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  • staking game

    card game: Classification: Assorted Referencesplaying cardsuse of the term “honour”

  • Stakman, Elvin Charles (American plant pathologist)

    Elvin Charles Stakman, pioneering American plant pathologist and educator who established the methods for identifying and combatting diseases of wheat and other important food crops. Stakman received his B.A. (1906), M.A. (1910), and Ph.D. (1913) from the University of Minnesota. In 1909 he became

  • stalactite (mineral formation)

    Stalactite and stalagmite, elongated forms of various minerals deposited from solution by slowly dripping water. A stalactite hangs like an icicle from the ceiling or sides of a cavern. A stalagmite appears like an inverted stalactite, rising from the floor of a cavern. Stalactites hanging from the

  • stalactite work (architecture)

    Stalactite work, pendentive form of architectural ornamentation, resembling the geological formations called stalactites. This type of ornamentation is characteristic of Islamic architecture and decoration. It consists of a series of little niches, bracketed out one above the other, or of

  • stalactitic texture (mineralogy)

    mineral: Crystal habit and crystal aggregation: …botryoidal, reniform, and mammillary forms); stalactitic, pendant cylinders or cones resembling icicles; concentric, roughly spherical layers arranged about a common centre, as in agate and in geodes; geode, a partially filled rock cavity lined by mineral material (geodes may be banded as in agate owing to successive depositions of material,…

  • Stalag 17 (film by Wilder [1953])

    Stalag 17, American war film, released in 1953, that was directed by Billy Wilder and featured an Academy Award-winning performance by William Holden. The film is set in a German prisoner-of-war camp, Stalag 17, during World War II. It tracks the daily boredom and nighttime escape attempts of the

  • stalagmite (mineral formation)

    stalactite and stalagmite: stalagmite, elongated forms of various minerals deposited from solution by slowly dripping water. A stalactite hangs like an icicle from the ceiling or sides of a cavern. A stalagmite appears like an inverted stalactite, rising from the floor of a cavern.

  • Stalden (Switzerland)

    Switzerland: Dry areas: …163 inches (4,140 mm), while Stalden in the entrenched Vispa valley, 4 miles (6 km) south of the main Rh?ne valley, has the lowest, 21 inches (533 mm).

  • stalemate (chess)

    chess: Object of the game: …has no legal move (stalemate), (5) when an identical position occurs three times with the same player having the right to move, and (6) when no piece has been captured and no pawn has been moved within a period of 50 moves.

  • Staley, Joan (American actress)

    The Ghost and Mr. Chicken: Cast:

  • Staley, Layne Thomas (American musician)

    Layne Thomas Staley, American singer and songwriter (born Aug. 22, 1967, Kirkland, Wash.—found dead April 19, 2002, Seattle, Wash.), was the lead singer and guitarist for the grunge band Alice in Chains, whose albums during its prominence in the early and mid-1990s included Dirt (1992), with s

  • Stalin (Bulgaria)

    Varna, seaport and third largest city in Bulgaria. Lying on the north shore of Varna Bay on the Black Sea coast, the city is sheltered by the Dobrudzhansko plateau, which rises to more than 1,000 feet (300 metres) above sea level. A narrow canal (1907) links Varna Lake—a drowned valley into which

  • Stalin (Soviet tank)

    tank: World War II: …the Russians brought out the JS, or Stalin, heavy tank, which appeared in 1944 armed with a 122-mm gun. Its muzzle velocity was lower than that of the German 88-mm guns, however, and it weighed only 46 tons. At about the same time the T-34 was rearmed with an 85-mm…

  • Stalin Constitution (Soviet history)

    constitution: Constitutional change: The Stalin constitution continued, together with the Rules of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, to serve as the formal framework of government until the ratification of a new, though rather similar, constitution in 1977. The procedures established by these documents, however, were not able…

  • Stalin Line (fortification)

    fortification: Other fort series: …statesman); the Soviets built the Stalin Line facing Poland; the Czechoslovaks constructed what became known as the Little Maginot Line to oppose Germany; the Greeks built the Metaxas Line facing Bulgaria; and the Belgians erected a series of elaborate forts along the Albert Canal. German capture of the most elaborate…

  • Stalin Peak (mountain, Slovakia)

    Gerlach Peak, highest peak (8,711 feet [2,655 metres]) of the Carpathian Mountains and of Slovakia. It is in the High Tatra range near the Polish

  • Stalin Peak (mountain, Bulgaria)

    Rila: …9,596 feet (2,925 metres) at Musala peak and contains the headstreams of the Isk?r, Maritsa, and Mesta rivers. Scattered mineral deposits include lead, copper, zinc, magnetite, oil shale, and marble (near Pernik).

  • Stalin Peak (mountain, Tajikistan)

    Imeni Ismail Samani Peak, peak, western Pamirs, northeastern Tajikistan. Located in the Akademii Nauk Range, it rises to 24,590 feet (7,495 metres) and is the highest point in Tajikistan and in the range. It was first climbed by a Russian team in

  • Stalin, Iosif Vissarionovich (premier of Soviet Union)

    Joseph Stalin, secretary-general of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1922–53) and premier of the Soviet state (1941–53), who for a quarter of a century dictatorially ruled the Soviet Union and transformed it into a major world power. During the quarter of a century preceding his death, the

  • Stalin, Joseph (premier of Soviet Union)

    Joseph Stalin, secretary-general of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1922–53) and premier of the Soviet state (1941–53), who for a quarter of a century dictatorially ruled the Soviet Union and transformed it into a major world power. During the quarter of a century preceding his death, the

  • Stalin, Ora?ul (Romania)

    Bra?ov, city, capital of Bra?ov jude? (county), central Romania. One of the largest cities of the country, it is on the northern slope of the Transylvanian Alps (Southern Carpathians), surrounded on three sides by mountains, 105 miles (170 km) north-northwest of Bucharest by road. Founded by

  • Stalina, Svetlana Iosifovna (Russian writer)

    Svetlana Alliluyeva, Russian-born daughter of Soviet ruler Joseph Stalin; her defection to the United States in 1967 caused an international sensation. She was Stalin’s only daughter and a product of his second marriage with Nadezhda Alliluyeva, who committed suicide in 1932. Svetlana graduated

  • Stalinabad (national capital, Tajikistan)

    Dushanbe, city and capital of Tajikistan. It lies along the Varzob (Dushanbinka) River in the Gissar valley, in the southwest of the republic. It was built in the Soviet period on the site of three former settlements, of which the largest was named Dyushambe (Tajik dush, meaning “Monday,” its

  • Staline (work by Barbusse)

    Henri Barbusse: His last work, Staline (1935; Eng. trans., 1935), was partly written in the Soviet Union, where he was living at the time of his death.

  • staling (foodstuffs)

    baking: Staling: Undesirable changes in bakery products can occur independently of microbial action. Staling involves changes in texture, flavour, and appearance. Firming of the interior, or “crumb,” is a highly noticeable alteration in bread and other low-density, lean products. Elasticity is lost, and the structure becomes…

  • Stalingrad (Russia)

    Volgograd, city and administrative centre of Volgogradoblast (region), southwestern Russia, on the Volga River. It was founded as the fortress of Tsaritsyn in 1589 to protect newly acquired Russian territory along the Volga. During the Russian Civil War (1918–20), Joseph Stalin organized the

  • Stalingrad (oblast, Russia)

    Volgograd, oblast (region), southwestern Russia, lying athwart the lower Volga and Don rivers. The Volga is flanked on the west by the Volga Upland, which is continued south of Volgograd as the Yergeni Upland. West of the Khoper and Don are additional low uplands. Between the uplands and also east

  • Stalingrad (work by Plievier)

    Theodor Plievier: The first volume, Stalingrad (1945), which describes the crushing defeat of the German Sixth Army, became an international best seller. The trilogy was completed by Moskau (1952; Moscow) and Berlin (1954).

  • Stalingrad, Battle of (World War II)

    Battle of Stalingrad, (July 17, 1942–February 2, 1943), successful Soviet defense of the city of Stalingrad (now Volgograd), Russia, U.S.S.R., during World War II. Russians consider it to be one of the greatest battles of their Great Patriotic War, and most historians consider it to be the greatest

  • Staliniri (Georgia)

    Tskhinvali, city, north-central Georgia, on the Bolshaya Liakhvi River. It is the leading city of an area populated by a Caucasian people known as Ossetes, or Ossetians. Tskhinvali is the capital of the breakaway region of South Ossetia. In the late 1980s Tskhinvali became the centre of a

  • Stalinism (political doctrine)

    Stalinism, the method of rule, or policies, of Joseph Stalin, Soviet Communist Party and state leader from 1929 until his death in 1953. Stalinism is associated with a regime of terror and totalitarian rule. In a party dominated by intellectuals and rhetoricians, Stalin stood for a practical

  • Stalino (Ukraine)

    Donetsk, city, southeastern Ukraine, on the headwaters of the Kalmius River. In 1872 an ironworks was founded there by a Welshman, John Hughes (from whom the town’s pre-Revolutionary name Yuzivka was derived), to produce iron rails for the growing Russian rail network. Later steel rails were made.

  • Stalinogorsk (Russia)

    Novomoskovsk, city, Tula oblast (region), western Russia, situated on the upper Don River. Founded in 1930 as Bobriki, the town developed as a major chemical centre, making fertilizers and plastics and mining lignite (brown coal). Pop. (2006 est.)

  • Stalinsk (Russia)

    Novokuznetsk, city, Kemerovo oblast (region), south-central Russia. The city lies along the Tom River just below its confluence with the Kondoma, in the Kuznetsk Coal Basin. Originally the small village of Kuznetsk, founded in 1617, stood on the river’s right bank; it had about 4,000 inhabitants in

  • stalk-eyed fly (insect)

    Stalk-eyed fly, (family Diopsidae), any member of a family of unusual-looking flies (order Diptera) that have their eyes mounted on long stalks near the antennae. This arrangement, although advantageous to vision, is an aerodynamic handicap. The adults of the one species in North America

  • stalked barnacle (crustacean)

    cirripede: Diversity and distribution: Pedunculate barnacles are similar to the sessile barnacles in having the principal part of the body contained within a protective covering, or wall. They differ from acorn barnacles in that the plates do not form a separate wall and operculum and in having the wall…

  • stalked thallus

    fungus: Basic features of lichens: Fruticose (stalked) thalli and filamentous forms prefer to utilize water in vapour form and are prevalent in humid, foggy areas such as seacoasts and mountainous regions of the tropics.

  • Stalker, John (English writer)

    lacquerwork: Europe: John Stalker and George Parker’s Treatise of Japanning and Varnishing (London, 1688) was the first text with pattern illustrations. The English term japanning was inspired by the superiority of Japanese lacquer, which Stalker found “…in fineness of Black, and neatness of draught…more beautiful, more rich,…

  • stalking (sport)

    hunting: Hunting methods: …hunter, a slow stealthy approach, stalking, is necessary, taking advantage of even small cover and being careful that the wind does not blow the scent of the hunter to the prey.

  • stalking (crime)

    Stalking, the crime of following another person against his or her wishes and harassing that person. The status of stalking as a criminal offense is relatively new, having emerged in the early 1990s, although the behaviours that characterize stalking are not. What is today called stalking was

  • Stalking Moon, The (film by Mulligan [1968])

    The Stalking Moon, American western film, released in 1968, that was an inventive and highly unusual entry in the genre, noted for its avoidance of shoot-outs in favour of suspense. Sam Varner (played by Gregory Peck) is a freelance scout in the employ of the U.S. Cavalry. His last mission prior to

  • Stalkler, Angela Olive (British author)

    Angela Carter, British author who reshaped motifs from mythology, legends, and fairy tales in her books, lending them a ghastly humour and eroticism. Carter rejected an Oxford education to work as a journalist with the Croydon Advertiser, but she later studied medieval literature at the University

  • Stalky & Co. (work by Kipling)

    Rudyard Kipling: Life: …the glorious place celebrated in Stalky & Co. (1899) and related stories: an unruly paradise in which the highest goals of English education are met amid a tumult of teasing, bullying, and beating. The Stalky saga is one of Kipling’s great imaginative achievements. Readers repelled by a strain of brutality—even…

  • stall (aerodynamics)

    airplane: Engine placement: …delay the onset of the stall. Some aircraft also have forward wings, which provide lift and delay the stall, but these are not control surfaces and hence not canards.)

  • stall (church architecture)

    choir: …seats had developed into choir stalls, built-in rows of prayer rests and hinged seats, which, when folded, often revealed misericords—projections used for support during long periods of standing.

  • stall ballad (narrative song)

    Broadside ballad, a descriptive or narrative verse or song, commonly in a simple ballad form, on a popular theme, and sung or recited in public places or printed on broadsides for sale in the streets. Broadside ballads appeared shortly after the invention of printing in the 15th century and were

  • stall barn (agriculture)

    farm building: Livestock barns and shelters: …two major cattle-housing methods, the stall barn (or stanchion barn) and the loose-housing system. In the stall barn each animal is tied up in a stall for resting, feeding, milking, and watering. The typical plan has two rows of stalls. In older buildings hay and straw are stored in an…

  • Staller, Ilona (Italian actress)

    Jeff Koons: …former wife, Italian porn star Cicciolina (Ilona Staller). Koons was an early pioneer of appropriation, which called for reproducing banal commercial images and objects with only slight modifications in scale or material. By the 21st century he was best known for his fabricated objects from commercial sources—primarily inflatable pool toys…

  • stallion (horse)

    livestock farming: Management: …is sired by an expensive stallion out of a valuable mare.

  • Stallman, Richard (American computer programmer)

    Richard Stallman, American computer programmer and free-software advocate who founded (1985) the Free Software Foundation. Stallman earned a bachelor’s degree in physics from Harvard University in 1974. In 1971, as a freshman at Harvard, he had begun working at the Artificial Intelligence

  • Stallman, Richard Matthew (American computer programmer)

    Richard Stallman, American computer programmer and free-software advocate who founded (1985) the Free Software Foundation. Stallman earned a bachelor’s degree in physics from Harvard University in 1974. In 1971, as a freshman at Harvard, he had begun working at the Artificial Intelligence

  • Stallo, Johann Bernard (German-American scholar)

    Johann Bernard Stallo, German-American scientist, philosopher, educator, and lawyer who influenced philosophic study by criticizing contemporary scientific findings interpreted from linguistic theories of nature. Although initially he advocated Hegelian ontology as evidenced in General Principles

  • Stallo, John Bernard (German-American scholar)

    Johann Bernard Stallo, German-American scientist, philosopher, educator, and lawyer who influenced philosophic study by criticizing contemporary scientific findings interpreted from linguistic theories of nature. Although initially he advocated Hegelian ontology as evidenced in General Principles

  • Stallone, Sylvester (American actor, screenwriter, director, and producer)

    Sylvester Stallone, American actor, screenwriter, and director who was perhaps best known for creating and starring in the Rocky and Rambo film series, which made him an icon in the action genre. Stallone was born at a charity hospital in the Hell’s Kitchen area of New York City. Forceps used

  • Stallone, Sylvester Gardenzio (American actor, screenwriter, director, and producer)

    Sylvester Stallone, American actor, screenwriter, and director who was perhaps best known for creating and starring in the Rocky and Rambo film series, which made him an icon in the action genre. Stallone was born at a charity hospital in the Hell’s Kitchen area of New York City. Forceps used

  • Stalwart (American political faction)

    Stalwart, in U.S. history, member of a faction of the Republican Party that opposed the civil-service reform policies of President Rutherford B. Hayes and sought unsuccessfully a third presidential term for Ulysses S. Grant. The Stalwarts, or regular Republicans, vied with the generally more

  • Stam, Mart (Dutch architect)

    Ilse Bing: Bing met Bauhaus architect Mart Stam about 1929–30. Stam commissioned her to document all of his projects, interiors and exteriors, throughout Frankfurt. He was also an important link to the avant-garde circles in Frankfurt, and he introduced Bing to artists such as El Lissitzky, Kurt Schwitters, Hannah H?ch, and…

  • Stamboli?, Ivan (Serbian political leader)

    Slobodan Milo?evi?: …1984 as a protégé of Ivan Stamboli?, head of the League of Communists of Serbia (LCS). Milo?evi? took over as head of the local communist party organization in Belgrade that year.

  • Stamboliyski, Aleksand?r (Bulgarian political leader)

    Aleksand?r Stamboliyski, leader of the Agrarian Party in Bulgaria, supporter of the Allied cause during World War I in opposition to his pro-German king Ferdinand, and prime minister of a reformist government after the war (1919–23). After attending an agricultural college in Germany, Stamboliyski

  • Stambolov, Stefan Nikolov (prime minister of Bulgaria)

    Stefan Nikolov Stambolov, statesman who from 1887 to 1894 served as the despotic prime minister of Bulgaria; he was often referred to as the Bulgarian Bismarck. The son of an innkeeper, Stambolov early joined the Bulgarian underground revolutionary movement against Turkish rule and led small

  • Stamboul (district, Istanbul, Turkey)

    Istanbul: City site: …Horn separates old Istanbul (Stamboul) to the south from the “new” city of Beyo?lu to the north; the broader Bosporus divides European Istanbul from the city’s districts on the Asian shore—üsküdar (ancient Chrysopolis) and Kad?k?y (ancient Chalcedon).

  • Stamboul Train (novel by Greene)

    Graham Greene: …his own with a thriller, Stamboul Train (1932; also published as Orient Express), which plays off various characters against each other as they ride a train from the English Channel to Istanbul. This was the first of a string of novels that he termed “entertainments,” works similar to thrillers in…

  • stamen (plant anatomy)

    Stamen, the male reproductive part of a flower. In all but a few extant angiosperms, the stamen consists of a long slender stalk, the filament, with a two-lobed anther at the tip. The anther consists of four saclike structures (microsporangia) that produce pollen for pollination. Small secretory

  • Stamford (Connecticut, United States)

    Stamford, city, coextensive with the town (township) of Stamford, Fairfield county, southwestern Connecticut, U.S. It lies at the mouth of the Rippowam River on Long Island Sound and is 36 miles (58 km) northeast of New York City. The town was founded in 1641 by 28 pioneers from Wethersfield (near

  • Stamford (England, United Kingdom)

    Stamford, town (parish), South Kesteven district, administrative and historic county of Lincolnshire, east-central England, on the River Welland. It is an ancient market town incorporated in 1462. Built of local limestone, it preserves much of its traditional character and architectural distinction

  • Stamford Bridge (England, United Kingdom)
  • Stamford Bridge, Battle of (European history [1066])

    Battle of Stamford Bridge, (25 September 1066). Were it not totally overshadowed by a more famous confrontation that took place at Hastings three weeks later, the Battle of Stamford Bridge between King Harold II of England and an invading Viking army led by King Harald Hadrada of Norway would be

  • staminate flower (plant anatomy)

    flower: Form and types: …pistils is said to be staminate, or male. When the same plant bears unisexual flowers of both sexes, it is said to be monoecious (e.g., tuberous begonia, hazel, oak, corn); when the male and female flowers are on different plants, the plant is dioecious (e.g., date, holly, cottonwood, willow); when…

  • staminode (plant anatomy)

    angiosperm: The androecium: …a petallike blade called a staminode (in the same manner that a sepal forms a petallike blade in some flowers without true petals). The apparent petals in some angiosperm families, such as are found in many members of the pink family (Caryophyllaceae), are staminodial in origin. Wild roses have only…

  • Stamitz, Carl (German composer)

    Carl Stamitz, German composer of the last generation of Mannheim symphonists. Stamitz was the son of Johann Stamitz, the founder of the Mannheim school. He played violin in the court orchestra at Mannheim in 1762 and was also a viola and viola d’amore player there, before leaving for Paris in 1770.

  • Stamitz, Jan Waczlaw Antonín (Bohemian composer)

    Johann Stamitz, Bohemian composer who founded the Mannheim school of symphonists, which had an immense influence on Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. Stamitz received early musical education from his father and appeared as a violinist in Frankfurt am Main in 1742. He had apparently by then been engaged as a

  • Stamitz, Johann (Bohemian composer)

    Johann Stamitz, Bohemian composer who founded the Mannheim school of symphonists, which had an immense influence on Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. Stamitz received early musical education from his father and appeared as a violinist in Frankfurt am Main in 1742. He had apparently by then been engaged as a

  • Stamkos, Steven (Canadian ice hockey player)

    Tampa Bay Lightning: …Lightning team led by centre Steven Stamkos survived two seven-game series and one six-game series during the Eastern Conference playoffs to advance to the Stanley Cup finals, where the team played another close series before eventually losing to the Chicago Blackhawks. The Lightning made another deep playoff run in 2015–16…

  • Stammbaumtheorie (linguistics)

    Romance languages: Classification methods and problems: A family tree classification is commonly used for the Romance languages. If, however, historical treatment of one phonetic feature is taken as a classificatory criterion for construction of a tree, results differ. Classified according to the historical development of stressed vowels, French would be grouped with…

  • stammering (speech disorder)

    Stuttering, speech defect characterized by involuntary repetition of sounds or syllables and the intermittent blocking or prolongation of sounds, syllables, and words. These disruptions alter the rhythm and fluency of speech and sometimes impede communication, with consequences on the affected

  • Stammesherzogtümer (medieval German political unit)

    Germany: Rise of the duchies: The so-called Stammesherzogtümer (tribal duchies) were new political and, ultimately, social units. Their dukes were Carolingian counts, part of the international “imperial aristocracy” of the Carolingians, who organized defense on a local basis without questioning loyalty to the Carolingians. All the same, their initial success established them…

  • Stammler, Rudolf (German jurist)

    Rudolf Stammler, German jurist and teacher who is considered to be one of the most influential legal philosophers of the early 20th century. Stammler was a professor of law at Marburg (1882–84), Giessen (1884), Halle (1885–1916), and Berlin (1916–23) universities. By distinguishing the concept of

  • Stamp Act (Great Britain [1765])

    Stamp Act, (1765), in U.S. colonial history, first British parliamentary attempt to raise revenue through direct taxation of all colonial commercial and legal papers, newspapers, pamphlets, cards, almanacs, and dice. The devastating effect of Pontiac’s War (1763–64) on colonial frontier settlements

  • Stamp Act (Great Britain [1712])

    history of publishing: Britain: …advertisements was introduced by the Stamp Act (1712), along with other so-called taxes on knowledge aimed at curbing the nascent power of the press. The rate of duty, at one penny on a whole sheet (four sides of print), was the same as the cover price of The Spectator, and…

  • Stamp Act Congress (United States history)

    Stamp Act: …agreements among colonial merchants, the Stamp Act Congress was convened in New York (October 1765) by moderate representatives of nine colonies to frame resolutions of “rights and grievances” and to petition the king and Parliament for repeal of the objectionable measures. Because they were more conservative in their response to…

  • stamp album (book)

    philately: Stamp collecting as a hobby: …1862 and are known as stamp albums. The typical printed stamp album consists of pages bearing the names of countries and designated spaces for the latter’s stamps in order of their date of issue, with illustrations of representative issues. Comprehensive “worldwide” stamp albums can number 30 or more serial volumes…

  • stamp collecting (hobby)

    Philately, the study of postage stamps, stamped envelopes, postmarks, postcards, and other materials relating to postal delivery. The term philately also denotes the collecting of these items. The term was coined in 1864 by a Frenchman, Georges Herpin, who invented it from the Greek philos, “love,”

  • stamp seal (imprinting device)

    sigillography: Seals in antiquity: …main types—the cylinder and the stamp. The cylinder first appeared in Mesopotamia in the late 4th millennium bc and continued to be used there until the 4th century bc. It was also widespread in Elam, Syria, and Egypt (3rd millennium bc) and in Cyprus and the Aegean (2nd millennium bc).…

  • Stamp, L. Dudley (British geologist and geographer)

    geography: The development of academic geography in the United Kingdom: Dudley (later Sir Dudley) Stamp, a geologist by training who spent most of his career in the geography department of the London School of Economics. He directed a land-utilization survey of Britain in the 1930s, mobilizing some 250,000 students to map the country’s land use. This material…

  • stamp, postage

    philately: … “that which is tax-free”; the postage stamp permitted the letter to come free of charge to the recipient, rendering it untaxed.

  • Stamp, Sir Dudley (British geologist and geographer)

    geography: The development of academic geography in the United Kingdom: Dudley (later Sir Dudley) Stamp, a geologist by training who spent most of his career in the geography department of the London School of Economics. He directed a land-utilization survey of Britain in the 1930s, mobilizing some 250,000 students to map the country’s land use. This material…

  • Stamp, Terence (British actor)

    Billy Budd: Billy Budd (played by Terence Stamp) is a young seaman impressed into service on the HMS Avenger of the British navy in 1797 during the war between England and France. The captain of the Avenger, Edward Vere (Peter Ustinov), relies on his cruel and sadistic master-at-arms, John Claggart (Robert…

  • Stampa, Gaspara (Italian poet)

    Italian literature: Poetry: …of the Paduan woman poet Gaspara Stampa and those of Michelangelo.

  • Stampa, La (Italian newspaper)

    La Stampa, (Italian: “The Press”) morning daily newspaper published in Turin, one of Italy’s most influential newspapers. It was established in 1868 as the Gazzetta Piemontese and became an important voice in Italy’s struggle for liberation and unification. The Gazzetta was purchased in 1895 by two

  • Stampe dell’Ottocento (work by Palazzeschi)

    Italian literature: The return to order: Aldo Palazzeschi, in Stampe dell’Ottocento (1932; “Nineteenth-Century Engravings”) and Sorelle Materassi (1934; The Sisters Materassi), reached the height of his storytelling powers. Meanwhile, the Florentine literary reviews Solaria, Frontespizio, and Letteratura, while having to tread carefully with the authorities, provided an

  • stamper press (machine)

    printing: Improvements after Gutenberg: …automatically; this was the so-called Dutch press, a copy of which was to be the first press introduced into North America, by Stephen Daye at Cambridge, Massachusetts in 1639.

  • Stamperia Valdònega (Italian press)

    typography: The private-press movement: …but also supervised at the Stamperia Valdònega in Verona long-run editions on high-speed presses, which are likewise remarkable for their craftsmanship. In addition, he designed several typefaces, among them Pacioli, Griffo, Zeno, and Dante.

  • St?mpfli, Jakob (Swiss politician)

    Jakob St?mpfli, radical politician, three times president of the Swiss Confederation. A radical Bernese lawyer and founder of a local newspaper (Berner Zeitung), St?mpfli participated in the abortive armed attack on the clericalist government of Luzern (1845) and between 1846 and 1850 played an

  • stamping (technology)

    pottery: Impressing and stamping: Even the earliest pottery was usually embellished in one way or another. One of the earliest methods of decoration was to make an impression in the raw clay. Finger marks were sometimes used, as well as impressions from rope (as in Japanese Jōmon ware)…

  • Stampp, Kenneth Milton (American Civil War historian)

    Kenneth Milton Stampp, American Civil War historian (born July 12, 1912, Milwaukee, Wis.—died July 10, 2009, Oakland, Calif.), repudiated the long-held view of slavery as a paternal and benign social system, challenging both historical scholarship and widely accepted teachings. In his seminal work

  • Stan Lee Media (American company)

    Stan Lee: …and in 1999 he formed Stan Lee Media, an Internet entertainment company built around his creations. Eventually his role at Marvel became that of chairman emeritus. Lee’s new firm did well with its first project, an animated online series called 7th Portal, which featured aliens who enter Earth through a…

  • Stan the Man (American baseball player)

    Stan Musial, American professional baseball player who, in his 22-year playing career with the St. Louis Cardinals, won seven National League (NL) batting championships and established himself as one of the game’s greatest hitters. Musial was a phenomenal schoolboy athlete in both baseball and

  • Stanbridge, William Edward (British explorer)

    Sea Lake: …is believed to have been William Edward Stanbridge, who arrived there in 1847. Stanbridge claimed the land to the east of Lake Tyrrell as station (ranch) country, naming it Astley’s after the village of his birth near Coventry, England. He later renamed it Tyrrell Downs. The origin of the name…

  • Stances (poem by Musset)

    Maria Malibran: …de Musset wrote the poem Stances as a tribute to her, and in 1935 Robert Russell Bennett composed the opera Maria Malibran based on her life.

  • Stances sur la retraite (poem by Racan)

    Honorat de Bueil, seigneur de Racan: His works include the celebrated Stances sur la retraite (c. 1618; “Stanzas on Retreat”), which reflects his love of nature and his reluctance to adhere to the poetic discipline of his master, Fran?ois de Malherbe, whose biography he wrote. Racan’s best-known work is a pastoral drama, Les Bergeries (“The Sheepfolds”),…

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