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  • States-General (Dutch government)

    Netherlands: Constitutional framework: The States General (Staten-Generaal), as the parliament is officially known, consists of two houses: the First Chamber (Eerste Kamer), or Senate, whose members are elected by the members of the councils of the 12 provinces; and the directly elected Second Chamber (Tweede Kamer), or House of…

  • States-General (Dutch history)

    States General, body of delegates representing the United Provinces of the Netherlands (Dutch Republic; 1579–1795). It is not to be confused with the present Netherlands parliament of the same name. The States General was instituted in the 15th century by the ruling dukes of Burgundy and was

  • Statesman (work by Plato)

    Plato: Late dialogues: …of the Sophist and the Statesman, to be treated by genus-species division, are important roles in the Greek city; and the Philebus is a consideration of the competing claims of pleasure and knowledge to be the basis of the good life. (The Laws, left unfinished at Plato’s death, seems to…

  • Statesman Weekly (Indian magazine)

    history of publishing: India, Bangladesh, and Pakistan: …review for educated readers; the Statesman Weekly (founded 1924), an illustrated digest of Indian news and views; the monthly general review Current Events (founded 1955); Thought (New Delhi, 1949–78/79), a political and economic weekly; the monthly Akhand Anand (founded 1947); and the weekly Akashvani (founded 1936), Dharmayug (founded 1950), and…

  • Statesman’s Year-Book, The (publication)

    encyclopaedia: Other topics: The Statesman’s Year-Book, important for its statistical and political information, began publication in 1864. In 1868 the English publisher Joseph Whitaker first issued his Whitaker’s Almanack, and the World Almanack started in the same year. The Chicago Daily News Almanac appeared from 1885 to 1946,…

  • Statesman, The (Indian newspaper)

    The Statesman, English-language daily newspaper published in Kolkata and, with the Times of India and The Hindu, generally regarded as one of the most influential in India. It was established in 1875 by Robert Knight as an outgrowth of an earlier paper, The Friend of India (founded 1817). On

  • Stateville Correctional Center (penitentiary, Illinois, United States)

    panopticon: For example, the Stateville Correctional Center, a prison near Joliet, Ill., U.S., incorporates essential features of the panopticon.

  • Stateville Penitentiary (penitentiary, Illinois, United States)

    panopticon: For example, the Stateville Correctional Center, a prison near Joliet, Ill., U.S., incorporates essential features of the panopticon.

  • Statfjord (oil and gas field, North Sea)

    Statfjord, oil and gas field in the North Sea, shared by Norway and the United Kingdom. It lies about 112 miles (180 km) west of Sogn Fjord, on the western coast of Norway, and about 118 miles (190 km) northeast of the Shetland Islands. When Statfjord was discovered in 1974, it was the largest oil

  • Statham, Brian (British cricketer)

    Brian Statham, (“George,” “the Whippet”), British cricketer (born June 17, 1930, Gorton, near Manchester, Eng.—died June 11, 2000, Manchester), was one of England’s finest fast bowlers, renowned for his extraordinary accuracy and consistency. In his long playing career for Lancashire (1950–68, c

  • Statham, John Brian (British cricketer)

    Brian Statham, (“George,” “the Whippet”), British cricketer (born June 17, 1930, Gorton, near Manchester, Eng.—died June 11, 2000, Manchester), was one of England’s finest fast bowlers, renowned for his extraordinary accuracy and consistency. In his long playing career for Lancashire (1950–68, c

  • Stati Della Chiesa (historical region, Italy)

    Papal States, territories of central Italy over which the pope had sovereignty from 756 to 1870. Included were the modern Italian regions of Lazio (Latium), Umbria, and Marche and part of Emilia-Romagna, though the extent of the territory, along with the degree of papal control, varied over the

  • Stati della Chiesa (historical region, Italy)

    Papal States, territories of central Italy over which the pope had sovereignty from 756 to 1870. Included were the modern Italian regions of Lazio (Latium), Umbria, and Marche and part of Emilia-Romagna, though the extent of the territory, along with the degree of papal control, varied over the

  • Stati Pontifici (historical region, Italy)

    Papal States, territories of central Italy over which the pope had sovereignty from 756 to 1870. Included were the modern Italian regions of Lazio (Latium), Umbria, and Marche and part of Emilia-Romagna, though the extent of the territory, along with the degree of papal control, varied over the

  • Statia (island and Dutch special municipality, West Indies)

    Sint Eustatius, island and special municipality within the Kingdom of the Netherlands. It is in the Lesser Antilles, in the northeastern Caribbean Sea, about 16 miles (26 km) southeast of Saba and 5 miles (8 km) northwest of the island of Saint Kitts. Its capital is Oranjestad. Sint Eustatius

  • static (acoustics)

    Noise, in acoustics, any undesired sound, either one that is intrinsically objectionable or one that interferes with other sounds that are being listened to. In electronics and information theory, noise refers to those random, unpredictable, and undesirable signals, or changes in signals, that mask

  • static compression test (materials testing)

    materials testing: Static tension and compression tests: Static compression tests determine a material’s response to crushing, or support-type loading (such as in the beams of a house). Testing machines and extensometers for compression tests resemble those used for tension tests. Specimens are generally simpler, however, because gripping is not usually a problem.…

  • static electricity (physics)

    electricity: Coulomb’s law: Static electricity is a familiar electric phenomenon in which charged particles are transferred from one body to another. For example, if two objects are rubbed together, especially if the objects are insulators and the surrounding air is dry, the objects acquire equal and opposite charges…

  • static equilibrium (physics)

    Equilibrium, in physics, the condition of a system when neither its state of motion nor its internal energy state tends to change with time. A simple mechanical body is said to be in equilibrium if it experiences neither linear acceleration nor angular acceleration; unless it is disturbed by an

  • static friction (physics)

    friction: Static friction, in contrast, acts between surfaces at rest with respect to each other. The value of static friction varies between zero and the smallest force needed to start motion. This smallest force required to start motion, or to overcome static friction, is always greater…

  • static fusimotor axon (anatomy)

    human nervous system: Muscle spindles: …movement; the other type, the static fusimotor axon, decreases its sensitivity, causing it to behave much more like a secondary ending. Thus, the two types of efferent fibre provide a means whereby the sensitivity of the muscle spindle to external stimuli may be regulated over a very wide range. Stimulation…

  • static kill (oil industry)

    Deepwater Horizon oil spill: Leaking oil: …3 BP conducted a “static kill,” a procedure in which drilling mud was pumped into the well through the BOP. Though similar to the failed top kill, mud could be injected at much lower pressures during the static kill because of the stabilizing influence of the capping stack. The…

  • static pressure (meteorology and physics)

    airspeed indicator: …pressure of still air (static pressure) and that of moving air compressed by the craft’s forward motion (ram pressure); as speed increases, the difference between these pressures increases as well.

  • static RAM (computing)

    computer memory: Semiconductor memory: Static RAM (SRAM) consists of flip-flops, a bistable circuit composed of four to six transistors. Once a flip-flop stores a bit, it keeps that value until the opposite value is stored in it. SRAM gives fast access to data, but it is physically relatively large.…

  • static random-access memory (computing)

    computer memory: Semiconductor memory: Static RAM (SRAM) consists of flip-flops, a bistable circuit composed of four to six transistors. Once a flip-flop stores a bit, it keeps that value until the opposite value is stored in it. SRAM gives fast access to data, but it is physically relatively large.…

  • static shear test

    materials testing: Static shear and bending tests: Inplane shear tests indicate the deformation response of a material to forces applied tangentially. These tests are applied primarily to thin sheet materials, either metals or composites, such as fibreglass reinforced plastic.

  • static stability (nautical science)

    ship: Static stability: Accurately predicting a ship’s draft is a necessary result of correctly applied hydrostatic principles but is far from sufficient. If the many items of weight on a ship are not distributed with considerable precision, the ship will float at unwanted angles of heel…

  • static tension test (mechanics)

    materials testing: Static tension and compression tests: When subjected to tension (pulling apart), a material elongates and eventually breaks. A simple static tension test determines the breaking point of the material and its elongation, designated as strain (change in length per unit length). If a 100-millimetre steel…

  • static theory of gases (physics)

    gas: Kinetic-molecular picture: …and for many years a static picture of gases was instead espoused, in which the pressure, for instance, was attributed to repulsive forces between essentially stationary particles pushing on the container walls. How the kinetic-molecular picture finally came to be universally accepted is a fascinating piece of scientific history and…

  • static wind load

    bridge: Forces of nature: Static wind load is the horizontal pressure that tries to push a bridge sideways. Dynamic wind load gives rise to vertical motion, creating oscillations in any direction. Like the breaking of an overused violin string, oscillations are vibrations that can cause a bridge to fail.…

  • static-pressure compressor (machine)

    compressor: Positive displacement compressors are usually of the reciprocating piston type, in which the gas is drawn in during the suction stroke of the piston, compressed by decreasing the volume of the gas by moving the piston in the opposite direction, and, lastly, discharged when the…

  • statics (physics)

    Statics, in physics, the subdivision of mechanics that is concerned with the forces that act on bodies at rest under equilibrium conditions. Its foundations were laid more than 2,200 years ago by the ancient Greek mathematician Archimedes and others while studying the force-amplifying properties of

  • statin (drug)

    Statin, drug that acts to lower cholesterol levels by inhibiting the enzyme HMG-CoA (5-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A) reductase, which is required for cholesterol synthesis. Examples of statins include simvastatin, pravastatin, and lovastatin. Statins are generally quite safe, but side

  • station (land)

    Reservation, tract of land set aside by a government for the use of one or more aboriginal peoples. In the early 21st century, reservations existed on every continent except Antarctica but were most numerous in the United States, Canada, and Australia. Most of the reservations in these countries,

  • Station 19 (American television series)

    Grey's Anatomy: …spin-offs Private Practice (2007–13) and Station 19 (2018– ).

  • Station Agent, The (film by McCarthy [2003])

    Peter Dinklage: …in 2003 with the movie The Station Agent. The role of Finbar McBride, an introverted man who inherits an abandoned train station in Newfoundland, New Jersey, was created by writer and director Tom McCarthy specifically for Dinklage, and the film was the toast of the festival circuit. Dinklage was nominated…

  • station blackout

    nuclear reactor: Systems and structures: In station blackout, a failure in the power line to which the station is connected is postulated. The proposed emergency defense is a secondary electrical system, typically a combination of diesel generators big enough to drive the pumps and a battery supply sufficient to run the…

  • station drama (theatrical style)

    theatre: Production aspects of Expressionist theatre: …style of theatre was called Stationendrama (“station drama”) and was clearly derived from the principles of the medieval mystery plays. This led to a consideration of the scene in the theatre as being self-contained. Significance and meaning derived from the juxtaposition or accumulation of scenes rather than from a continuous…

  • station pointer (navigation)

    protractor: This instrument, called a three-arm protractor, or station pointer, is composed of a circular scale connected to three arms. The centre arm is fixed, while the outer two are rotatable, capable of being set at any angle relative to the centre one.

  • station wagon (automobile)

    automobile: From station wagons to vans and sport utility vehicles: Until 1948 the station wagon had been a utility vehicle, with a wooden body and little in the way of creature comforts. In 1949 Chrysler introduced an all-steel wagon in its entry-level Plymouth line. Within three years all manufacturers were offering them, and a genre of utilitarian yet…

  • station, railroad

    railroad: Buildings: …and surroundings of new passenger stations are laid out to provide adequate and convenient areas for connecting bus or trolley-car services, for private automobile parking, or for so-called “kiss-and-ride”—automobiles that are discharging or picking up rail passengers. Many existing stations have had their surroundings reorganized to provide these facilities.

  • stationary battery

    battery: Lead-acid batteries: Stationary batteries are now much more common than was once the case. These batteries have heavier grid structures and other features to give them long shelf life. They are used to power emergency lights, in uninterruptible power systems for hospitals, factories, and telephone exchanges, and…

  • stationary circular saw (tool)

    saw: The table saw (or stationary circular saw) consists of a circular saw that can be raised and tilted, protruding through a slot in a horizontal metal table on which the work can be laid and pushed into contact with the saw. This saw is one of…

  • stationary distribution (probability theory)

    probability theory: Markovian processes: …to a distribution, called the stationary distribution, that does not depend on the starting value X(0) = x. Moreover, with probability 1, the proportion of time the process spends in any subset of its state space converges to the stationary probability of that set; and, if X(0) is given the…

  • stationary exercise bicycle (exercise equipment)

    bicycle: Basic types: …front rider steering; and stationary exercise bicycles.

  • stationary front (meteorology)

    atmosphere: Polar fronts and the jet stream: …polar front is called a stationary front. In the occluded stage of the life cycle of an extratropical cyclone, when cold air west of the surface low-pressure centre advances more rapidly toward the east than cold air ahead of the warm front, warmer, less-dense air is forced aloft. This frontal…

  • stationary phase (bacterial growth curve)

    bacteria: Growth of bacterial populations: …growth is followed by the stationary phase, in which the size of a population of bacteria remains constant, even though some cells continue to divide and others begin to die. The stationary phase is followed by the death phase, in which the death of cells in the population exceeds the…

  • stationary phase (chromatography)

    Stationary phase, in analytical chemistry, the phase over which the mobile phase passes in the technique of chromatography. Chromatography is a separation process involving two phases, one stationary and the other mobile. Typically, the stationary phase is a porous solid (e.g., glass, silica, or

  • stationary process (mathematics)

    probability theory: Stationary processes: ” The mathematical theory of stochastic processes attempts to define classes of processes for which a unified theory can be developed. The most important classes are stationary processes and Markov processes. A stochastic process is called stationary if, for all n, t1 < t2…

  • stationary rings (gymnastics)

    Rings, gymnastics apparatus consisting of two small circles that are suspended by straps from an overhead support and grasped by the gymnast while performing various exercises. They were invented in the early 19th century by the German Friedrich Jahn, known as the father of gymnastics. Competition

  • stationary setting (theatre)

    theatre: Staging conventions: …of staging was the so-called stationary setting, found outside of England, which involved placing the mansions in a wider range of locales. Here the audience accepted three conventions. One was the symbolic representation of localities by the mansions; the second was the placing of the mansions near each other; and…

  • stationary state (atomic physics)

    Energy state, in physics, any discrete value from a set of values of total energy for a subatomic particle confined by a force to a limited space or for a system of such particles, such as an atom or a nucleus. A particular hydrogen atom, for example, may exist in any of several configurations, e

  • stationary transition probability (mathematics)

    probability theory: Markovian processes: A Markov process with stationary transition probabilities may or may not be a stationary process in the sense of the preceding paragraph. If Y1, Y2,… are independent random variables and X(t) = Y1 +?+ Yt, the stochastic process X(t) is a Markov process. Given X(t) = x, the

  • stationary wave (physics)

    Standing wave, combination of two waves moving in opposite directions, each having the same amplitude and frequency. The phenomenon is the result of interference—that is, when waves are superimposed, their energies are either added together or cancelled out. In the case of waves moving in the same

  • stationen-drama (theatrical style)

    theatre: Production aspects of Expressionist theatre: …style of theatre was called Stationendrama (“station drama”) and was clearly derived from the principles of the medieval mystery plays. This led to a consideration of the scene in the theatre as being self-contained. Significance and meaning derived from the juxtaposition or accumulation of scenes rather than from a continuous…

  • Stationendrama (theatrical style)

    theatre: Production aspects of Expressionist theatre: …style of theatre was called Stationendrama (“station drama”) and was clearly derived from the principles of the medieval mystery plays. This led to a consideration of the scene in the theatre as being self-contained. Significance and meaning derived from the juxtaposition or accumulation of scenes rather than from a continuous…

  • stationer (book copier)

    history of publishing: The revival of the secular book trade: University stationers were established to supply the demand; these were controlled by the universities, which framed regulations about the content and size of books and set prices for sale and for rental. The University of Vercelli in Piedmont, Italy, framed such a regulation in 1228, and…

  • Stationers’ Company (British publishing guild)

    almanac: …England were published by the Stationer’s Company; the most famous of them is the Vox Stellarum of Francis Moore, which was first published in 1700. These early printed almanacs devoted as much space to astrology and prophecies and predictions of the future as they did to basic calendrical and astronomical…

  • Stations of the Cross (work by Newman)

    Barnett Newman: …series of 14 paintings called “Stations of the Cross,” exhibited at the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York City, in 1966, fully established his reputation.

  • statism (politics)

    Turkey: Kemalist policies: Statism was the movement toward state-controlled economic development; the shortage of skilled labour and entrepreneurs (caused largely by the reduction of the Greek and Armenian communities, which in 1914 had controlled four-fifths of Ottoman finance, industry, and commerce), the lack of capital, and the intense…

  • Statism and Anarchy (work by Bakunin)

    communism: Non-Marxian communism: In Statism and Anarchy (1874), for example, Bakunin attacked Marx’s view that the transitional state—the dictatorship of the proletariat—would simply wither away after it had served its purpose of preventing a bourgeois counterrevolution. No state, said Bakunin, has ever withered away, and no state ever will.…

  • statistical decision theory (statistics)

    Decision theory, in statistics, a set of quantitative methods for reaching optimal decisions. A solvable decision problem must be capable of being tightly formulated in terms of initial conditions and choices or courses of action, with their consequences. In general, such consequences are not known

  • statistical determinism (statistics)

    probability and statistics: A new kind of regularity: The statistical determinism inaugurated by Quetelet had a quite different character. Now it was not necessary to know things in infinite detail. At the microlevel, indeed, knowledge often fails, for who can penetrate the human soul so fully as to comprehend why a troubled individual has…

  • statistical independence

    probability theory: Independence: One of the most important concepts in probability theory is that of “independence.” The events A and B are said to be (stochastically) independent if P(B|A) = P(B), or equivalently if

  • statistical inference (statistics)

    Inference, in statistics, the process of drawing conclusions about a parameter one is seeking to measure or estimate. Often scientists have many measurements of an object—say, the mass of an electron—and wish to choose the best measure. One principal approach of statistical inference is Bayesian

  • statistical mechanics (physics)

    Statistical mechanics, branch of physics that combines the principles and procedures of statistics with the laws of both classical and quantum mechanics, particularly with respect to the field of thermodynamics. It aims to predict and explain the measurable properties of macroscopic systems on the

  • Statistical Methods for Research Workers (work by Fisher)

    Sir Ronald Aylmer Fisher: His Statistical Methods for Research Workers (1925) remained in print for more than 50 years. His breeding experiments led to theories about gene dominance and fitness, published in The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection (1930). In 1933 Fisher became Galton Professor of Eugenics at University College,…

  • statistical model (physics)

    nuclear model: …second group, called strong-interaction, or statistical models, the main assumption is that the protons and neutrons are mutually coupled to each other and behave cooperatively in a way that reflects the short-ranged strong nuclear force between them. The liquid-drop model and compound-nucleus model (qq.v.) are examples of this group.

  • statistical physics (physics)

    probability and statistics: Statistical physics: The same issues were discussed also in physics. Statistical understandings first gained an influential role in physics at just this time, in consequence of papers by the German mathematical physicist Rudolf Clausius from the late 1850s and, especially, of one by the Scottish…

  • statistical process control (statistics)

    statistics: Statistical process control: Statistical process control uses sampling and statistical methods to monitor the quality of an ongoing process such as a production operation. A graphical display referred to as a control chart provides a basis for deciding whether the variation in the output of…

  • statistical quality control (statistics)

    statistics: Statistical quality control: Statistical quality control refers to the use of statistical methods in the monitoring and maintaining of the quality of products and services. One method, referred to as acceptance sampling, can be used when a decision must be made to accept or reject…

  • statistical validity

    psychological testing: Primary characteristics of methods or instruments: Empirical validity (also called statistical or predictive validity) describes how closely scores on a test correspond (correlate) with behaviour as measured in other contexts. Students’ scores on a test of academic aptitude, for example, may be compared with their school grades (a commonly used criterion).…

  • statistical-dynamical model (meteorology)

    tropical cyclone: Landfall forecasts: …type of model, called a statistical-dynamical model, forecasts the large-scale circulation by solving equations that describe changes in atmospheric pressure, wind, and moisture. Statistical relations that predict the track of the storm based on the large-scale conditions are then used to forecast the storm’s future position. A third type of…

  • statistics (science)

    Statistics, the science of collecting, analyzing, presenting, and interpreting data. Governmental needs for census data as well as information about a variety of economic activities provided much of the early impetus for the field of statistics. Currently the need to turn the large amounts of data

  • Statistics of the Flora of the Northern United States (work by Gray)

    Asa Gray: …paper on plant distribution, “Statistics of the Flora of the Northern United States,” was written partly in response to a request by Charles Darwin for a list of American alpine plants. Gray was one of the few persons whom Darwin kept fully informed concerning the publication of his Origin…

  • Statists (Belgian history)

    Jean-Fran?ois Vonck: …of the southern Netherlands, the Statists, led by Henri van der Noot, sought a return to rule by the nobility and clergy. Vonck formed a secret society, Pro Aris et Focis (For Altar and Hearth), which gained widespread support, and then organized a volunteer army based at Liège and commanded…

  • Statius (Roman poet)

    Statius, one of the principal Roman epic and lyric poets of the Silver Age of Latin literature (ad 18–133). His occasional poems, collected under the title Silvae (“Forests”), apart from their literary merit, are valuable for their description of the life style of a wealthy and fashionable

  • stative aspect (linguistics)

    Indo-European languages: Verbal inflection: ’ The stative aspect, traditionally called “perfect,” described states of the subject—e.g., *ste-stóH2- ‘be in a standing position,’ *me-món- ‘have in mind.’

  • Statler Hotel chain (American company)

    hotel: …York, in 1908 of the Statler Hotel, whose owner, Ellsworth Milton Statler, introduced many innovations in service and conveniences for the benefit of the large and growing class of business travelers. From the Buffalo Statler grew the Statler Company, the first great chain operation in hotelkeeping.

  • Statler, Ellsworth Milton (American businessman)

    Ellsworth Milton Statler, U.S. hotel owner, founder of the Statler chain. Statler grew up in Somerset County, Pennsylvania, and in Bridgeport, Ohio. Through most of his childhood he had to work because of his family’s poverty, and at 13 he got a job as a bellboy in a hotel in Wheeling, W.Va. He

  • Stato della Città del Vaticano

    Vatican City, ecclesiastical state, seat of the Roman Catholic Church, and an enclave in Rome, situated on the west bank of the Tiber River. Vatican City is the world’s smallest fully independent nation-state. Its medieval and Renaissance walls form its boundaries except on the southeast at St.

  • statoblast (biology)

    dormancy: Invertebrates: …bryozoans develop disklike buds, or statoblasts, that are surrounded by a hard, chitinous (horny) shell. These statoblasts are the dormant structures that survive when the bryozoan dies in the fall or during a drought; they form a new bryozoan colony when favourable environmental conditions again prevail.

  • statoconia (anatomy)

    inner ear: Equilibrium: …particles of calcium carbonate, called otoliths. Motions of the head cause the otoliths to pull on the hair cells, stimulating another auditory nerve branch, the vestibular nerve, which signals the position of the head with respect to the rest of the body.

  • statocyst (biology)

    bivalve: The nervous system and organs of sensation: …ganglia are a pair of statocysts, which comprise a capsule of ciliated sense cells. In the lumen is either a single statolith or numerous crystalline statoconia. Their points of contact with the surrounding cilia yield information about the animal’s orientation. Additionally, most bivalves with or without eyes have light-sensitive cells…

  • statolith (biology)

    crustacean: The nervous system: …or more small granules, called statoliths, that rest on numerous small setae. Any change in orientation causes the statoliths to impinge on the setae at a different angle, and this information is relayed to the brain so that corrective action can be taken. Finally, other setae are chemosensory; they detect…

  • statolithic membrane (anatomy)

    human ear: Vestibule: …a delicate acellular structure, the otolithic, or statolithic, membrane. This membrane is sometimes described as gelatinous, although it has a fibrillar pattern. The surface of the membrane is covered by a blanket of rhombohedral crystals, referred to as otoconia or statoconia, which consist of calcium carbonate in the form of…

  • stator (machine part)

    automobile: Transmission: …oil then passes into the stator vanes, which redirect it to the pump. The stator serves as a reaction member providing more torque to turn the turbine than was originally applied to the pump impeller by the engine. Thus, it acts to multiply engine torque by a factor of up…

  • stator coil (machine part)

    electric generator: Stator: …voltage is induced in the stator coil. At any instant, the magnitude of the voltage is proportional to the rate at which the magnetic field encircled by the coil is changing with time—i.e.,the rate at which the magnetic field is passing the two sides of the coil. The voltage will…

  • stator winding (machine part)

    electric generator: Stator windings: The maximum value of flux density in the air gap is limited by magnetic saturation in the stator and rotor iron, and is typically about one tesla (weber per square metre). The effective, or root-mean-square (rms), voltage induced in one turn of a…

  • statuary bronze (metallurgy)

    bronze: Statuary bronze, with a tin content of less than 10 percent and an admixture of zinc and lead, is technically a brass. Bronze is improved in hardness and strength by the addition of a small amount of phosphorus; phosphor bronze may contain 1 or 2…

  • statuary sculpture (art)

    Western sculpture: …there developed two general types: statuary, in which figures are shown in the round, and relief, in which figures project from a ground.

  • Statue of Liberty National Monument (monument, New York City, New York, United States)

    Statue of Liberty, colossal statue on Liberty Island in the Upper New York Bay, U.S., commemorating the friendship of the peoples of the United States and France. Standing 305 feet (93 metres) high including its pedestal, it represents a woman holding a torch in her raised right hand and a tablet

  • Statues Also Die (film by Resnais and Marker [1953])

    Alain Resnais: Les Statues meurent aussi (1953; Statues Also Die), his study of African art, was banned for 12 years for references to colonialism that he refused to alter. Some critics condemned Hiroshima mon amour for its sympathetic treatment of the heroine, once a wartime collaborationist and…

  • Statues meurent aussi, Les (film by Resnais and Marker [1953])

    Alain Resnais: Les Statues meurent aussi (1953; Statues Also Die), his study of African art, was banned for 12 years for references to colonialism that he refused to alter. Some critics condemned Hiroshima mon amour for its sympathetic treatment of the heroine, once a wartime collaborationist and…

  • statuette (sculpture)

    Anatolian religion: Prehistoric periods: …come a series of remarkable statuettes. The majority of these are abstract, disk-shaped idols without limbs; many of them have two, three, or even four heads, and others bear on their chests small male figures in relief, in one case accompanied by a lion. There can be little doubt that…

  • statumen (road construction)

    roads and highways: The Roman roads: …courses were constructed: (1) the statumen layer 10 to 24 inches (250 to 600 millimetres) thick, composed of stones at least 2 inches in size, (2) the rudus, a 9-inch-thick layer of concrete made from stones under 2 inches in size, (3) the nucleus layer, about 12 inches thick, using…

  • Stature (comic-book character)

    Ant-Man and the Wasp: …Pym particles, adopts the name Stature to fight crime as a member of the Young Avengers.

  • status asthmaticus (pathology)

    asthma: Treatment and management of asthma: …respond to medication is called status asthmaticus; a person with this condition must be hospitalized to receive oxygen and other treatment.

  • Status of the Union Act (South Africa [1934])

    South Africa: The intensification of apartheid in the 1930s: …that decision by enacting the Status of the Union Act, which declared the country to be “a sovereign independent state.”

  • Status of the World’s Tropical Forests

    As recently as the 19th century tropical forests covered approximately 20 percent of the dry land area on Earth. By the end of the 20th century this figure had dropped to less than 7 percent. The factors contributing to deforestation are numerous, complex, and often international in scope.

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