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  • stare decisis (law)

    Stare decisis, (Latin: “let the decision stand”), in Anglo-American law, principle that a question once considered by a court and answered must elicit the same response each time the same issue is brought before the courts. The principle is observed more strictly in England than in the United

  • Staré město (district, Prague, Czech Republic)

    Prague: Medieval growth: …opposite Hrad?any, developed into the Old Town (Staré město), particularly after the construction of the first stone bridge, the Judith Bridge, over the river in 1170. By 1230 the Old Town had been given borough status and was defended by a system of walls and fortifications. On the opposite bank,…

  • Stare Miasto (neighbourhood, Warsaw, Poland)

    Warsaw: City layout: In the Old Town, which was designated by UNESCO as a World Heritage site in 1980, the Gothic St. John’s Cathedral and the red-brick fortifications known as the Barbican remain from the medieval period. The houses of the Old Town Market Square have been rebuilt in the…

  • starets (Eastern Orthodox religion)

    Starets, (Slavic translation of Greek gerōn, “elder”), plural Startsy, in Eastern Orthodoxy, a monastic spiritual leader. Eastern Christian monasticism understood itself as a way of life that aimed at a real experience of the future kingdom of God; the starets, as one who had already achieved this

  • Starevitch, Ladislas (Polish animator)

    animation: Animation in Europe: …Russia and later in France, Wladyslaw Starewicz (also billed as Ladislas Starevitch), a Polish art student and amateur entomologist, created stop-motion animation with bugs and dolls; among his most celebrated films are The Cameraman’s Revenge (1912), in which a camera-wielding grasshopper uses the tools of his trade to humiliate his…

  • Starewicz, Wladyslaw (Polish animator)

    animation: Animation in Europe: …Russia and later in France, Wladyslaw Starewicz (also billed as Ladislas Starevitch), a Polish art student and amateur entomologist, created stop-motion animation with bugs and dolls; among his most celebrated films are The Cameraman’s Revenge (1912), in which a camera-wielding grasshopper uses the tools of his trade to humiliate his…

  • Starfighter (aircraft)

    F-104, jet day fighter aircraft built by Lockheed Aircraft Corporation for the U.S. Air Force but adopted by a total of 15 NATO and other countries. It was widely adapted for use as a fighter-bomber. The F-104 had a wingspan of 21 feet 11 inches (6.68 m) and a length of 54 feet 9 inches (16.7 m).

  • starfish (echinoderm)

    Sea star, any marine invertebrate of the class Asteroidea (phylum Echinodermata) having rays, or arms, surrounding an indistinct central disk. Despite their older common name, they are not fishes. The roughly 1,600 living species of sea stars occur in all oceans; the northern Pacific has the

  • Stargard (Poland)

    Stargard Szczeciński, city, Zachodniopomorskie województwo (province), northwestern Poland, on the Ina River. The city was chronicled from the 12th century, although it existed earlier. It was badly damaged in the 17th century during the Thirty Years’ War and fell to Brandenburg in 1648. Heavy

  • Stargard Szczeciński (Poland)

    Stargard Szczeciński, city, Zachodniopomorskie województwo (province), northwestern Poland, on the Ina River. The city was chronicled from the 12th century, although it existed earlier. It was badly damaged in the 17th century during the Thirty Years’ War and fell to Brandenburg in 1648. Heavy

  • Stargardt macular dystrophy (pathology)

    macular degeneration: Other forms of macular degeneration: Stargardt macular dystrophy, which is the most common genetic form of macular degeneration, is the only form inherited in an autosomal recessive manner (disease occurs only when mutations are inherited from both parents). It is caused by mutations in a gene called ABCA4 (ATP-binding cassette,…

  • stargazer (fish)

    Stargazer, fish of two related families, Uranoscopidae (electric stargazers) and Dactyloscopidae (sand stargazers), both of the order Perciformes. Stargazers habitually bury themselves in the bottom. They have tapered bodies and big, heavy, flat heads. Their mouths slant vertically, their lips are

  • Stargell, Pops (American athlete)

    Willie Stargell, American professional baseball player who led the Pittsburgh Pirates to World Series championships in 1971 and 1979. Stargell attended high school in California, where he attracted the attention of Pirates scouts and was signed to a minor league contract. He made his major league

  • Stargell, Willie (American athlete)

    Willie Stargell, American professional baseball player who led the Pittsburgh Pirates to World Series championships in 1971 and 1979. Stargell attended high school in California, where he attracted the attention of Pirates scouts and was signed to a minor league contract. He made his major league

  • Stargell, Wilver Dornel (American athlete)

    Willie Stargell, American professional baseball player who led the Pittsburgh Pirates to World Series championships in 1971 and 1979. Stargell attended high school in California, where he attracted the attention of Pirates scouts and was signed to a minor league contract. He made his major league

  • Starhemberg, Count Rüdiger von (Hungarian general)

    Wesselényi Conspiracy: …assembled his forces and arrested Count Rüdiger von Starhemberg, the imperial commander in the northern Hungarian city of Tokay. The Turks’ chief interpreter, however, had revealed the plot to Habsburg officials in Vienna. Imperial troops rescued Starhemberg and easily dispersed the rebels. Several leaders were tried for high treason by…

  • Starhemberg, Ernst Rüdiger, Fürst von (vice-chancellor of Austria)

    Ernst Rüdiger, prince von (prince of) Starhemberg, politician, leader of the Austrian Heimwehr (a paramilitary defense force), and in 1934–36 the head of the government-sponsored right-wing coalition of parties called the Fatherland Front (Vaterl?ndische Front). Although he was a participant in the

  • Stari Bar (port, Montenegro)

    Bar: Stari Bar was first mentioned in the 9th century, when it came under the control of the Byzantine Empire. Known among Mediterranean powers as Antivari, the city was frequently autonomous from the 11th to the 15th century. During the 14th century its archbishop acquired the…

  • Stari Grad Plain (area, Hvar, Croatia)

    Hvar: Stari Grad Plain, a natural area containing the ruins of stone structures and evidence of the agricultural style of the ancient Greeks, was designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 2008.

  • Starij Oskol (Russia)

    Stary Oskol, city, Belgorod oblast (region), western Russia. It lies along the Oskol River. It was founded as a fortress called Oskol in 1593 for the defense against Crimean Tatars and was named Stary (“Old”) Oskol in 1655. Machinery and food industries reflect the city’s mineral and agricultural

  • Stark effect (physics)

    Stark effect, the splitting of spectral lines observed when the radiating atoms, ions, or molecules are subjected to a strong electric field. The electric analogue of the Zeeman effect (i.e., the magnetic splitting of spectral lines), it was discovered by a German physicist, Johannes Stark (

  • Stark spectroscopy

    spectroscopy: Laser magnetic resonance and Stark spectroscopies: An analogous method, called Stark spectroscopy, involves the use of a strong variable electric field to split and vary the spacing of the energy levels of molecules that possess a permanent electric dipole moment. The general principle is embodied in Figure 11, with the substitution of an electric field…

  • Stark, Dame Freya Madeline (British author)

    Freya Stark, British travel writer who is noted for two dozen highly personal books in which she describes local history and culture as well as everyday life. Many of her trips were to remote areas in Turkey and the Middle East where few Europeans, particularly women, had traveled before. Stark had

  • Stark, Freya (British author)

    Freya Stark, British travel writer who is noted for two dozen highly personal books in which she describes local history and culture as well as everyday life. Many of her trips were to remote areas in Turkey and the Middle East where few Europeans, particularly women, had traveled before. Stark had

  • Stark, Johannes (German physicist)

    Johannes Stark, German physicist who won the 1919 Nobel Prize for Physics for his discovery in 1913 that an electric field would cause splitting of the lines in the spectrum of light emitted by a luminous substance; the phenomenon is called the Stark effect. Stark became a lecturer at the

  • Stark, John (American general)

    John Stark, prominent American general during the American Revolution who led attacks that cost the British nearly 1,000 men and contributed to the surrender of the British general John Burgoyne at Saratoga by blocking his retreat line across the Hudson River (1777). From 1754 to 1759, Stark served

  • Stark, Julian (Polish writer)

    Julian Stryjkowski, (JULIAN STARK), Polish writer acclaimed for novels that described Jewish life in Poland, particularly a trilogy that chronicled the decay of Orthodox villages due to outside pressures (b. April 27, 1905--d. Aug. 8,

  • Stark, Mabel (American circus performer)

    Ringling Bros. and Barnum & Bailey Circus: Star performers: 5 metres] tall) “Marvelous Mabel” Stark (1889–1968), who commanded tigers for some six decades despite receiving many hundreds of stitches as a result of attacks by her animal charges, and Ursula Blütchen (1927–2010), who worked with polar bears. Arguably, Ringling Bros. and Barnum & Bailey’s best-known animal trainer,…

  • Stark, Ray (American film producer)

    Ray Stark, American film producer (born Oct. 3, 1915, New York, N.Y.—died Jan. 17, 2004, West Hollywood, Calif.), was the power behind more than 125 movies and was considered one of the most successful of Hollywood’s independent producers. He was especially noted for his working relationships w

  • Stark, Willie (fictional character)

    Willie Stark, fictional character, a central figure in the novel All the King’s Men (1946) by Robert Penn Warren. The life and career of Willie Stark, a flamboyant governor of a Southern U.S. state, were based on those of Huey Long, governor of Louisiana from 1928 to 1931. Like his real-life model,

  • Stark-Einstein law (chemistry)

    Photochemical equivalence law, fundamental principle relating to chemical reactions induced by light, which states that for every quantum of radiation that is absorbed, one molecule of the substance reacts. A quantum is a unit of electromagnetic radiation with energy equal to the product of a

  • Stark-modulated spectrometer (instrument)

    spectroscopy: Types of microwave spectrometer: In the conventional Stark-modulated spectrometer, the sample is contained in a long (1- to 3-metre, or 3.3- to 9.8-foot) section of a rectangular waveguide, sealed at each end with a microwave transmitting window (e.g., mica or Mylar), and connected to a vacuum line for evacuation and sample introduction.…

  • Starker, Janos (Hungarian-born American musician)

    Janos Starker, Hungarian-born American cellist (born July 5, 1924, Budapest, Hung.—died April 28, 2013, Bloomington, Ind.), epitomized refined elegance and superbly subtle bow work. He was particularly admired for his interpretations of Zoltan Kodaly’s rarely performed Sonata for Unaccompanied

  • Starkey, Greville Michael Wilson (British jockey)

    Greville Michael Wilson Starkey, British jockey (born Dec. 21, 1939, Lichfield, Staffordshire, Eng.—died April 14, 2010, Kennett, near Newmarket, Suffolk, Eng.), rode some 2,000 winners (1,989 in Britain) in a Thoroughbred racing career that spanned more than three decades. In his best year, 1978,

  • Starkey, Sir Richard (British musician)

    Ringo Starr, British musician, singer, songwriter, and actor who was the drummer for the Beatles, one of the most influential bands in rock history. He also found success in a solo career. Starkey was born in a working-class area of Liverpool. His parents, both bakery workers, divorced when he was

  • Starkey, Zak (British musician)

    the Who: …Daltrey were supported by drummer Zak Starkey (son of Ringo Starr) and Townshend’s brother Simon on guitar, among others. A full-blown musical based on this material and also titled The Boy Who Heard Music premiered in July 2007 at Vassar College in Poughkeepsie, New York. The Who later performed at…

  • Starkville (Mississippi, United States)

    Starkville, city, seat (1833) of Oktibbeha county, eastern Mississippi, U.S., 22 miles (35 km) west of Columbus. Founded in 1831, it was originally known as Boardtown for the sawmilling operation there, but it was renamed in 1837 to honour the American Revolution general John Stark. After the

  • Starkweather, Gary (American scientist)

    Xerox PARC: Early PARC innovations: …a technology developed by PARC’s Gary Starkweather, epitomizes the poor communication between the research laboratory and corporate headquarters that resulted in Xerox’s inability to capitalize on PARC innovations. Starkweather, a researcher at Xerox in the mid-1960s, had an idea to use lasers in Xerox’s copiers. Starkweather realized that short exposures,…

  • Starley, James (British inventor)

    James Starley, British inventor and father of the bicycle industry. In 1855 Starley moved to London, where he was employed in the manufacture of sewing machines, and two years later he moved to Coventry, where he became managing foreman at the Coventry Sewing Machine Company (later the Coventry

  • Starlight Express (music by Lloyd Webber and Stilgoe)

    Andrew Lloyd Webber: …level of commercial success with Starlight Express (1984; lyrics by Richard Stilgoe), in which performers notoriously donned roller skates to portray anthropomorphic toy trains; the show ran in London for more than 17 years.

  • starlight scope (scientific instrument)

    warning system: The visible region: …of these devices is the starlight scope, resembling an oversized telescopic sight, with which riflemen can aim at night at 1,000–1,300 feet range. Artillery, tanks, helicopters, and aircraft use similar, larger devices having longer range. In aircraft the direct-viewing device is replaced by a cathode-ray tube in the instrument panel;…

  • Starliner (aircraft)

    history of flight: Postwar airlines: …direction, and the Lockheed 1649A Starliner, which could fly nonstop on polar routes from Los Angeles to Europe. The Starliner carried 75 passengers at speeds of 350 to 400 miles (560 to 640 km) per hour. Each of its Wright turbocompound radial engines developed 3,400 horsepower. Prior to the introduction…

  • starling (bird)

    Starling, any of a number of birds composing most of the family Sturnidae (order Passeriformes), especially Sturnus vulgaris, a 20-cm (8-inch) chunky iridescent black bird with a long sharp bill. It was introduced from Europe and Asia to most parts of the world (South America excepted). The

  • Starling, Ernest Henry (British physiologist)

    Ernest Henry Starling, British physiologist whose prolific contributions to a modern understanding of body functions, especially the maintenance of a fluid balance throughout the tissues, the regulatory role of endocrine secretions, and mechanical controls on heart function, made him one of the

  • starlite (mineral)

    jewelry: The properties of gems: …variety is called starlite or Siam zircon, while the third type is called Ceylon or Matara diamond.

  • Starman (film by Carpenter [1984])

    Jeff Bridges: …a woman’s dead husband in Starman (1984), he earned a third Oscar nomination. Bridges also starred as a former athlete searching for a female fugitive in Against All Odds (1984). In 1989 he appeared with his brother, Beau Bridges, and Michelle Pfeiffer in The Fabulous Baker Boys (1989), a drama…

  • Staro Nagori?ane Monastery (monastery, North Macedonia)

    Kumanovo: …of the city is the Staro Nagori?ane Monastery, built by the Serbian king Milutin in 1318, which contains valuable frescoes. Also nearby is the 16th-century Mateji? Monastery and a spa resort with hot mineral waters. Pop. (2002) 70,842; (2016 est.) 73,360.

  • Starodubtsev, Vasily (Soviet politician)

    collapse of the Soviet Union: The coup against Gorbachev: …of Internal Affairs Boris Pugo; Vasily Starodubtsev, chairman of the Farmers’ Union; Aleksandr Tizyakov, president of the U.S.S.R. Association of State Enterprises; and Minister of Defense Marshal Dmitry Yazov. They soon issued Resolution No. 1, which banned strikes and demonstrations and imposed press censorship. There was also an address to…

  • Starosvetskiye pomeshchiki (work by Gogol)

    Nikolay Gogol: Mature career: …idyllic motif of Gogol’s “Starosvetskiye pomeshchiki” (“Old-World Landowners”) is undermined with satire, for the mutual affection of the aged couple is marred by gluttony, their ceaseless eating for eating’s sake.

  • Starov, Ivan Yegorovich (Russian architect)

    Western architecture: Russia: …were Vasily Ivanovich Bazhenov and Ivan Yegorovich Starov, both of whom studied in Paris under de Wailly in the 1760s, bringing back to Russia the most-advanced Neoclassical ideas. Bazhenov designed the new Arsenal in St. Petersburg (1765) and prepared unexecuted designs for the Kamenni Ostrov Palace (1765–75) and for a…

  • Starover (Russian religious group)

    Old Believer, member of a group of Russian religious dissenters who refused to accept the liturgical reforms imposed upon the Russian Orthodox Church by the patriarch of Moscow Nikon (1652–58). Numbering millions of faithful in the 17th century, the Old Believers split into a number of different

  • Starovoytova, Galina Vasilyevna (Russian politician)

    Galina Vasilyevna Starovoytova, Russian politician and member of the reformist party Democratic Russia who was an outspoken advocate of liberalization, tolerance, and reform and was intending to run for president; her honesty was considered a rarity in Russian politics, and her assassination was

  • Starr, Bart (American football player and coach)

    Bart Starr, American collegiate and professional gridiron football quarterback and professional coach who led the National Football League (NFL) Green Bay Packers to five league championships (1961–62, 1965–67) and to Super Bowl victories following the 1966 and 1967 seasons. Starr was quarterback

  • Starr, Belle (American outlaw)

    Belle Starr, American outlaw of Texas and the Oklahoma Indian Territory. Myra Belle Shirley grew up in Carthage, Missouri, from the age of two. After the death of an elder brother, who early in the Civil War had become a bushwhacker and had perhaps ridden with guerrilla leader William C.

  • Starr, Bryan Bartlett (American football player and coach)

    Bart Starr, American collegiate and professional gridiron football quarterback and professional coach who led the National Football League (NFL) Green Bay Packers to five league championships (1961–62, 1965–67) and to Super Bowl victories following the 1966 and 1967 seasons. Starr was quarterback

  • Starr, David Bernard (Australian Aboriginal actor)

    David Ngoombujarra, (David Bernard Starr), Australian Aboriginal actor (born June 27, 1967, Meekatharra, W.Aus., Australia—died July 17, 2011, Fremantle, W.Aus., Australia), gained an international reputation for his performances in Crocodile Dundee in Los Angeles (2001), Rabbit-Proof Fence (2002),

  • Starr, Edwin (American musician)

    Edwin Starr, (Charles Edwin Hatcher), American musician (born Jan. 21, 1942, Nashville, Tenn.—died April 2, 2003, Bramcote, Nottinghamshire, Eng.), achieved enduring popularity with his classic 1970 recording of the protest song “War,” which topped the pop charts for 13 weeks. In 1965 Starr s

  • Starr, Ellen Gates (American social reformer)

    Ellen Gates Starr, American social reformer, a cofounder (with Jane Addams) of the Hull House social settlement and one of its longtime residents and supporters. Encouraged by her aunt, an art scholar, Starr enrolled in the Rockford (Illinois) Female Seminary, graduating in 1878. She then taught at

  • Starr, Ken (American lawyer)

    Ken Starr, American lawyer best known as the independent counsel (1994–99) who headed the investigation that led to the impeachment of U.S. Pres. Bill Clinton. The son of a minister, Starr sold bibles door-to-door to earn money for college. After attending George Washington University (B.A., 1968)

  • Starr, Kenneth Winston (American lawyer)

    Ken Starr, American lawyer best known as the independent counsel (1994–99) who headed the investigation that led to the impeachment of U.S. Pres. Bill Clinton. The son of a minister, Starr sold bibles door-to-door to earn money for college. After attending George Washington University (B.A., 1968)

  • Starr, Ringo (British musician)

    Ringo Starr, British musician, singer, songwriter, and actor who was the drummer for the Beatles, one of the most influential bands in rock history. He also found success in a solo career. Starkey was born in a working-class area of Liverpool. His parents, both bakery workers, divorced when he was

  • Starr, Sam (American outlaw)

    Belle Starr: …where in 1880 she married Sam Starr, a Cherokee Indian and longtime friend of the Youngers and Jameses. They settled on a ranch, renamed Younger’s Bend, on the Canadian River (near present-day Eufaula). It became a favourite hideout for outlaws of every sort; Jesse James holed up there for several…

  • starry flounder (fish)

    flounder: 7 kg (6 pounds); the starry flounder (Platichthys stellatus), a North Pacific species that averages about 9 kg (20 pounds) in weight; and the winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus), an American Atlantic food fish, growing to about 60 cm (23 inches) in length. Flounders in that family typically have the eyes…

  • Starry Night over the Rh?ne (work by van Gogh)

    The Starry Night: …a few night scenes, including Starry Night (Rh?ne) (1888). In that work, stars appear in bursts of yellow against a blue-black sky and compete with both the glowing gas lamps below and their reflection in the Rh?ne River.

  • Starry Night, The (painting by van Gogh)

    The Starry Night, a moderately abstract landscape painting (1889) of an expressive night sky over a small hillside village, one of Dutch artist Vincent van Gogh’s most celebrated works. The oil-on-canvas painting is dominated by a night sky roiling with chromatic blue swirls, a glowing yellow

  • starry sky beetle (insect)

    Asian longhorned beetle, (Anoplophora glabripennis), species of beetle (order Coleoptera, family Cerambycidae), originally native to eastern China and Korea, that became a serious pest of hardwood trees in North America and parts of Eurasia. The glossy black adults are large, 17–40 mm (0.7–1.6

  • starry stonewort (green algae)

    stonewort: At least one species, the starry stonewort (Nitellopsis obtusa), is an invasive species in areas outside its native range.

  • Stars and Atoms (work by Eddington)

    Arthur Eddington: Philosophy of science: …the public lectures published as Stars and Atoms (1927). In his well-written popular books he also set forth his scientific epistemology, which he called “selective subjectivism” and “structuralism”—i.e., the interplay of physical observations and geometry. He believed that a great part of physics simply reflected the interpretation that the scientist…

  • Stars and Bars (Confederate flag)

    flag of the United States of America: The design of the Stars and Bars varied over the following two years. On May 1, 1863, the Confederacy adopted its first official national flag, often called the Stainless Banner. A modification of that design was adopted on March 4, 1865, about a month before the end of the…

  • Stars and Stripes

    national flag consisting of white stars (50 since July 4, 1960) on a blue canton with a field of 13 alternating stripes, 7 red and 6 white. The 50 stars stand for the 50 states of the union, and the 13 stripes stand for the original 13 states. The flag’s width-to-length ratio is 10 to 19.After the

  • Stars and Stripes Forever, The (march by Sousa)

    The Stars and Stripes Forever, march by American composer John Philip Sousa that premiered in 1897. The piece stands as the quintessential example of the composer’s music. Sousa composed well over 100 marches, and the best known of all those is the patriotic The Stars and Stripes Forever. The piece

  • Stars and Stripes, The (American newspaper)

    The Stars and Stripes, newspaper for U.S. military personnel that has been published periodically as either a weekly or a daily since single editions appeared during the American Civil War (1861–65). It was revived in 1918 as a weekly for U.S. troops in Europe at the end of World War I, was

  • Stars in My Crown (film by Tourneur [1950])

    Jacques Tourneur: Later films: Stars in My Crown, Nightfall, and Curse of the Demon: …project was the atypically sensitive Stars in My Crown (1950), with Joel McCrea as a Civil War veteran who has become a minister in a small Tennessee town. It was Tourneur’s own favourite among his films. However, he noted that because he had accepted the minimum salary for a director…

  • Stars in My Pocket Like Grains of Sand (novel by Delany)

    Samuel R. Delany: His complex Stars in My Pocket Like Grains of Sand (1984) was regarded by critics as a stylistic breakthrough. He also wrote the novella “Time Considered as a Helix of Semi-precious Stones” (1969) and the autobiographical Atlantis: Three Tales (1995), a collection of novellas recounting the experiences…

  • Stars Look Down, The (film by Reed [1939])

    Carol Reed: …produce such noteworthy efforts as The Stars Look Down (1939), an internationally acclaimed film that depicted life in an English mining town, and Night Train to Munich (1940), a Hitchcock-style thriller that featured Rex Harrison as a British double agent. During World War II, Reed directed documentaries for the British…

  • Stars Look Down, The (work by Cronin)

    A.J. Cronin: Cronin’s fourth novel, The Stars Look Down (1935; filmed 1939), which chronicles various social injustices in a North England mining community from 1903 to 1933, gained him an international readership. It was followed by The Citadel (1937; filmed 1938), which showed how private physicians’ greed can distort good…

  • Stars of the New Curfew (short stories by Okri)

    Ben Okri: …at the Shrine (1986) and Stars of the New Curfew (1988), portray the essential link in Nigerian culture between the physical world and the world of the spirits.

  • Stars on Ice (American figure skating company)

    figure skating: Ice shows: Stars on Ice was founded in 1986 by Scott Hamilton and sports agent Robert D. Kain. It features a relatively small international cast of elite skaters, many of whom are Olympic and world champions. Skaters perform individual and group numbers filled with sophisticated choreography and…

  • Starship (American rock group)

    The Jefferson Airplane, American psychedelic rock band best known for its biting political lyrics, soaring harmonies, and hallucinogenic titles, such as Surrealistic Pillow and “White Rabbit.” The Jefferson Airplane was an important standard-bearer for the counterculture in the 1960s, but in its

  • Starship Technologies (British company)

    Janus Friis: Later ventures: Friis’s later ventures included Starship Technologies, which he founded (2014) with Ahti Heinla. The company was involved in the manufacture of small robotic delivery vehicles.

  • starshyna (historical Cossack aristocracy)

    Ukraine: The autonomous hetman state and Sloboda Ukraine: …of the senior Cossack officers, starshyna, who had evolved into a hereditary class approximating the Polish nobility in its privileges. The common Cossacks too were undergoing stratification, the more impoverished hardly distinguished, except in legal status, from the peasantry. The conditions of the free peasantry worsened over time, their growing…

  • Starski, Allan (Polish production designer and art director)
  • START (international arms control negotiations)

    Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (START), arms control negotiations between the United States and the Soviet Union (and, later, Russia) that were aimed at reducing those two countries’ arsenals of nuclear warheads and of the missiles and bombers capable of delivering such weapons. The talks, which

  • START I (international treaty [1991])

    Going It Alone Is Not an Option: …Treaty in 1963, and the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty of 1991, among others. To generate such global cooperation, the United States and other world leaders should accentuate areas where they share similar goals, such as curbing global terrorism or coordinating scientific research that benefits the world. At the same time,…

  • START II (international arms control negotiations)

    Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (START), arms control negotiations between the United States and the Soviet Union (and, later, Russia) that were aimed at reducing those two countries’ arsenals of nuclear warheads and of the missiles and bombers capable of delivering such weapons. The talks, which

  • START III (international arms control negotiations)

    Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (START), arms control negotiations between the United States and the Soviet Union (and, later, Russia) that were aimed at reducing those two countries’ arsenals of nuclear warheads and of the missiles and bombers capable of delivering such weapons. The talks, which

  • start-up company (business)

    Silicon Valley: Terman and Stanford Industrial Park: …also invested in these “start-up” enterprises, personally demonstrating his desire to integrate the university with industry in the region.

  • Started Early: Took My Dog (novel by Atkinson)

    Kate Atkinson: …There Be Good News? (2008), Started Early, Took My Dog (2010), and Big Sky (2019).

  • starter, electric (automotive technology)

    Charles F. Kettering: …as well as the first electric starter, which was introduced on Cadillacs in 1912.

  • starting block (athletics)

    sprint: …using a device called a starting block (legalized in the 1930s) to brace their feet (see photograph). Races are begun by a pistol shot; at 55 to 65 metres (60 to 70 yards), top sprinters attain maximum speed, more than 40 km per hour (25 miles per hour). After the…

  • Starting from Paumanok (poem by Whitman)

    Walt Whitman: Early life: …unknown), and “Premonition” (later entitled “Starting from Paumanok”), which records the violent emotions that often drained the poet’s strength. “A Word out of the Sea” (later entitled “Out of the Cradle Endlessly Rocking”) evoked some sombre feelings, as did “As I Ebb’d with the Ocean of Life,” “Chants Democratic,” “Enfans…

  • Starting Over (film by Pakula [1979])

    Alan J. Pakula: Films of the 1970s: The romantic comedy Starting Over (1979) followed. Adapted from Dan Wakefield’s novel of the same name, it featured Burt Reynolds as a divorced professor who relocates to Boston, where his relationship with a preschool teacher (Jill Clayburgh) keeps getting derailed by the frantic reconciliation attempts of his ex-wife…

  • starting-lighting-ignition battery

    battery: Lead-acid batteries: …classified into three groups: (1) starting-lighting-ignition (SLI) batteries, (2) traction batteries, and (3) stationary batteries. The automotive SLI battery is the best-known portable rechargeable power source. High current can be obtained for hundreds of shallow-depth discharges over a period of several years. Traction batteries are employed in industrial lift trucks,…

  • starting-point bias

    environmental economics: Sources of bias: …nor give a reasonable answer), starting-point bias (where the respondent is influenced by the initial numbers given as examples or as part of a range in survey), and strategic bias (where the respondent wants a specific outcome). Because any bias can hinder the usefulness of a contingent valuation survey, special…

  • startle pattern (psychology)

    Startle reaction, an extremely rapid psychophysiological response of an organism to a sudden and unexpected stimulus such as a loud sound or a blinding flash of light. In human beings it is characterized by involuntary bending of the limbs and a spasmodic avoidance movement of the head. M

  • startle reaction (psychology)

    Startle reaction, an extremely rapid psychophysiological response of an organism to a sudden and unexpected stimulus such as a loud sound or a blinding flash of light. In human beings it is characterized by involuntary bending of the limbs and a spasmodic avoidance movement of the head. M

  • startsy (Eastern Orthodox religion)

    Starets, (Slavic translation of Greek gerōn, “elder”), plural Startsy, in Eastern Orthodoxy, a monastic spiritual leader. Eastern Christian monasticism understood itself as a way of life that aimed at a real experience of the future kingdom of God; the starets, as one who had already achieved this

  • starvation (physiology)

    Starvation, widespread or generalized atrophy (wasting away) of body tissues either because food is unavailable or because it cannot be taken in or properly absorbed. See

  • Starving Time (British-North American colonial history)

    Jamestown Colony: The Starving Time and near abandonment (1609–11): In the autumn of 1609, after Smith left, Chief Powhatan began a campaign to starve the English out of Virginia. The tribes under his rule stopped bartering for food and carried out attacks on English parties that came in…

  • starworm (invertebrate)

    bioluminescence: The range and variety of bioluminescent organisms: …Diplocladon hasseltii, called starworm, or diamond worm, gives off a continuous greenish blue luminescence from three spots on each segment of the body, forming three longitudinal rows of light, the appearance of which inspired the common name night train. Phrixothrix, the railroad worm, possesses two longitudinal rows, with a red…

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