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  • State Law and Order Restoration Council (Myanmar government)

    Myanmar: Administrative framework: …1997 and 2011, as the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC).

  • State Library of Victoria (library, Victoria, Australia)

    Victoria: Cultural life: …of Victoria manages the important State Library of Victoria (founded in 1856 as Melbourne Public Library) and advises the government on the promotion of library services throughout the state. Throughout the 20th century the State Library built up strong collections in many fields, but shortages of funds and rising costs…

  • State Line (Indiana, United States)

    Hammond, city, Lake county, northwestern Indiana, U.S. It is located in the Calumet industrial complex between Chicago and Gary, on the Grand Calumet River, near Lake Michigan. It was founded in 1869 when George Hammond, a pioneer in the shipping of refrigerated beef, established with Marcus Towle

  • state monopoly on violence (political science and sociology)

    State monopoly on violence, in political science and sociology, the concept that the state alone has the right to use or authorize the use of physical force. It is widely regarded as a defining characteristic of the modern state. In his lecture “Politics as a Vocation” (1918), the German

  • State Museum (museum, Amsterdam, Netherlands)

    Rijksmuseum, (Dutch: “State Museum”) national art collection of the Netherlands in Amsterdam. The galleries originated with a royal museum erected in 1808 by Napoleon I’s brother Louis Bonaparte, then king of Holland, and the first collection consisted of paintings that had not been sent to France

  • State Normal and Industrial College for Colored Students (university, Florida, United States)

    Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University, public, coeducational institution of higher learning in Tallahassee, Florida, U.S. It is a historically black, land-grant institution and part of the State University System of Florida; its enrollment remains predominantly African American. The

  • State Normal School (university, Greeley, Colorado, United States)

    University of Northern Colorado, public, coeducational institution of higher learning in Greeley, Colorado, U.S. It includes colleges of Arts and Sciences, Business Administration, Education, Health and Human Sciences, and Performing and Visual Arts. The university’s graduate school offers more

  • State Normal School for Colored Persons (university, Frankfort, Kentucky, United States)

    Kentucky State University, public, coeducational institution of higher learning in Frankfort, Kentucky, U.S. It is a land-grant university consisting of colleges of arts and sciences, professional studies, schools of business and public administration, and Whitney M. Young, Jr., College of

  • State Normal School for Colored Students (university, Florida, United States)

    Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University, public, coeducational institution of higher learning in Tallahassee, Florida, U.S. It is a historically black, land-grant institution and part of the State University System of Florida; its enrollment remains predominantly African American. The

  • State of Aceh, Abode of Peace (province, Indonesia)

    Aceh, autonomous daerah istimewa (special district) of Indonesia, with the status of propinsi (or provinsi; province), forming the northern extremity of the island of Sumatra. Aceh is surrounded by water on three sides: the Indian Ocean to the west and north and the Strait of Malacca to the east.

  • State of Affairs (American television series)

    Katherine Heigl: …to television in the drama State of Affairs (2014–15), in which she played a CIA liaison to the U.S. president. She then was cast as a defense attorney in Doubt (2017). She later had a recurring role on the legal series Suits.

  • State of Bahrain

    Bahrain, small Arab state situated in a bay on the southwestern coast of the Persian Gulf. It is an archipelago consisting of Bahrain Island and some 30 smaller islands. Its name is from the Arabic term al-bahrayn, meaning “two seas.” Located in one of the world’s chief oil-producing regions,

  • State of Brunei, Abode of Peace

    Brunei, independent Islamic sultanate on the northern coast of the island of Borneo in Southeast Asia. It is bounded to the north by the South China Sea and on all other sides by the East Malaysian state of Sarawak, which also divides the state into two disconnected segments of unequal size. The

  • State of Eritrea

    Eritrea, country of the Horn of Africa, located on the Red Sea. Eritrea’s coastal location has long been important in its history and culture—a fact reflected in its name, which is an Italianized version of Mare Erythraeum, Latin for “Red Sea.” The Red Sea was the route by which Christianity and

  • State of Florida et al. v. United States Department of Health and Human Services et al. (law case)

    Affordable Care Act cases: District and appellate decisions: In State of Florida et al. v. United States Department of Health and Human Services et al., Florida and 12 other states (later joined by 13 additional states, two individuals, and the National Federation of Independent Business [NFIB]) argued that in passing the individual mandate Congress…

  • State of Israel

    Israel, country in the Middle East, located at the eastern end of the Mediterranean Sea. It is bounded to the north by Lebanon, to the northeast by Syria, to the east and southeast by Jordan, to the southwest by Egypt, and to the west by the Mediterranean Sea. Jerusalem is the seat of government

  • state of nature (statistics)

    statistics: Decision analysis: …more possible future events, called states of nature, that might occur. The list of possible states of nature includes everything that can happen, and the states of nature are defined so that only one of the states will occur. The outcome resulting from the combination of a decision alternative and…

  • State of New York, University of the (university, New York, United States)

    New York: Education: A system called the University of the State of New York—one of the most comprehensive educational organizations in the world—governs all educational activities in the state. It was established in 1784 and its governance placed under a Board of Regents. In 1904 the state legislature made the Board of…

  • State of Origin (rugby competition)

    rugby: The modern era: In 1980 the State of Origin competition between New South Wales and Queensland began, and it soon became one of the most-watched sporting events in Australia. In England this model was followed through the creation of the Wars of the Roses series between Yorkshire and Lancashire.

  • State of Play (film by Macdonald [2009])

    Russell Crowe: …Body of Lies (2008) and State of Play (2009), in which he played an investigative reporter.

  • State of Qatar

    Qatar, independent emirate on the west coast of the Persian Gulf. Occupying a small desert peninsula that extends northward from the larger Arabian Peninsula, it has been continuously but sparsely inhabited since prehistoric times. Following the rise of Islam, the region became subject to the

  • State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, The (state, United States)

    Rhode Island, constituent state of the United States of America. It was one of the original 13 states and is one of the six New England states. Rhode Island is bounded to the north and east by Massachusetts, to the south by Rhode Island Sound and Block Island Sound of the Atlantic Ocean, and to the

  • State of the Prisons in England and Wales, The (work by Howard)

    prison: Emergence of the penitentiary: reformer John Howard, whose works The State of the Prisons in England and Wales (1777) and An Account of the Principal Lazarettos in Europe (1789) were based on extensive travels. The public outrage that Bentham and Howard helped generate led to a national system of inspection and the construction of…

  • State of the Union (American television series)

    Nick Hornby: …epistolary memoir, and he wrote State of the Union (2019), about a married couple in counseling; the latter show featured 10-minute episodes.

  • State of the Union (film by Capra [1948])

    Frank Capra: The 1940s: …MGM on his next project, State of the Union (1948), based on a Pulitzer Prize-winning Broadway satire by Howard Lindsay and Russell Crouse. In it Spencer Tracy portrayed a prospective presidential candidate, and Katharine Hepburn played his estranged wife. Although regarded by a number of critics as Capra’s last solid…

  • State of the Union (presidential address)

    State of the Union, in the United States, the annual address of the president of the United States to the U.S. Congress. The U.S. Constitution (Article II, Section 3) requires the president to “from time to time give to the Congress Information of the State of the Union.” Although the president now

  • State of the Union, 1812 (speech by Arthur)
  • State of the Vatican City

    Vatican City, ecclesiastical state, seat of the Roman Catholic Church, and an enclave in Rome, situated on the west bank of the Tiber River. Vatican City is the world’s smallest fully independent nation-state. Its medieval and Renaissance walls form its boundaries except on the southeast at St.

  • State of Wonder (novel by Patchett)

    Ann Patchett: …mortality are the focus of State of Wonder (2011), in which a pharmaceutical researcher travels to the Amazon Rainforest to investigate both the death of a colleague and a scientist’s work on an infertility drug. The Getaway Car: A Practical Memoir About Writing and Life (2011) was a brief e-book.…

  • State Opera

    Berlin: Cultural life: …the long-established Deutsche Staatsoper (German National Opera). East Berlin’s Comic Opera also gained fame. Classical music in general finds a distinguished home in Berlin. Foremost among many notable musical ensembles is the world-famous Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra, founded in 1882; it reached new heights in the second half of the…

  • State Oracle of Tibet

    Central Asian arts: Shamanic ritual: For example, the State Oracle of Tibet, a monk whose oracular powers were exercised on behalf of the government and the monastic system, was regarded as a high-ranking ecclesiastic, yet his ritualistic performances were no different than those of shamanic mediums throughout Central Asia. The adaptation of the…

  • State Paper Office (British government)

    diplomatics: The English royal chancery: …yet another new office, the State Paper Office, headed since 1578 by the clerk of the papers. The second holder of this office, Sir Thomas Wilson, established the division of the state papers into foreign and domestic. As departments of state proliferated during the 18th and 19th centuries, they developed…

  • State Peace and Development Council (Myanmar government)

    Myanmar: Administrative framework: …1997 and 2011, as the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC).

  • State Philharmonic Orchestra of Petrograd (Russian orchestra)

    Saint Petersburg Philharmonic Orchestra, symphony orchestra based in St. Petersburg. The Philharmonic Society was founded there in 1802, and its orchestra included musicians from eastern Europe as well as from Russia. After the Russian Revolution of February 1917, the society’s orchestra became the

  • State Planning Committee (Soviet economics)

    Gosplan, central board that supervised various aspects of the planned economy of the Soviet Union by translating into specific national plans the general economic objectives outlined by the Communist Party and the government. Established in February 1921, Gosplan was originally an advisory council

  • state police (United States agencies)

    police: Federal and state police: …the early 20th century, some states began to create police forces, as other states (such as Texas and Massachusetts) had done on a smaller scale before then. In 1905 Pennsylvania established the first modern state police department. Formed with the professed purpose of fighting rural crime, state police in Pennsylvania…

  • State Political Administration (Soviet agency)

    GPU, early Soviet political police agency, a forerunner of the KGB

  • State Railways (Italian railway)

    Ferrovie dello Stato (FS), largest railway system of Italy. FS operates lines on the mainland and also on the islands of Sicily and Sardinia, which are linked to the mainland by train ferries. The Italian railway system was nationalized in 1905. In 1986 its status was changed from a government

  • state rights (government)

    states' rights: …closely related to that of state rights, which was invoked from the 18th century in Europe to legitimate the powers vested in sovereign national governments. Doctrines asserting states’ rights were developed in contexts in which states functioned as distinct units in a federal system of government. In the United States,…

  • State Security Police (French police force)

    Compagnies Républicaines de Sécurité (CRS), special mobile French police force. It was created in 1944 as part of the S?reté Nationale, which in 1966 was combined with the prefecture of police of Paris to form the Direction de la Sécurité Publique. This in turn was made part of the Police

  • State Security, Bureau of (South African police)

    intelligence: South Africa: …State Security—often referred to as BOSS—was an aggressive security service that placed agents in black communities, arrested dissidents, and assassinated real and suspected enemies of the regime. The Truth and Reconciliation Commission, established after the peaceful transition to democratic rule in the 1990s and led by Archbishop Desmond Tutu, brought…

  • State Security, Committee for (agency, Soviet Union)

    KGB, foreign intelligence and domestic security agency of the Soviet Union. During the Soviet era the KGB’s responsibilities also included the protection of the country’s political leadership, the supervision of border troops, and the general surveillance of the population. Established in 1954, the

  • State Security, Court of (French law)

    France: The judiciary: …from 1963 to 1981, the Court of State Security, which tried felonies and misdemeanours against national security. Very exceptionally, in cases of high treason, a High Court of Justice (Cour de Justice de la République), composed of members of the National Assembly and of senators, is empowered to try the…

  • State Security, Directorate of (police organization, Albania)

    Albania: The Stalinist state: …State Security, known as the Sigurimi. To eliminate dissent, the government periodically resorted to purges, in which opponents were subjected to public criticism, dismissed from their jobs, imprisoned in forced-labour camps, or executed. Travel abroad was forbidden to all but those on official business. In 1967 the religious establishment, which…

  • State Security, Ministry for (East German government)

    Stasi, secret police agency of the German Democratic Republic (East Germany). The Stasi was one of the most hated and feared institutions of the East German communist government. The Stasi developed out of the internal security and police apparatus established in the Soviet zone of occupation in

  • State Security, Ministry of (Chinese government agency)

    intelligence: China: …is the province of the MSS. The organization of the MSS is similar to that of the former KGB, with bureaus responsible for foreign intelligence, counterintelligence, and the collection of scientific and technical intelligence. Chinese intelligence operations are conducted by officers under diplomatic cover as well as under nonofficial cover…

  • State Security, Ministry of (Soviet government)

    MGB, former Soviet intelligence and counterintelligence agency, one of the forerunners of the KGB

  • State Shintō

    State Shintō, nationalistic official religion of Japan from the Meiji Restoration in 1868 through World War II. It focused on ceremonies of the imperial household and public Shintō shrines. State Shintō was founded on the ancient precedent of saisei itchi, the unity of religion and government. T

  • state sovereign immunity (United States law)

    Eleventh Amendment: …States establishing the principle of state sovereign immunity.

  • State Teachers College (university, Hattiesburg, Mississippi, United States)

    University of Southern Mississippi, public, coeducational institution of higher learning in Hattiesburg, Mississippi, U.S. It offers some 170 bachelor’s, master’s, and doctoral degree programs. Degrees are conferred through colleges of the Arts, Business Administration, Education and Psychology,

  • State Teachers College and Normal School at Trenton (college, Ewing, New Jersey, United States)

    College of New Jersey, public, coeducational institution of higher learning in Ewing township, near Trenton, New Jersey, U.S. It comprises schools of Arts and Sciences, Business, Education, Nursing, and Engineering. More than 20 graduate programs leading to master’s degrees are offered through the

  • State Teachers College at Indiana (university, Indiana, Pennsylvania, United States)

    Indiana University of Pennsylvania, public, coeducational institution of higher learning in Indiana, Pennsylvania, U.S. It is part of the Pennsylvania State System of Higher Education. The university comprises the Eberly College of Business and colleges of Education, Fine Arts, Health and Human

  • state terrorism (violence)

    terrorism: Types of terrorism: Establishment terrorism, often called state or state-sponsored terrorism, is employed by governments—or more often by factions within governments—against that government’s citizens, against factions within the government, or against foreign governments or groups. This type of terrorism is very common but difficult to identify, mainly because…

  • State Transport Authority of South Australia (government agency, South Australia, Australia)

    South Australia: Transport: The State Transport Authority of South Australia operates a suburban passenger rail system within metropolitan Adelaide that is integrated with an extensive bus system and a streetcar line. Australia’s most innovative public transport facility, the German-designed O-Bahn guided busway, provides high-speed access via the Torrens Valley…

  • State Tretyakov Gallery (museum, Moscow, Russia)

    Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow art museum founded by Pavel M. Tretyakov in 1856. It contains the world’s finest collection of 17th- and 18th-century Russian icons, having more than 40,000 of them. There are also 18th-century portraits, 19th-century historical paintings, and works of the Soviet period. T

  • State v. Tune (law case)

    William Brennan: …cases; in his dissent in State v. Tune (1953), in which the defendant was denied a copy of the confession; and in Jencks v. United States (1957), in which Brennan gave the court’s opinion, establishing a defendant’s right to examine the reports of government witnesses. In his dissents in Ker…

  • state vector (mathematics)

    control theory: Principles of control: …list of numbers (called the state vector) that expresses in quantitative form the effect of all external influences on the plant before the present moment, so that the future evolution of the plant can be exactly given from the knowledge of the present state and the future inputs. This situation…

  • state, change of (physics)

    phase: …altered to another form, a phase change is said to have occurred.

  • state, chief of

    Head of state, the highest representative of a sovereign state, who may or may not also be its head of government. The role of the head of state is primarily representative, serving to symbolize the unity and integrity of the state at home and abroad. The specific title of the head of state depends

  • State, Council of (Japanese history [13th century])

    Japan: The Hōjō regency: …a Council of State (Hyōjō-shū). In 1232 the council drew up a legal code known as the Jōei Formulary (Jōei Shikimoku). Its 51 articles set down in writing for the first time the legal precedents of the bakufu. Its purpose was simpler than that of the ritsuryō, the old…

  • State, Council of (Myanmar government)

    Myanmar: Administrative framework: The Council of State, which consisted of 29 members (one representative elected from each of the country’s 14 states and divisions, 14 members elected by the People’s Assembly as a whole, and the prime minister as an ex officio member), elected its own secretary and its…

  • State, Council of (Indian government)

    India: Constitutional reforms: …Assembly (lower house) and a Council of State (upper house). The Legislative Assembly, with 145 members, was to have a majority of 104 elected, while 33 of the Council of State’s 60 members were also to be elected. Enfranchisement continued to be based on property ownership and education, but under…

  • State, Council of (Portuguese government)

    Portugal: Justice: …and replaced them with a Council of State and the Constitutional Tribunal. Members of the Council of State are the president of the republic (who presides over the council), the president of the parliament, the prime minister, the president of the Constitutional Tribunal, the attorney general, the presidents of the…

  • State, Council of (Swedish government)

    Gustavus Adolphus: Resolution of internal problems: The Council of State became, for the first time, a permanent organ of government able to assume charge of affairs while the king was fighting overseas. An ordinance of 1617 fixed the number of estates in the Riksdag at four (nobles, clergy, burghers, and peasants) and…

  • State, Council of (Cuban government)

    Cuba: Constitutional framework: …twice-yearly sessions appoints a 31-member Council of State, which is headed by the president. The Council of State remains in session throughout the year and issues laws in the form of decrees. The president also appoints and presides over a Council of Ministers (cabinet), which carries on the daily administration…

  • State, Council of (Surinamese government)

    Suriname: Constitutional framework: …chairman of a nonelective, military-influenced Council of State, which ensures that the government’s actions conform to the law. It has constitutional powers to annul laws passed by the National Assembly. The judicial system consists of a Court of Justice and cantonal courts. Suriname is a member of the Caribbean Court…

  • state, equation of (physics)

    Equation of state, any of a class of equations that relate the values of pressure, volume, and temperature of a given substance in thermodynamic equilibrium. The simplest known example of an equation of state is the one relating the pressure P, the volume V, and the absolute temperature T of one

  • state, federal (government)

    political system: Federal systems: In federal systems, political authority is divided between two autonomous sets of governments, one national and the other subnational, both of which operate directly upon the people. Usually a constitutional division of power is established between the national government, which exercises authority over…

  • state, head of

    Head of state, the highest representative of a sovereign state, who may or may not also be its head of government. The role of the head of state is primarily representative, serving to symbolize the unity and integrity of the state at home and abroad. The specific title of the head of state depends

  • State, U.S. Department of (United States government)

    U.S. Department of State, executive division of the U.S. federal government responsible for carrying out U.S. foreign policy. Established in 1789, it is the oldest of the federal departments and the president’s principal means of conducting treaty negotiations and forging agreements with foreign

  • state, virial equation of (physics)

    gas: Equation of state: …of 1/v, known as the virial equation of state:

  • State, War, and Navy Building (building, Washington, District of Columbia, United States)

    Alfred B. Mullett: The State, War, and Navy Building is Mullett’s principal achievement. A massive structure in the Second Empire style, it was the largest office building in the world when completed. Steep mansard roofs with projecting dormers crown the building; the elaborate facade—no area is unadorned—is covered with…

  • State-Building: Governance and the World Order in the 21st Century (work by Fukuyama)

    Francis Fukuyama: He later wrote State-Building: Governance and the World Order in the 21st Century (2004), in which he discussed how fledgling democratic nations could be made to succeed.

  • state-sponsored terrorism (violence)

    terrorism: Types of terrorism: Establishment terrorism, often called state or state-sponsored terrorism, is employed by governments—or more often by factions within governments—against that government’s citizens, against factions within the government, or against foreign governments or groups. This type of terrorism is very common but difficult to identify, mainly because…

  • Statecraft school (Chinese history)

    Wei Yuan: …was a leader in the Statecraft school, which attempted to combine traditional scholarly knowledge with practical experience to find workable solutions to the problems plaguing the Chinese government. In 1826 he published the Huangchao jingshi wenbian (“Collected Essays on Statecraft Under the Reigning Dynasty”), a study of political and economic…

  • stated preferences (economics)

    Contingent valuation, a survey-based method of determining the economic value of a nonmarket resource. It is used to estimate the value of resources and goods not typically traded in economic markets. It is most commonly related to natural and environmental resources. Contingent valuation is

  • statement (accounting)

    Financial statement, any report of the financial condition or of the financial results of the operations of a business, a government, or other organization. The term is most often used in a more limited sense in trade and financial circles to refer to the balance sheet, statement of income, and

  • statement of changes in financial position (accounting)

    accounting: The statement of cash flows: Companies also prepare a third financial statement, the statement of cash flows. Cash flows result from three major aspects of the business: (1) operating activities, (2) investing activities, and (3) financing activities. These three categories are illustrated in Table 3.

  • Statement of Fundamental Truths (religious document)

    Assemblies of God: Subsequently, however, a Statement of Fundamental Truths was adopted. The document demonstrated that the Assemblies of God are Trinitarian (believing in God as Father, Son, and Holy Spirit) and Arminian (accepting the doctrines of grace and free will as espoused by the 16th–17th-century Dutch theologian Arminius). They also…

  • statement of sources and applications of funds (accounting)

    accounting: The statement of cash flows: Companies also prepare a third financial statement, the statement of cash flows. Cash flows result from three major aspects of the business: (1) operating activities, (2) investing activities, and (3) financing activities. These three categories are illustrated in Table 3.

  • statement of sources and uses of funds (accounting)

    accounting: The statement of cash flows: Companies also prepare a third financial statement, the statement of cash flows. Cash flows result from three major aspects of the business: (1) operating activities, (2) investing activities, and (3) financing activities. These three categories are illustrated in Table 3.

  • Statement on Race (work by Montagu)

    Ashley Montagu: …this and subsequent versions as Statement on Race (1951; rev. ed., 1972). Montagu also wrote on such varied topics as human evolution, culture, and child care, and possibly his most influential work is The Natural Superiority of Women (1953). In 1999 a heavily revised edition of the book was published.…

  • Statement, The (film by Jewison [2003])

    Norman Jewison: In 2003 Jewison directed The Statement (2003), chronicling the real-life efforts of vigilantes and law-enforcement officials to capture a Vichy war criminal, played by Michael Caine.

  • Statements (work by Weiner)

    Lawrence Weiner: …published the artist’s landmark book, Statements, a collection of 24 typewritten processes to follow in making a work of art. The book, which sold for $1.95 at Siegelaub’s gallery, had no illustrations, and some of the works described had not been produced. Weiner wrote the descriptions by using the past…

  • Statemine shaft (mine shaft, Netherlands)

    tunnels and underground excavations: Shaft sinking and drilling: …technique was in the 25-foot-diameter Statemine shaft in the Netherlands, 1,500 feet deep through soil that required about three and one-half years before completion in 1959. For the 1962 construction of some 200 missile shafts in Wyoming in soft rock (clay shale and friable sandstone), a giant auger proved effective…

  • Staten Island (island, Argentina)

    Andes Mountains: Physiography of the Southern Andes: …Andes begin on the mountainous Estados (Staten) Island, the easternmost point of the Tierra del Fuego archipelago, reaching an elevation of 3,700 feet. They run to the west through Grande Island, where the highest ridges—including Mounts Darwin, Valdivieso, and Sorondo—are all less than 7,900 feet high. The physiography of this…

  • Staten Island (island and borough, New York City, New York, United States)

    Staten Island, island and borough, New York City, southeastern New York state, U.S. The island lies in New York Harbor south of Manhattan and between New Jersey and Brooklyn. With several smaller islands it forms Richmond county and the Staten Island borough of New York City. Roughly triangular,

  • Staten som livsform (work by Kjellén)

    Rudolf Kjellén: …strong in Germany, where his Staten som livsform (1916; “The State as a Life-Form”) was widely read and where geopolitik took on an ideological meaning quite different from his social scientific concept.

  • Staten-Generaal (Dutch government)

    Netherlands: Constitutional framework: The States General (Staten-Generaal), as the parliament is officially known, consists of two houses: the First Chamber (Eerste Kamer), or Senate, whose members are elected by the members of the councils of the 12 provinces; and the directly elected Second Chamber (Tweede Kamer), or House of…

  • Staten-Generaal (Dutch history)

    States General, body of delegates representing the United Provinces of the Netherlands (Dutch Republic; 1579–1795). It is not to be confused with the present Netherlands parliament of the same name. The States General was instituted in the 15th century by the ruling dukes of Burgundy and was

  • Statens Historiska Museum (museum, Stockholm, Sweden)

    museum: Museums of antiquities: …archaeological repository, as does the State Historical Museum in Stockholm, which houses material recovered as early as the 17th century. The national archaeological museum in Greece was started at Aeginia in 1829. Certain European countries, however—the United Kingdom and Germany, for example—do not have well-developed national collections of antiquities, and…

  • States Bible (Dutch history)

    Netherlands: The Twelve Years’ Truce: …of the Bible (the famous States Bible, which consolidated the Dutch language much as the contemporary King James Version consolidated English). The triumph of Maurice and the Contra-Remonstrants meant that war with Spain would be a virtual certainty upon the expiration of the Twelve Years’ Truce in 1621—all the more…

  • States General (French history)

    Estates-General, in France of the pre-Revolution monarchy, the representative assembly of the three “estates,” or orders of the realm: the clergy (First Estate) and nobility (Second Estate)—which were privileged minorities—and the Third Estate, which represented the majority of the people. The

  • States General (Dutch history)

    States General, body of delegates representing the United Provinces of the Netherlands (Dutch Republic; 1579–1795). It is not to be confused with the present Netherlands parliament of the same name. The States General was instituted in the 15th century by the ruling dukes of Burgundy and was

  • States Parties, Assembly of (international organization)

    International Criminal Court: …countries are represented in the Assembly of States Parties, which oversees the activities of the ICC.

  • States Reorganization Act (1956, India)

    Madhya Pradesh: Madhya Pradesh since Indian independence: With the States Reorganization Act of 1956, Madhya Pradesh was redistributed along linguistic lines. The act transferred the southern Marathi-speaking districts of Madhya Pradesh to the Bombay state (now in Maharashtra) and merged several Hindi-speaking areas—the states of Bhopal and Vindhya Pradesh, as well as most of…

  • states’ rights (government)

    States’ rights, the rights or powers retained by the regional governments of a federal union under the provisions of a federal constitution. In the United States, Switzerland, and Australia, the powers of the regional governments are those that remain after the powers of the central government have

  • States’ Rights Democrat (political party, United States)

    Dixiecrat, member of a right-wing Democratic splinter group in the 1948 U.S. presidential election organized by Southerners who objected to the civil rights program of the Democratic Party. It met at Birmingham, Ala., and on July 17, 1948, nominated Gov. Strom Thurmond of South Carolina for

  • States, Council of (South Sudan government)

    South Sudan: Constitutional history: …Legislative Assembly (NLA) and the Council of States. Upon independence, the NLA body consisted of members of the previous regional legislative body, the South Sudan Legislative Assembly, and South Sudanese who had seats in Sudan’s National Assembly. The majority of NLA members were directly elected; the rest were elected from…

  • States, Council of (Indian government)

    Rajya Sabha, (Hindi: “Council of States”) the upper house of India’s bicameral legislature. The Rajya Sabha was designed by the framers of the Indian constitution as a check on the power of the Lok Sabha (“House of the People”), the legislature’s lower house. It represents the interests of the

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