Gregorian chant, whereas the so-called Gregorian body of song dated from the second half of the…

  • Stabler, Ken (American football player)

    Ken Stabler, (Kenneth Michael Stabler), American football player (born Dec. 25, 1945, Foley, Ala.—died July 8, 2015, Gulfport, Miss.), as quarterback for the NFL’s Oakland Raiders (1970–79), was known for exceptionally accurate throwing and for keeping a cool head under pressure; during that time

  • Stabler, Kenneth Michael (American football player)

    Ken Stabler, (Kenneth Michael Stabler), American football player (born Dec. 25, 1945, Foley, Ala.—died July 8, 2015, Gulfport, Miss.), as quarterback for the NFL’s Oakland Raiders (1970–79), was known for exceptionally accurate throwing and for keeping a cool head under pressure; during that time

  • Stabroek (national capital, Guyana)

    Georgetown, capital city of Guyana. The country’s chief port, Georgetown lies on the Atlantic Ocean at the mouth of the Demerara River. Although the settlement was founded by the British in 1781 and named for George III, it had been largely rebuilt by the French by 1784. Known during the Dutch

  • stacco (art technique)

    art conservation and restoration: Wall paintings: Less intrusive is the stacco method; a thicker layer of plaster is retained along with the fresco and is smoothed flat on its back surface before the composite rigid layer is mounted to a prepared support. Lastly, in the procedure called stacco a massello, the least intrusive to the…

  • stacco a massello (art technique)

    art conservation and restoration: Wall paintings: Lastly, in the procedure called stacco a massello, the least intrusive to the fresco but more challenging transfer procedure due to mass and weight, the wall painting is removed with its entire original substrate. This feat requires bracing the wall with counter-forms to avoid damages due to torque, vibration, and…

  • Stace, W. T. (British philosopher)

    W. T. Stace, English-born philosopher who sought to reconcile naturalism with religious experience. His utilitarian theories, though empiricist in nature, acknowledged the necessity of incorporating mystical and spiritual interpretations. Educated at Bath College and Fettes College, Edinburgh, and

  • Stace, Walter Terence (British philosopher)

    W. T. Stace, English-born philosopher who sought to reconcile naturalism with religious experience. His utilitarian theories, though empiricist in nature, acknowledged the necessity of incorporating mystical and spiritual interpretations. Educated at Bath College and Fettes College, Edinburgh, and

  • Stacey, Frank D. (Australian physicist)

    gravity: The inverse square law: Frank D. Stacey and his colleagues in Australia made such measurements at the top and bottom of deep mine shafts and claimed that there may be a real difference between their value of G and the best value from laboratory experiments. The difficulties lie in…

  • Stachanov (Ukraine)

    Stakhanov, city, eastern Ukraine. It is situated in the northern part of the Donets Basin. The city developed in the 19th century as a coal-mining settlement. From 1935 to 1943, it was known as Sergo. Stakhanov was one of the major coal-mining towns of the Donets Basin, though it declined in

  • Stachka (film by Eisenstein)

    Sergei Eisenstein: Thus, in Strike, which recounts the repression of a strike by the soldiers of the tsar, Eisenstein juxtaposed shots of workers being mowed down by machine guns with shots of cattle being butchered in a slaughterhouse. The effect was striking, but the objective reality was falsified.

  • stachyose (carbohydrate)

    human nutrition: Other sugars and starch: , raffinose and stachyose), which contains three to 10 saccharide units; these compounds, which are found in beans and other legumes and cannot be digested well by humans, account for the gas-producing effects of these foods. Larger and more complex storage forms of carbohydrate are the polysaccharides, which…

  • Stachys (herb genus)

    Lamiaceae: …the genus Stachys, or the woundworts generally, had supposed value as folk remedies. Self-heal, or heal-all (Prunella vulgaris), provided another important source of herbal medicine. The 40 to 50 species of the genus Lamium are known as dead nettles; they are low weedy plants that are sometimes cultivated as medicinal…

  • Stachys byzantina (plant)

    Lamb’s ears, (Stachys byzantina), perennial herb of the mint family (Lamiaceae), native to parts of the Middle East. Lamb’s ears are commonly grown as ornamentals for their attractive fuzzy leaves, which are reminiscent of the soft ears of young lambs. The plants commonly reach about 60 cm (24

  • Stachys officinalis (plant)

    Lamiaceae: Betony (Stachys officinalis) was once regarded as a cure-all, and other plants of the genus Stachys, or the woundworts generally, had supposed value as folk remedies. Self-heal, or heal-all (Prunella vulgaris), provided another important source of herbal medicine. The 40 to 50 species of the…

  • Stachys olympica (plant)

    Lamb’s ears, (Stachys byzantina), perennial herb of the mint family (Lamiaceae), native to parts of the Middle East. Lamb’s ears are commonly grown as ornamentals for their attractive fuzzy leaves, which are reminiscent of the soft ears of young lambs. The plants commonly reach about 60 cm (24

  • Stachyurus (plant genus)

    Crossosomatales: …of a single genus (Stachyurus) of five species that grow from the Himalayas to Japan. The evergreen or deciduous trees have inflorescences that resemble poplars and aspens, for which reason they were previously placed near the family Salicaceae. Some members of Stachyurus are grown as ornamentals and flower well…

  • stack (air-traffic control)

    traffic control: Traffic elements: Traditional approach control using stacks (see below) placed a heavy burden on the airport traffic controllers to monitor many planes in the air. After the 1981 air traffic controller strike in the United States and the subsequent dismissal of approximately 10,000 controllers, the Federal Aviation Administration instituted a policy…

  • stack (furnace)

    blast furnace: …between the hearth and the stack; a vertical shaft (the stack) that extends from the bosh to the top of the furnace; and the furnace top, which contains a mechanism for charging the furnace. The furnace charge, or burden, of iron-bearing materials (e.g., iron-ore pellets and sinter), coke, and flux…

  • Stack, Robert (American actor)

    Robert Stack, (Robert Langford Modini), American actor (born Jan. 13, 1919, Los Angeles, Calif.—died May 14, 2003, Los Angeles), had a notable six-decade-long career that saw him go from giving Deanna Durbin her first screen kiss in First Love (1939) to portraying more substantial characters in f

  • Stackhouse, Ann Rae (American writer)

    Ann Rule, (Ann Rae Stackhouse), American true-crime writer (born Oct. 22, 1931, Lowell, Mich.—died July 26, 2015, Burien, Wash.), produced more than 30 books about murders, the vast majority of them best sellers; she was praised for her meticulous research, psychological insight, and suspenseful

  • Stackpole, Peter (American photographer)

    history of photography: Photojournalism: …her husband, Otto Hagel; and Peter Stackpole, whose photographs of the Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco attracted much attention. The concept of Life from the start, according to its founder, Henry Luce, was to replace haphazard picture taking and editing with the “mind-guided camera.” Photographers were briefed for their…

  • Stacy’s Corner (Illinois, United States)

    Glen Ellyn, village, DuPage county, northeastern Illinois, U.S. It is a suburb of Chicago, lying 23 miles (37 km) west of downtown. Glen Ellyn’s phases of development were marked by seven name changes: Babcock’s Grove (1833), for the first settlers, Ralph and Morgan Babcock; DuPage Center (1834);

  • Stacy’s Mills (New Jersey, United States)

    Trenton, city and capital of New Jersey, U.S., seat (1837) of Mercer county, and industrial metropolis at the head of navigation on the Delaware River. It lies 28 miles (45 km) northeast of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and about 55 miles (89 km) southwest of New York City. The original settlement

  • stade (measurement)

    stadium: …Greek unit of measurement, the stade, the distance covered in the original Greek footraces (about 600 feet [180 metres]). The course for the footrace in the ancient Olympic Games at Olympia was exactly a stade in length, and the word for the unit of measurement became transferred first to the…

  • Stade (Germany)

    Stade, city, Lower Saxony Land (state), northwestern Germany. It lies along the Schwinge River, 3 miles (5 km) from its junction with the Elbe River, below Hamburg. The traditional seat of district administration and once the leading port of the lower Elbe, it was chartered in the 12th century and

  • Stade de France (stadium, Saint-Denis, France)

    Paris attacks of 2015: The November 13 attacks: …his attempt to enter the Stade de France in the northern suburb of Saint-Denis. Inside the stadium, Hollande was among the 80,000 people watching an association football (soccer) match between the French and German national teams. When security officers at one of the stadium’s main entrances detected the attacker’s bomb…

  • Stade Roland-Garros (sports arena, France)

    French Open: …moved in 1928 to the Stade Roland-Garros, which contains clay courts. The French Open is generally held in late May–early June.

  • St?del Art Institute and Municipal Gallery (museum, Frankfurt am Main, Germany)

    St?del Museum, museum of art located in Frankfurt am Main, Ger. It was founded in 1816 by a bequest from the banker Johann Friedrich St?del (1728–1816), who donated his fortune and his art collection to found the institution as an art museum and art school. The institute opened its art collection

  • St?del Museum (museum, Frankfurt am Main, Germany)

    St?del Museum, museum of art located in Frankfurt am Main, Ger. It was founded in 1816 by a bequest from the banker Johann Friedrich St?del (1728–1816), who donated his fortune and his art collection to found the institution as an art museum and art school. The institute opened its art collection

  • St?delsches Kunstinstitut und St?dtische Galerie (museum, Frankfurt am Main, Germany)

    St?del Museum, museum of art located in Frankfurt am Main, Ger. It was founded in 1816 by a bequest from the banker Johann Friedrich St?del (1728–1816), who donated his fortune and his art collection to found the institution as an art museum and art school. The institute opened its art collection

  • stadholder (historical Dutch official)

    Stadtholder, provincial executive officer in the Low Countries, or Netherlands, from the 15th through the 18th century. The office acquired extensive powers in the United Provinces of the Netherlands (Dutch Republic). Introduced by the ruling Burgundian dukes in the 15th century and continued

  • stadholderless periods (Dutch history)

    Netherlands: The first stadtholderless period: Fate thus intervened to give Holland’s leaders, now intensely distrustful of Orangist influence, a chance to take over the country from the leaderless party of their antagonists. They governed the country for a little more than two decades, during what is known as…

  • stadhouder (historical Dutch official)

    Stadtholder, provincial executive officer in the Low Countries, or Netherlands, from the 15th through the 18th century. The office acquired extensive powers in the United Provinces of the Netherlands (Dutch Republic). Introduced by the ruling Burgundian dukes in the 15th century and continued

  • Stadhuis (building, Antwerp, Belgium)

    Western architecture: Flanders and Holland: …Flemish Renaissance style was the Stadhuis, or Town Hall (1561–65), at Antwerp, designed by Loys du Foys and Nicolo Scarini and executed by Cornelis II Floris (originally de Vriendt [1514–75]). It was decided to replace Antwerp’s small medieval town hall with a large structure, 300 feet (90 metres) long, in…

  • stadial (measurement)

    stadium: …Greek unit of measurement, the stade, the distance covered in the original Greek footraces (about 600 feet [180 metres]). The course for the footrace in the ancient Olympic Games at Olympia was exactly a stade in length, and the word for the unit of measurement became transferred first to the…

  • Stadier paa livets vei (work by Kierkegaard)

    S?ren Kierkegaard: A life of collisions: …Stadier paa livets vei (1845; Stages on Life’s Way), and Afsluttende uvidenskabelig efterskrift (1846; Concluding Unscientific Postscript). Even after acknowledging that he had written these works, however, Kierkegaard insisted that they continue to be attributed to their pseudonymous authors. The pseudonyms are best understood by analogy with characters in a…

  • Stadio Comunale (stadium, Florence, Italy)

    Florence: Cultural life: …renamed “Artemio Franchi,” or simply Franchi Stadium.

  • Stadion-Warthausen, Johann Philipp Karl, Graf von (Austrian statesman)

    Johann Philipp, count von Stadion, statesman, foreign minister, and diplomat who served the Habsburg empire during the Napoleonic Wars. After service in the imperial Privy Council (1783–87), Stadion was dispatched to the Austrian embassy in Stockholm. In 1790 he was sent to London, where he was

  • stadium (architecture)

    Stadium, enclosure that combines broad space for athletic games and other exhibitions with large seating capacity for spectators. The name derives from the Greek unit of measurement, the stade, the distance covered in the original Greek footraces (about 600 feet [180 metres]). The course for the

  • stadium (measurement)

    stadium: …Greek unit of measurement, the stade, the distance covered in the original Greek footraces (about 600 feet [180 metres]). The course for the footrace in the ancient Olympic Games at Olympia was exactly a stade in length, and the word for the unit of measurement became transferred first to the…

  • Stadium Arcadium (album by Red Hot Chili Peppers)

    Red Hot Chili Peppers: …the Way (2002), and Grammy-winning Stadium Arcadium (2006). The band went on hiatus in early 2008, and the following year Frusciante announced that he had left the group to pursue a solo career. He was replaced on lead guitar by Josh Klinghoffer, who had previously played with the group on…

  • Stadler, Anton (musician and composer)

    Clarinet Quintet in A Major, K 581: …and fellow Freemason virtuoso clarinetist Anton Stadler, but it found an unexpectedly wide audience when it was featured in the final episode (1983) of the television series M*A*S*H.

  • Stads Island (island, Stockholm, Sweden)

    Gamla Stan: It consists of Stads Island, Helgeands Island, and Riddar Island. Most of the buildings in this area date from the 16th and 17th centuries and are legally protected from renovation. Stads Island contains the Royal Palace; Storkyrkan, also called the Cathedral, or Church, of St. Nicolas; the German…

  • Stadt Berlin (hotel, Berlin, Germany)

    Berlin: The city layout: …Berlin, rises the 39-story hotel Stadt Berlin, one of the city’s tallest buildings.

  • Stadt der V?ter, Stadt der Freiheit, Stadt des Friedens, Die (work by Faesi)

    Robert Faesi: …important works, the epic saga Die Stadt der V?ter, Die Stadt der Freiheit, Die Stadt des Friedens, 3 vol. (1941–52; “The City of the Fathers,” “The City of Freedom,” “The City of Peace”), deal with Zürich life during the 18th century, including the period of the French Revolution. In 1949…

  • Stadtbahn (railway, Berlin, Germany)

    Berlin: Transportation: …the Stadt- or Schnellbahn (S-Bahn), a largely elevated and partly underground railway system, began in 1871, and building of the subway, or Untergrundbahn (U-Bahn), was initiated in 1897. By World War II the city had one of the finest rapid transit systems in Europe. After the erection of the…

  • St?dteordnung (1808, Prussia)

    Karl, Reichsfreiherr vom und zum Stein: Achievements as minister and prime minister.: Stein’s Municipal Ordinance (St?dteordnung) of Nov. 19, 1808, was of lasting importance. It introduced self-government for the urban communes, created the distinction between the salaried executive officials (mayor and magistrate) and the town councils, and so enabled the towns to deal with their local affairs largely…

  • stadtholder (historical Dutch official)

    Stadtholder, provincial executive officer in the Low Countries, or Netherlands, from the 15th through the 18th century. The office acquired extensive powers in the United Provinces of the Netherlands (Dutch Republic). Introduced by the ruling Burgundian dukes in the 15th century and continued

  • stadtholderless periods (Dutch history)

    Netherlands: The first stadtholderless period: Fate thus intervened to give Holland’s leaders, now intensely distrustful of Orangist influence, a chance to take over the country from the leaderless party of their antagonists. They governed the country for a little more than two decades, during what is known as…

  • Stadtpfeifer (musical organization)

    wind instrument: In western Europe: Stadtpfeifer (“town pipers”), as these musicians were known in Germany, played for ceremonies, for weddings, and sometimes with singers in performances of elaborately scored sacred polyphony (i.e., music with multiple melodic lines). In France during the reign of Louis XIV, the Grande écurie (an ensemble…

  • Sta?l, Germaine de (French-Swiss author)

    Germaine de Sta?l, French-Swiss woman of letters, political propagandist, and conversationalist, who epitomized the European culture of her time, bridging the history of ideas from Neoclassicism to Romanticism. She also gained fame by maintaining a salon for leading intellectuals. Her writings

  • Sta?l, Madame de (French-Swiss author)

    Germaine de Sta?l, French-Swiss woman of letters, political propagandist, and conversationalist, who epitomized the European culture of her time, bridging the history of ideas from Neoclassicism to Romanticism. She also gained fame by maintaining a salon for leading intellectuals. Her writings

  • staff (music)

    Staff, in the notation of Western music, five parallel horizontal lines that, with a clef, indicate the pitch of musical notes. The invention of the staff is traditionally ascribed to Guido d’Arezzo in about the year 1000, although there are earlier manuscripts in which neumes (signs from which

  • staff gauge (instrument)

    gauging station: …measuring devices used are a staff gauge, which is a graduated scale anchored in the water and read by observing the level of the water surface in contact with it; and a recording gauge, which continuously monitors water level, sensed by a probe or a float and recorded by a…

  • Staff God (pre-Inca deity)

    pre-Columbian civilizations: Chavín monuments and temples: The stone shows the Staff God, a standing semihuman figure having claws, a feline face with crossed fangs, and a staff in each hand. Above his head, occupying two-thirds of the stone, is a towering, pillarlike structure fringed with snakes and emerging from a double-fanged face, which Rowe interpreted…

  • staff notation (music)

    Guido d'Arezzo: …apparently developed his principles of staff notation there. He left Pomposa in about 1025 because his fellow monks resisted his musical innovations, and he was appointed by Theobald, bishop of Arezzo, as a teacher in the cathedral school and commissioned to write the Micrologus de disciplina artis musicae. The bishop…

  • staff officer (military rank)

    military unit: …smallest unit to have a staff of officers (in charge of personnel, operations, intelligence, and logistics) to assist the commander. Several battalions form a brigade, which has 2,000 to 8,000 troops and is commanded by a brigadier general or a colonel. (The term regiment

  • staff vine (plant)

    bittersweet: …tree family (Celastraceae), includes the American bittersweet, or staff vine (C. scandens), and the Oriental bittersweet (C. orbiculatus), woody vines grown as ornamentals. The flowers, in whitish clusters, are followed by yellow to orange capsules, which split to reveal yellow to crimson arils enclosing the seeds. Oriental bittersweet is a…

  • Staff, Leopold (Polish poet)

    Leopold Staff, influential poet and translator associated with the Young Poland movement at the end of the 19th century. After completing his education in Lwów, Staff moved to Kraków, which in the 1890s was the centre of Polish literary life. There he came into close contact with representatives of

  • staff-tree family (plant family)

    Celastraceae, the staff-tree family, in the order Celastrales, comprising about 55 genera of woody vines, shrubs, and trees, native in tropical and temperate zones but best known for ornamental forms of the genera Euonymus and Celastrus (bittersweet). Fruit of the family is often colourful. Leaves

  • Staffa (island, Inner Hebrides, Scotland, United Kingdom)

    Staffa, uninhabited Atlantic island of the Inner Hebrides, Scotland, situated 6 miles (10 km) off the island of Mull and 33 miles west of Oban. Columns of basalt surmount a basement of tufa and form a rugged coast with numerous caves, among them Clamshell Cave in the southeast and Fingal’s Cave, a

  • Staffie (breed of dog)

    American Staffordshire Terrier, breed of dog, originally called Staffordshire Terrier when registered with the American Kennel Club (AKC) in 1936, that was developed in the United States and based on the smaller British Staffordshire Bull Terrier. The ancestry of the American Staffordshire Terrier,

  • staffing (business)

    human resources management: …managerial policies and programs; (3) staffing, or manning—analyzing jobs, developing job descriptions and specifications, appraising and maintaining an inventory of available capabilities, recruiting, selecting, placing, transferring, demoting, promoting, and thus assuring qualified manpower when and where it is needed; (4) training and development—assisting team members in their continuing personal growth,…

  • Stafford (England, United Kingdom)

    Stafford, town and borough (district), administrative and historic county of Staffordshire, west-central England, lying along the River Sow. It includes a large rural agricultural area and the towns of Stone and Stafford. Founded by Aethelflaed, daughter of Alfred the Great, the town of Stafford

  • Stafford (district, England, United Kingdom)

    Stafford: Stafford, town and borough (district), administrative and historic county of Staffordshire, west-central England, lying along the River Sow. It includes a large rural agricultural area and the towns of Stone and Stafford.

  • Stafford Act (United States [1988])

    Defense Production Act: …preparedness activities” (defined by the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act [1988] as “all those activities and measures designed or undertaken to prepare for or minimize the effects of a hazard upon the civilian population”).

  • Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (United States [1988])

    Defense Production Act: …preparedness activities” (defined by the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act [1988] as “all those activities and measures designed or undertaken to prepare for or minimize the effects of a hazard upon the civilian population”).

  • Stafford, Edward (British noble)

    Edward Stafford, 3rd duke of Buckingham, eldest son of Henry Stafford, the 2nd duke, succeeding to the title in 1485, after the attainder had been removed, two years after the execution of his father. On the accession of Henry VIII Buckingham began to play an important role in political affairs

  • Stafford, Henry (English noble)

    Henry Stafford, 2nd duke of Buckingham, a leading supporter, and later opponent, of King Richard III. He was a Lancastrian descendant of King Edward III, and a number of his forebears had been killed fighting the Yorkists in the Wars of the Roses (1455–85). In 1460 he succeeded his grandfather as

  • Stafford, Humphrey (English noble)

    Humphrey Stafford, 1st duke of Buckingham, Lancastrian prominent in the Hundred Years’ War in France and the Wars of the Roses in England. He became 6th Earl of Stafford when only a year old, his father having died in battle. He was knighted by Henry V in 1421 and then, under Henry VI, served

  • Stafford, Jean (American writer)

    Jean Stafford, American short-story writer and novelist noted for her disaffected female characters, who often must confront restrictive societal conventions and institutions as they come of age. After graduating from the University of Colorado at Boulder (B.A., 1936; M.A., 1936), Stafford studied

  • Stafford, Jo (American singer)

    Jo Elizabeth Stafford, American singer (born Nov. 12, 1917, Coalinga, Calif.—died July 16, 2008, Century City, Calif.), possessed a strong, unwavering voice and flawless intonation, and during the 1940s and ’50s she became a sensation, hosting and performing on the radio show The Chesterfield

  • Stafford, Matt (American football player)

    Detroit Lions: …NFL draft, Detroit drafted quarterback Matt Stafford, who became the hub of a potent passing attack that also featured All-Pro wide receiver Calvin Johnson. In 2011 the Lions qualified for their first playoff appearance in 12 years. The team followed that achievement with two consecutive losing seasons that led to…

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