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  • Stary Oskol (Russia)

    Stary Oskol, city, Belgorod oblast (region), western Russia. It lies along the Oskol River. It was founded as a fortress called Oskol in 1593 for the defense against Crimean Tatars and was named Stary (“Old”) Oskol in 1655. Machinery and food industries reflect the city’s mineral and agricultural

  • Staryi Oskol (Russia)

    Stary Oskol, city, Belgorod oblast (region), western Russia. It lies along the Oskol River. It was founded as a fortress called Oskol in 1593 for the defense against Crimean Tatars and was named Stary (“Old”) Oskol in 1655. Machinery and food industries reflect the city’s mineral and agricultural

  • Stasi (East German government)

    Stasi, secret police agency of the German Democratic Republic (East Germany). The Stasi was one of the most hated and feared institutions of the East German communist government. The Stasi developed out of the internal security and police apparatus established in the Soviet zone of occupation in

  • Stasi Records Law (Germany [1991])

    Stasi: …German parliament (Bundestag) passed the Stasi Records Law, which granted to Germans and foreigners the right to view their Stasi files. By the early 21st century, nearly two million people had done so.

  • Stasinus (Cypriot poet)

    Cyprus: Assyrian and Egyptian domination: …was written on the island; Stasinus of Cyprus, credited with the authorship of the lost epic poem Cypria, was highly regarded among the poets of this literary genre in the 7th century. Bronze, iron, delicate jewelry, and ivory work are characteristic of this period; notable examples are the ivory throne…

  • stasis dermatitis (disease)

    Stasis dermatitis, a type of dermatitis

  • Stassen, Harold Edward (American politician)

    Harold Edward Stassen, American politician (born April 13, 1907, West St. Paul, Minn.—died March 4, 2001, Bloomington, Minn.), was the youngest governor of Minnesota, though his early political triumphs were overshadowed by his nine unsuccessful presidential campaigns. Stassen was elected Dakota

  • Stassinopoulos, Arianna (Greek American author and commentator)

    Arianna Huffington, Greek American author and commentator, best known for creating The Huffington Post, a popular liberal Web site offering news and commentary. Stassinopoulos, the daughter of a Greek newspaper owner, moved at age 16 to England, where she later pursued an economics degree at the

  • Staszic, Stanis?aw (Polish writer)

    Stanis?aw Staszic, foremost political writer of the Enlightenment in Poland. Staszic came from a middle-class family. He studied at Leipzig, G?ttingen, and Paris and was far more European in his outlook than many of his Polish contemporaries. He became a teacher and then began to write on social

  • Staszic, Stanis?aw Wawrzyniec (Polish writer)

    Stanis?aw Staszic, foremost political writer of the Enlightenment in Poland. Staszic came from a middle-class family. He studied at Leipzig, G?ttingen, and Paris and was far more European in his outlook than many of his Polish contemporaries. He became a teacher and then began to write on social

  • Statarna I–II (work by Lo-Johansson)

    Ivar Lo-Johansson: …two volumes of short stories, Statarna I–II (1936–37; “The Sharecroppers”), and in his novel Jordprolet?rerna (1941; “Proletarians of the Earth”). These works are based on his own recollections but are at the same time an indictment of existing social conditions. In their combination of political tract and novel, and their…

  • Statcast (sports technology)

    sabermetrics: The rise of advanced statistics: …and the resulting output, dubbed Statcast, provided the teams—and, to a lesser degree, amateur and professional analysts outside of front offices—with a wealth of new information that allowed unprecedented accuracy of measuring virtually everything that happens during a baseball game. This data was enough to keep teams of number crunchers…

  • statcoulomb (unit of measurement)

    Coulomb force: …charge is one electrostatic unit, esu, or statcoulomb. In the metre–kilogram–second and the SI systems, the unit of force (newton), the unit of charge (coulomb), and the unit of distance (metre), are all defined independently of Coulomb’s law, so the proportionality factor k is constrained to take a value consistent…

  • state (physics)

    thermodynamics: Thermodynamic states: The application of thermodynamic principles begins by defining a system that is in some sense distinct from its surroundings. For example, the system could be a sample of gas inside a cylinder with a movable piston, an entire steam engine, a marathon runner, the planet…

  • state (sovereign political entity)

    State, political organization of society, or the body politic, or, more narrowly, the institutions of government. The state is a form of human association distinguished from other social groups by its purpose, the establishment of order and security; its methods, the laws and their enforcement; its

  • state (United States political subdivision)

    list of state capitals in the United States: …of the cities that are state capitals in the United States, ordered alphabetically by state. This list also provides the most recent U.S. census figures for each city as well as estimated populations. (This list does not include the capital of the United States, Washington, D.C.)

  • state (philosophy)

    philosophy of mind: States and events: States consist simply of objects having properties or standing in relations to other objects. For example, Caesar’s mental state of being conscious presumably ended with the event of his death. An event consists of objects’ losing or acquiring various properties and relations;…

  • State Academic Bolshoi Theatre of Russia (Russian theatrical company)

    Bolshoi Theatre, leading theatre company for ballet and opera in Russia. The original group, which was made up of several smaller troupes, was organized in Moscow in the mid-1770s, performing primarily at the mansion of Count R.I. Vorontsov. In 1780 the first permanent theatre building in Moscow

  • State Academic Folk Dance Ensemble (Soviet dance company)

    Igor Moiseyev: …festival, he founded (1937) the State Academic Folk Dance Ensemble, which featured 35 dancers, principally amateurs, and dances from the 11 republics then forming the U.S.S.R. Subsequently he built a company of about 100 professional dancers trained by either the Bolshoi Theatre School or its National Dance Department, which Moiseyev…

  • State Agricultural and Mechanical College for Negroes (school, Normal, Alabama, United States)

    Alabama Agricultural and Mechanical University, public, coeducational institution of higher learning in Normal, Alabama, U.S., a historically black school. The university comprises the schools of Graduate Studies and Extended Education, Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Arts and Sciences,

  • State and Local Fiscal Assistance Act (United States [1972])

    government budget: State and local budgets in the United States: In 1972 Congress passed the State and Local Fiscal Assistance Act, which over a five-year period allocated some $30,000,000,000, one-third to state governments and two-thirds to local governments. This act, called general revenue sharing, continued into the 1980s although the amounts it allocated generally diminished after 1980. Only a fraction…

  • State and Main (film by Mamet [2000])

    David Mamet: State and Main (2000), a well-received ensemble piece written and directed by Mamet, depicts the trials and tribulations of a film crew shooting in a small town. He also applied his dual talents to Heist (2001), a crime thriller; Redbelt (2008), a latter-day samurai film…

  • State and Revolution, The (work by Lenin)

    economic system: Centrally planned systems: In his pamphlet The State and Revolution, written before he came to power, Vladimir Lenin envisaged the task of coordinating a socialist economy as little more than delivering production to central collecting points from which it would be distributed according to need—an operation requiring no more than “the…

  • State Arbitration Tribunal (Soviet law)

    civil service: Civil servants and communism: …compulsory arbitration operated through the State Arbitration Tribunal (known as Gosarbitrazh) under the Council of Ministers and through arbitration tribunals responsible to the councils of ministers in each of the republics. It settled all disputes concerning contracts, quality of goods, and other property disputes between various state enterprises. The system…

  • State Bank of India

    State Bank of India (SBI), state-owned commercial bank and financial services company, nationalized by the Indian government in 1955. SBI maintains thousands of branches throughout India and offices in dozens of countries throughout the world. The bank’s headquarters are in Mumbai. The oldest

  • State Bank of Pakistan

    Pakistan: Finance: The State Bank of Pakistan (1948) has overall control of the banking sector, acts as banker to the central and provincial governments, and administers official monetary and credit policies, including exchange controls. It has the sole right to issue currency (the Pakistani rupee) and has custody…

  • State Bank of Vietnam

    Vietnam: Finance: The State Bank of Vietnam, the central bank, issues the national currency, the dong, and oversees the country’s banking system. Known until 1975 as the National Bank of Vietnam in the north, the State Bank of Vietnam formerly functioned as a government monopoly in the banking…

  • state building (government)

    State building, the construction of a state apparatus defined by its monopoly of the legitimate use of violence in a given territory. Because of the wide variance between states across history, state building may be best understood not in generic terms but as the result of political dynamics

  • state capitalism (economics)

    economic system: From industrial to state capitalism: The perceived problem of inherent instability takes on further importance insofar as it is a principal cause of the next structural phase of the system. The new phase is often described as state capitalism because its outstanding feature is the enlargement in size…

  • State Capitol (building, Salt Lake City, Utah, United States)

    Salt Lake City: The contemporary city: The State Capitol (1916), built of Utah granite and marble in Corinthian style, has an exhibition hall.

  • State Capitol (building, Nashville, Tennessee, United States)

    Nashville: The contemporary city: The State Capitol (1859) was designed along classical Greek lines by William Strickland; Pres. James K. Polk is buried in its grounds. Bicentennial Capitol Mall State Park, near the building, includes a black granite globe as a memorial to World War II. The Hermitage, the home…

  • State Capitol (building, Indianapolis, Indiana, United States)

    Indianapolis: The contemporary city: The State Capitol (1878–88), just west of the circle, is constructed of Indiana limestone and has a central rotunda 234 feet (71 metres) high. Hilbert Circle Theatre (1916), home of the Indianapolis Symphony Orchestra, is adjacent to the circle, and Clowes Memorial Hall (1963), on the…

  • State Capitol (building, Bismarck, North Dakota, United States)
  • State Capitol (building, Denver, Colorado, United States)

    Denver: The contemporary city: The State Capitol (built 1887–95 in Corinthian style) has a 272-foot (83-metre) gold-leafed dome, and Civic Center Park adjoins the Capitol grounds. Denver’s climate and geographical location make outdoor recreation an especially popular pastime. The Rocky Mountains begin a few miles west of the city and…

  • State Capitol (building, Lincoln, Nebraska, United States)

    Lincoln: The state capitol, completed in 1932 and Lincoln’s third, was designed by U.S. architect Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue; its central tower, rising 400 feet (120 metres) from a massive three-story base, is a highly visible landmark. The legislature that meets there became unicameral in 1937 (unique in…

  • State Capitol (building, Jefferson City, Missouri, United States)

    Jefferson City: The capitol (1911–18), constructed of Carthage and Phoenix marble, contains celebrated murals by Thomas Hart Benton. The state prison (1833) prevented the city from becoming the site of the state university. Lincoln University, founded there in 1866 by African American Union Army veterans, is now racially…

  • State Capitol (building, Santa Fe, New Mexico, United States)
  • State Capitol (building, Springfield, Illinois, United States)

    Springfield: The Illinois State Capitol (1868–88) is 361 feet (110 metres) high at the top of its dome. The Illinois State Museum (opened 1877) is nearby. The Centennial Building (1918–23; now the Michael J. Howlett Building) commemorates the 100th anniversary of Illinois statehood. The Illinois Executive Mansion has…

  • State Capitol (building, Lansing, Michigan, United States)

    Lansing: ) The Michigan State Capitol (erected 1872–78) stands in a 10-acre (4-hectare) park in the centre of the city; the capitol underwent extensive restoration in 1989–92. Connected by plank road to Detroit in 1852 and to out-of-state areas by railroad in the 1870s, the city grew industrially after…

  • State Capitol (building, Honolulu, Hawaii, United States)

    Honolulu: …replaced by the nearby new State Capitol (an unusual rectangular structure featuring legislative chambers shaped like volcanoes and columns shaped like royal palms). Within a two-block radius of the palace are several historic buildings, including Kawaiahao Church (1841) and the early Mission Houses, built in the 1820s from lumber brought…

  • State Capitol (building, Montgomery, Alabama, United States)
  • State Capitol (building, Little Rock, Arkansas, United States)
  • State Capitol (building, Raleigh, North Carolina, United States)

    Raleigh: The first capitol, completed in 1794, burned in 1831 and was replaced by the present building, completed in 1840. It stands in the middle of a large square and is considered an outstanding example of Greek Revival architecture. Capitol Square is surrounded by various state and historic…

  • State Capitol (building, Frankfort, Kentucky, United States)

    Frankfort: The State Capitol (1910) is crowned by a dome 212 feet (65 metres) high. The city’s historic buildings include the Old Capitol (1827–30), Liberty Hall (c. 1796), and the Orlando Brown House (1835). The graves of pioneer Daniel Boone and his wife, Rebecca, are in the…

  • State Capitol (building, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, United States)

    Baton Rouge: The old State Capitol (1847–50) was replaced during Governor Huey P. Long’s administration; it has been restored and now is a museum. The new building was constructed (1931–32) of marble and other stone brought in from various parts of the world; it is 34 stories high and…

  • State Capitol (building, Cheyenne, Wyoming, United States)
  • State Capitol (building, Salem, Oregon, United States)
  • State Capitol (building, Saint Paul, Minnesota, United States)

    Saint Paul: The contemporary city: The state capitol, Minnesota’s third, was designed by architect Cass Gilbert and was completed in 1904. Dominating the concourse of the 20-story city hall and county courthouse (1931) is Vision of Peace, a 36-foot- (11-metre-) high statue of white Mexican onyx, by Swedish sculptor Carl Milles.…

  • State Capitol (building, Madison, Wisconsin, United States)

    Madison: …skyline is dominated by the State Capitol (284.4 feet [86.7 metres] high), modeled after the U.S. Capitol in Washington, D.C. Its white granite dome is topped by a statue, Wisconsin; made of bronze by sculptor Daniel Chester French and covered in gold leaf, it symbolizes the state motto: “Forward.” It…

  • State Capitol (building, Austin, Texas, United States)

    Austin: History: Austin’s pink granite State Capitol (1888), modeled after the U.S. Capitol, succeeded an earlier structure (burned 1881).

  • State Capitol (building, Richmond, Virginia, United States)

    Richmond: Construction of the present capitol building, designed by Thomas Jefferson, began in 1785. In 1840 the city was linked to Lynchburg by the James River and Kanawha Canal, and by 1860 it was served by several railroads. Following the secession of Virginia (April 1861) at the outbreak of the…

  • State Capitol (building, Phoenix, Arizona, United States)

    Phoenix: From a town to a city: …1912, the building became the state capitol.

  • State Capitol (Montpelier, Vermont, United States)

    Montpelier: The present state capitol (the third constructed on the site; completed in 1859) is built of Vermont granite. Within its portico is a marble statue representing Ethan Allen, a hero of the American Revolution.

  • State Capitol (building, Charleston, West Virginia, United States)

    Charleston: The State Capitol, designed by architect Cass Gilbert and completed in 1932, features a gold-leafed dome that is larger than that of the United States Capitol. The Capitol complex contains the governor’s mansion, the cultural centre, the state museum, and a memorial to Booker T. Washington,…

  • State Capitol (building, Hartford, Connecticut, United States)

    Hartford: The marble and granite state capitol, completed in 1879, contains many objects of historical interest, including the tombstone of the American Revolutionary War hero Israel Putnam. A gem of colonial architecture is the old three-story brick statehouse (1796) designed by Charles Bulfinch. Wadsworth Atheneum, the oldest free public art…

  • state capture

    State capture, the domination of policy making by private, often corporate, power. In the second half of the 20th century, the concept of state capture was used in the early critique of the pluralist theoretical framework in political science. According to pluralism, a multiplicity of interest

  • State Central Puppet Theatre (theatre, Moscow, Russia)

    Russia: The 20th century: …Obraztsov Puppet Theatre (formerly the State Central Puppet Theatre), founded in Moscow by Sergey Obraztsov, continues to give delightful performances for patrons of all ages. The same can be said for the spectacular presentations of the Moscow State Circus, which has performed throughout the world to great acclaim. Using since…

  • State Charities Aid Association (American organization)

    Louisa Lee Schuyler: …like-minded associates, she formed the State Charities Aid Association (SCAA), which she envisioned as an umbrella organization for local groups of volunteer visitors interested in the inspection and improvement of prisons, poorhouses, workhouses, public hospitals, and schools. While working to establish and extend the work of the SCAA and to…

  • State Collection of Antiquities (museum, Munich, Germany)

    Staatliche Antikensammlungen, Bavarian museum of antiquities in Munich, noted for its collection of Greek, Roman, and Etruscan art. It has one of the world’s largest collections of vases from the ancient Mediterranean. The Staatliche Antikensammlungen museum is located in the Kunstareal (“Art

  • State College (Pennsylvania, United States)

    State College, borough (town), Centre county, Pennsylvania, U.S. It lies in the Nittany Valley between Bald Eagle Mountain (northwest) and Tussey Mountain (southeast), near the state’s geographic centre. Settled in 1859, it was named for Pennsylvania State College (now Pennsylvania State

  • State College of Agricultural and the Mechanic Arts (university system, Maine, United States)

    University of Maine, state university system of Maine, U.S. It comprises seven coeducational institutions, including the University of Southern Maine. The University of Maine is a land-grant and sea-grant university based in Orono. It offers a wide range of undergraduate, graduate, and professional

  • State College of Iowa (university, Cedar Falls, Iowa, United States)

    University of Northern Iowa, public, coeducational institution of higher learning in Cedar Falls, Iowa, U.S. It includes colleges of business administration, education, humanities and fine arts, natural sciences, and social and behavioral sciences. In addition to undergraduate studies, the

  • State College of Washington (university, Pullman, Washington, United States)

    Washington State University, public, coeducational institution of higher learning in Pullman, Washington, U.S. It is Washington’s land-grant university under the provisions of the Morrill Act of 1862. Washington State comprises a graduate school, the Intercollegiate College of Nursing (a

  • State Commission on the Civil Service (Soviet agency)

    public administration: The Soviet Union: In 1935 the State Commission on the Civil Service was created and attached to the Commissariat of Finance with responsibility for ensuring general control of personnel practice. This commission laid down formal patterns of administrative structure, reformed existing bureaucratic practices, fixed levels of staffing, standardized systems of job…

  • State Committee for Television and Radio Broadcasting (Soviet agency)
  • State Control, Commission of (Soviet government)

    civil service: Civil servants and communism: The Commission of State Control was responsible for vigilance over state property and administration. Its departments paralleled the different branches of state administration and maintained audits of their work. Its officers had the right of access to all administrative records and could issue directives to other…

  • state corporatism (ideology)

    Corporatism, the theory and practice of organizing society into “corporations” subordinate to the state. According to corporatist theory, workers and employers would be organized into industrial and professional corporations serving as organs of political representation and controlling to a large

  • State Council (Soviet and Russian government)

    Russia: The State Duma: …be an upper chamber, the State Council, half of its members appointed by the emperor and half elected by established institutions such as the zemstvos and municipalities, business organizations, the Academy of Sciences, and so on. Both chambers had budgetary rights, the right to veto any law, and the ability…

  • State Council (Belgian government)

    Belgium: Justice: The State Council arbitrates in disputed administrative matters and gives advice on all bills and decrees. The Arbitration Court, established in 1984, deals with disputes that develop between and among national, regional, and community executive or legislative authorities.

  • State Council (Chinese government)

    China: Parallel structure: …ministries and commissions under the State Council and on the CCP side by Central Committee departments. These central-level functional bodies sit atop hierarchies of subordinate units that have responsibility for the sector or issue area under concern. Subordinate functional units typically are attached to each of the territorial bodies.

  • State Council (South Korean government)

    South Korea: Constitutional framework: The State Council, the highest executive body, is composed of the president, the prime minister, the heads of executive ministries, and ministers without portfolio. The prime minister is appointed by the president and approved by the elected National Assembly (Kuk Hoe).

  • State Council for Finances (French political body)

    France: The development of central government: The State Council for Finances (Conseil d’état et Finances) expedited financial matters of secondary importance, while the Financial Arbitration Court (Grande Direction des Finances) was an administrative tribunal that settled disputes between the state and individuals or corporations. Each of these subdivisions of the king’s council…

  • State Department (United States government)

    U.S. Department of State, executive division of the U.S. federal government responsible for carrying out U.S. foreign policy. Established in 1789, it is the oldest of the federal departments and the president’s principal means of conducting treaty negotiations and forging agreements with foreign

  • State Department Store (store, Moscow, Russia)

    GUM, the largest department store in Russia. Situated on a traditional market site on the northeast side of Red Square in Moscow, the building originally known as the Upper Trading Arcade was designed by A.N. Pomerantsev and built in 1889–93 in a pseudo-Russian style over a hidden metal skeleton.

  • state determination (mathematics)

    control theory: Principles of control: …include the further problem of state determination, which may be viewed as the central task in statistical prediction and filtering theory. In principle, any control problem can be solved in two steps: (1) building an optimal filter (a so-called Kalman filter) to determine the best estimate of the present state…

  • State Domains, Ministry of (Russian government organization)

    Russia: Social classes: …was the creation of the Ministry of State Domains, under Gen. Pavel Kiselev. This became an embryonic ministry of agriculture, with authority over peasants who lived on state lands. These were a little less than half the rural population: in 1858 there were 19 million state peasants and 22.5 million…

  • State Duma (Russian government [1993])

    Russia: Constitutional framework: …administrative divisions) and the State Duma (a 450-member popularly elected lower house). The president’s nominee for chairman of the government is subject to approval by the State Duma; if it rejects a nominee three times or passes a vote of no confidence twice in three months, the president may dissolve…

  • State Duma (Russian assembly)

    Duma, elected legislative body that, along with the State Council, constituted the imperial Russian legislature from 1906 until its dissolution at the time of the March 1917 Revolution. The Duma constituted the lower house of the Russian parliament, and the State Council was the upper house. As a t

  • state education

    civil rights: …services, the right to a public education, and the right to use public facilities. Civil rights are an essential component of democracy; when individuals are being denied opportunities to participate in political society, they are being denied their civil rights. In contrast to civil liberties, which are freedoms that are…

  • state enterprise

    Public enterprise, a business organization wholly or partly owned by the state and controlled through a public authority. Some public enterprises are placed under public ownership because, for social reasons, it is thought the service or product should be provided by a state monopoly. Utilities

  • State Enterprise, Law on (Soviet Union [1988])

    Soviet Union: Economic policy: Then the Law on State Enterprises, effective from January 1988, permitted managers to increase wages to cope with the tight labour situation. These increases were far in excess of productivity growth. The State Bank lost control of monetary growth. The plan for 1990 was a growth of…

  • State ex rel. Gaines v. Canada

    Charles Hamilton Houston: In State ex rel. Gaines v. Canada (1938), Houston argued that it was unconstitutional for Missouri to exclude blacks from the state’s university law school when, under the “separate but equal” provision, no comparable facility for blacks existed within the state. Houston’s efforts to dismantle the…

  • State ex rel. Weiss et al. v. District Board of School District No. 8 of the City of Edgerton (76 Wis. 177 [1890]) (law case)

    Edgerton Bible case, decision by the Supreme Court of the state of Wisconsin that outlawed devotional Bible reading in Wisconsin public schools in 1890. The decision, which was the first of its kind in the United States, came in response to complaints by Roman Catholic parents who objected to the

  • State Fair (film by Lang [1945])

    Walter Lang: Films of the 1940s: State Fair (1945) starred Dana Andrews, Jeanne Crain, Dick Haymes, and Vivian Blaine putting across such Rodgers and Hammerstein tunes as the Academy Award-winning “It Might as Well Be Spring” with brio. Sentimental Journey (1946) was a melodrama about a Broadway couple (John Payne and…

  • State Fair (film by Ferrer [1962])

    Pat Boone: …Earth (1959), and the musical State Fair (1962), in which he starred with fellow teen idols Bobby Darin and Ann-Margret.

  • State Fair (film by King [1933])

    Henry King: Films of the 1930s: …first major sound film was State Fair (1933), with Will Rogers, Lew Ayres, and Janet Gaynor. A critical and commercial success, the film offered a sentimental look at American life, a theme King explored in many of his later productions. In 1934 he directed Spencer Tracy in Marie Galante, a…

  • state farm (Soviet agriculture)

    Sovkhoz, state-operated agricultural estate in the U.S.S.R. organized according to industrial principles for specialized large-scale production. Workers were paid wages but might also cultivate personal garden plots. Its form developed from the few private estates taken over in their entirety by

  • State Fine Arts Museum in the Name of A.S. Pushkin (museum, Moscow, Russia)

    Pushkin Fine Arts Museum, collection in Moscow, Russia, of ancient and medieval art and western European painting, sculpture, and graphic arts. It was founded in the 1770s at Moscow University. Especially noteworthy are its holdings of French art from the late 19th and early 20th centuries gathered

  • State Gallery (museum, Stuttgart, Germany)

    Staatsgalerie, art museum in Stuttgart, Ger., known for its collections of European art—especially German Renaissance paintings and Italian paintings from 1300 to 1800—as well as paintings from other eras and prints, drawings, photographs, and sculptures. When the Staatsgalerie, designed in the

  • state government

    India: Constitutional framework: …of the union (central) and state governments. It also includes provisions for protecting the rights and promoting the interests of certain classes of citizens (e.g., disadvantaged social groups, officially designated as “Scheduled Castes” and “Scheduled Tribes”) and the process for constitutional amendment. The extraordinary specificity of India’s constitution is such…

  • State Hermitage Museum, the (museum, Saint Petersburg, Russia)

    Hermitage, art museum in St. Petersburg founded in 1764 by Catherine the Great as a court museum. It adjoined the Winter Palace and served as a private gallery for the art amassed by the empress. Under Nicholas I the Hermitage was reconstructed (1840–52), and it was opened to the public in 1852.

  • State Historical Museum (museum, Moscow, Russia)

    Red Square: The State Historical Museum (built 1875–83) stands at the northern end of the square. Directly opposite, at its southern end, is the nine-towered Cathedral of St. Basil the Blessed (originally Church of the Intercession), built 1554–60 to commemorate the defeat of the Tatars (Mongols) of Kazan…

  • State Historical Museum (museum, Stockholm, Sweden)

    museum: Museums of antiquities: …archaeological repository, as does the State Historical Museum in Stockholm, which houses material recovered as early as the 17th century. The national archaeological museum in Greece was started at Aeginia in 1829. Certain European countries, however—the United Kingdom and Germany, for example—do not have well-developed national collections of antiquities, and…

  • State House (building, Providence, Rhode Island, United States)

    Providence: The State House (1895–1900), built of white Georgia marble, has a dome measuring 50 feet (15 metres) in diameter. The city has two cathedrals, SS. Peter and Paul (1874–89, Roman Catholic) and St. John (1810, Episcopal).

  • State House (building, Albany, New York, United States)
  • State House (building, Annapolis, Maryland, United States)

    Annapolis: …Historic District contains the Maryland State House (1772–79), the oldest state capitol still in legislative use, where Congress ratified (January 14, 1784) the Treaty of Paris ending the Revolution; the Old Treasury (1735–37); St. Anne’s Episcopal Church (founded 1692); and more than 60 pre-Revolutionary houses, including the homes of three…

  • State House (building, Boston, Massachusetts, United States)

    Charles Bulfinch: …Bulfinch’s works are the Massachusetts State House, Boston (designed 1787–88; built 1795–98; extant in the late 20th century but greatly altered); the Connecticut State House, Hartford (1792–96; now the city hall); and the Maine Capitol, Augusta (1828–31). Bulfinch was the fourth in the succession of architects of the United States…

  • State in Theory and Practice, The (work by Laski)

    Harold Joseph Laski: In The State in Theory and Practice (1935), The Rise of European Liberalism: An Essay in Interpretation (1936), and Parliamentary Government in England: A Commentary (1938), Laski argued that the economic difficulties of capitalism might lead to the destruction of political democracy. He came to view…

  • State Insurance Fund (Italian corporation)

    Italy: Public and private sectors: …l’Energia Elettrica; ENEL), and the State Insurance Fund (Istituto Nazionale delle Assicurazioni; INA). Other principal agencies include the Azienda Nazionale Autonoma delle Strade Statali (ANAS), responsible for some 190,000 miles (350,000 km) of the road network, and the Ente Ferrovie dello Stato (FS; “State Railways”), which controls the majority of…

  • State Land League (German political organization)

    Agrarian League, extraparliamentary organization active under the German empire from 1893. Formed to combat the free-trade policies (initiated in 1892) of Chancellor Leo, Graf (count) von Caprivi, the league worked for farmers’ subsidies, import tariffs, and minimum prices. Caprivi’s successor

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