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  • status, social

    Social status, the relative rank that an individual holds, with attendant rights, duties, and lifestyle, in a social hierarchy based upon honour or prestige. Status may be ascribed—that is, assigned to individuals at birth without reference to any innate abilities—or achieved, requiring special

  • status-Indian (Canadian people)

    Canada: Native peoples: …as Indians are known as status Indians. Indians who have chosen to give up their status rights or who have lost them through intermarriage with those of European ancestry are called nonstatus Indians. (Beginning in 1985, Canadian law has allowed those who lost their status through intermarriage to reclaim it,…

  • statute (law)

    criminal law: Legality: …of criminal law is a statute (nullum crimen sine lege, “no crime without a law”).

  • statute labour (law)

    Statute labour, unpaid work on public projects that is required by law. Under the Roman Empire, certain classes of the population owed personal services to the state or to private proprietors—for example, labour in lieu of taxes for the upkeep of roads, bridges, and dikes; unpaid labour by coloni

  • statute law (law)

    common law: Early statute law: Edward I (reigned 1272–1307) has been called the English Justinian because his enactments had such an important influence on the law of the Middle Ages. Edward’s civil legislation, which amended the unwritten common law, remained for centuries as the basic statute law. It…

  • Statutes Concerning Peasants Leaving Serf Dependence (Russian history)

    Emancipation Manifesto: (The acts were collectively called Statutes Concerning Peasants Leaving Serf Dependence, or Polozheniya o Krestyanakh Vykhodyashchikh iz Krepostnoy Zavisimosty.)

  • Statuto Albertino (Italian constitution)

    Statuto Albertino, (March 4, 1848), constitution granted to his subjects by King Charles Albert of Piedmont-Sardinia; when Italy was unified under Piedmontese leadership (1861), it became the constitution of the Kingdom of Italy. Originally it was a rather conservative document that set up a strong

  • statutory construction (law)

    legislation: Interpretation: …process is found in the interpretation of legislation by the courts, since, unless compliance with the legislative will is automatic, it is at this point that legislation is given meaning and effect. Interpretation may be regarded as the process of attaching meaning to words. Although scholars have attempted to draw…

  • statutory interpretation (law)

    legislation: Interpretation: …process is found in the interpretation of legislation by the courts, since, unless compliance with the legislative will is automatic, it is at this point that legislation is given meaning and effect. Interpretation may be regarded as the process of attaching meaning to words. Although scholars have attempted to draw…

  • statutory lien (property law)

    lien: An example of a statutory lien in general use in the United States is the mechanic’s lien, most commonly of statutory creation, that confers upon builders, contractors, and others furnishing labour and materials for land improvement an interest in the land so improved as security for payment for their…

  • statutory rape (law)

    Statutory rape, in many jurisdictions, nonforced sexual relations between an adult and an individual who legally is not old enough to consent to the behavior. Laws, though variable, define when an individual is capable of making sexual activity decisions. The laws about statutory rape are complex

  • statutory trust (law)

    trust: Hence, statutory guardianships for minors and incompetents are sometimes called “statutory trusts.”

  • Statutum Armorum (medieval statute)

    tournament: About 1292 a Statutum Armorum (“Statute of Arms”) enacted that swords with points were not to be used (nor were pointed daggers, clubs, or maces). Fallen knights were to be helped up only by their own squires, wearing their heraldic device. The squire who offended was to lose…

  • Statutum in Favorem Principum (German charter)

    Germany: Frederick II and the princes: …to all territorial lords (Constitutio, or Statutum in Favorem Principum, 1232) gave them written guarantees against the activities of royal demesne officials and limited the development of imperial towns at the expense of episcopal territories. But the charters were not always observed, and until 1250 the crown remained formidable…

  • statvolt (unit of electrical measurement)

    electromotive force: …of electromotive force is the statvolt, or one erg per electrostatic unit of charge.

  • Staubach, Roger (American football player)

    Roger Staubach, American collegiate and professional gridiron football quarterback who was an important factor in the establishment of the National Football League (NFL) Dallas Cowboys as a dominant team in the 1970s. Staubach played college football at the U.S. Naval Academy (1962–65), where as a

  • Staubach, Roger Thomas (American football player)

    Roger Staubach, American collegiate and professional gridiron football quarterback who was an important factor in the establishment of the National Football League (NFL) Dallas Cowboys as a dominant team in the 1970s. Staubach played college football at the U.S. Naval Academy (1962–65), where as a

  • Staubbach Falls (waterfall, Switzerland)

    Staubbach Falls, waterfall in the Bernese Alps, south-central Switzerland, on the Staubbach, a stream near Lauterbrunnen. The name, meaning “spray stream,” is derived from its veil-like flow, which virtually disappears during dry seasons. The falls’ drop is 984 feet (300

  • Staudinger, Hermann (German chemist)

    Hermann Staudinger, German chemist who won the 1953 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for demonstrating that polymers are long-chain molecules. His work laid the foundation for the great expansion of the plastics industry later in the 20th century. Staudinger studied chemistry at the universities of

  • Staudt, Karl Georg Christian von (German mathematician)

    Karl Georg Christian von Staudt, German mathematician who developed the first purely synthetic theory of imaginary points, lines, and planes in projective geometry. Later geometers, especially Felix Klein (1849–1925), Moritz Pasch (1843–1930), and David Hilbert (1862–1943), exploited these

  • Staufer dynasty (German dynasty)

    Hohenstaufen dynasty, German dynasty that ruled the Holy Roman Empire from 1138 to 1208 and from 1212 to 1254. The founder of the line was the count Frederick (died 1105), who built Staufen Castle in the Swabian Jura Mountains and was rewarded for his fidelity to Emperor Henry IV by being appointed

  • Stauffenberg, Claus, Graf Schenk von (German military officer)

    Claus, Graf Schenk von Stauffenberg, German army officer who, as the chief conspirator of the July Plot, carried out an unsuccessful attempt to assassinate Adolf Hitler. Claus, Count Schenk von Stauffenberg, entered the German army in 1926 and won distinction as a staff officer with a panzer

  • Stauning, Thorvald (prime minister of Denmark)

    Thorvald Stauning, Danish Social Democratic statesman who as prime minister (1924–26, 1929–42) widened the base of his party by gaining passage of key economic and social welfare legislation. A tobacco worker and trade unionist, Stauning was elected secretary of the Social Democratic Party in 1898

  • Staunton (Virginia, United States)

    Staunton, city, seat (1738), of Augusta county (though administratively independent of it), north-central Virginia, U.S. It lies along the Shenandoah River, between Shenandoah National Park (east) and George Washington National Forest (west), 39 miles (63 km) northwest of Charlottesville. Settled

  • Staunton pattern (chess)

    chess: Set design: …the design was endorsed by Howard Staunton, then the world’s best player; because of Staunton’s extensive promotion, it subsequently became known as the Staunton pattern. Only sets based on the Staunton design are allowed in international competition today. See Figure 3.

  • Staunton, Howard (British chess player)

    Howard Staunton, British chess master who was considered to be the world’s leading player in the 1840s. In 1841 Staunton founded the first successful English chess magazine, and in 1851 he took the lead in organizing the first modern international chess tournament in London, where, however, he came

  • Staupers, Mabel Keaton (American nurse and executive)

    Mabel Keaton Staupers, Caribbean-American nurse and organization executive, most noted for her role in eliminating segregation in the Armed Forces Nurse Corps during World War II. Staupers immigrated to the United States with her family in 1903. In 1914 she enrolled in the Freedmen’s Hospital

  • Staupitz, Johann von (German clergyman)

    Johann von Staupitz, vicar-general of the German Augustinians during the revolt against the Roman Catholic church led by Martin Luther, of whom, for a time, he was teacher, patron, and counselor. From 1483 to 1489 Staupitz studied at the universities of Cologne and Leipzig, becoming an Augustinian.

  • Staurogyne (plant genus)

    Acanthaceae: (300), Aphelandra (170), Staurogyne (140), Dicliptera (150), Blepharis (130), Lepidagathis (100), Hygrophila (100), Thunbergia (90), and Dyschoriste (80). The small genus Avicennia contains at least eight species of

  • staurolite (mineral)

    Staurolite, silicate mineral [(Fe,Mg,Zn)3-4Al18Si8O48H2-4] produced by regional metamorphism in rocks such as mica schists, slates, and gneisses, where it is generally associated with other minerals such as kyanite, garnet, and tourmaline. Staurolite is a brittle, hard mineral that has a dull

  • Stauromedusae (cnidarian order)

    jellyfish: The fourth order, Stauromedusae, comprises some 30 described species of nonswimming, stalked jellies. These species occur chiefly in cooler waters. They are goblet-shaped and fixed by a basal stalk; the mouth is situated at the upper end. Ranging from 1 to 10 cm (0.4 to 4 inches) in…

  • Stauronereis (polychaete genus)

    annelid: Annotated classification: (palolo), Eunice, Stauronereis, Lumbineris, Onuphis. Order Orbiniida Sedentary; head pointed or rounded without appendages; proboscis eversible and unarmed; body divided into distinct thorax and abdomen; gills arise dorsally from thoracic region; size, minute to 40 cm; examples of genera:

  • staurotheotokion (type of hymn)

    troparion: …to the Virgin Mary; and staurotheotokion relates to the Virgin standing at the foot of the cross. There are also troparia for specific feasts and others that recur several times during the church year. In modern practice most troparia are recited, although a few are still chanted. One that has…

  • Stautner, Ernest (American athlete)

    Ernie Stautner, (Ernst Alfred Stautner), American football player (born April 20, 1925, Prinzing-bei-Cham, Ger.—died Feb. 16, 2006, Carbondale, Colo.), anchored the defense of the Pittsburgh Steelers though he was considered undersized for the position of defensive tackle. Stautner was named to n

  • Stautner, Ernie (American athlete)

    Ernie Stautner, (Ernst Alfred Stautner), American football player (born April 20, 1925, Prinzing-bei-Cham, Ger.—died Feb. 16, 2006, Carbondale, Colo.), anchored the defense of the Pittsburgh Steelers though he was considered undersized for the position of defensive tackle. Stautner was named to n

  • Stavanger (Norway)

    Stavanger, city and seaport, southwestern Norway. It is situated on the east side of a peninsula, with the Norwegian Sea on the west and Gands Fjord, a south branch of broad Bokna Fjord, on the east. Stavanger became the seat of a bishopric in the 12th century, when the Cathedral of St. Swithun was

  • stave (wood strip)

    barrel: …construction traditionally made from wooden staves and wooden or metal hoops. The term is also a unit of volume measure, specifically 31 gallons of a fermented or distilled beverage, or 42 gallons of a petroleum product. According to the 1st-century-ad Roman historian Pliny the Elder, the ancient craft of barrel…

  • stave (literature)

    Stanza, a division of a poem consisting of two or more lines arranged together as a unit. More specifically, a stanza usually is a group of lines arranged together in a recurring pattern of metrical lengths and a sequence of rhymes. The structure of a stanza (also called a strophe or stave) is

  • stave (music)

    Staff, in the notation of Western music, five parallel horizontal lines that, with a clef, indicate the pitch of musical notes. The invention of the staff is traditionally ascribed to Guido d’Arezzo in about the year 1000, although there are earlier manuscripts in which neumes (signs from which

  • stave church

    Stave church, in architecture, type of wooden church built in northern Europe mainly during the Middle Ages. Between 800 and 1,200 stave churches may have existed in the mid-14th century, at which time construction abruptly ceased. About 30 stave churches survive in Norway, nearly all dating from

  • stave oak (tree)

    White oak, any member of a group or subgenus (Leucobalanus) of North American ornamental and timber shrubs and trees of the genus Quercus in the beech family (Fagaceae). White oaks have smooth, bristleless leaves, sometimes with glandular margins, and acorns with sweet-tasting seeds that mature in

  • Staveley (England, United Kingdom)

    Chesterfield: Staveley nearby grew rapidly after the establishment in 1845 of the Staveley Iron and Coal Company. The 14th-century parish church, dedicated to St. Mary and All Saints, has a lead-covered wooden spire 228 feet (69 metres) high, which, as a result of timber warping, is…

  • Stavelot Abbey (abbey, Stavelot, Belgium)

    Western painting: The Meuse Valley: …production was the abbey of Stavelot. The decoration of the outstanding early manuscript from its scriptorium, the Stavelot Bible, of about 1094–97, is thework of various hands and is a perfect microcosm of the influences and interests that gave rise to the first Romanesque painting. The majestic enthroned Christ clearly…

  • Stavelot Bible (Romanesque manuscript)

    Western painting: The Meuse Valley: …manuscript from its scriptorium, the Stavelot Bible, of about 1094–97, is thework of various hands and is a perfect microcosm of the influences and interests that gave rise to the first Romanesque painting. The majestic enthroned Christ clearly has his ancestry in Ottonian compositions from the nearby scriptorium at Echternach.…

  • Stavenhagen, Bernhard (German pianist)

    Bernhard Stavenhagen, German pianist and conductor who played in the virtuoso style of Franz Liszt. Stavenhagen was one of Liszt’s last pupils (1885–86) and gave the oration at Liszt’s funeral. From 1886 to 1900 he toured most European countries and America. He was court conductor at Weimar from

  • Staver Island (island, Kiribati)

    Vostok Island, coral atoll in the Southern Line Islands, part of Kiribati, southwestern Pacific Ocean. It lies 400 miles (640 km) northwest of Tahiti. A low formation rising to 16 feet (5 metres) above sea level and with a land area of only 0.1 square mile (0.3 square km), it has no anchorage in

  • Stavisky Affair (French history)

    Stavisky affair, French financial scandal of 1933 that, by triggering right-wing agitation, resulted in a major crisis in the history of the Third Republic (1870–1940). The scandal came to light in December 1933 when the bonds of a credit organization in Bayonne, founded by the financier Alexandre

  • Stavisky, Alexandre (French financier)

    Stavisky affair: …Bayonne, founded by the financier Alexandre Stavisky, proved worthless. When Stavisky was found dead in January 1934, police officials said that he had committed suicide. Members of the French right believed, however, that Stavisky had been killed to prevent revelation of a scandal that would involve prominent people, including ministers…

  • Stavropol (town, Stavropol region, Russia)

    Stavropol, city and administrative centre of Stavropol kray (territory), southwestern Russia, situated on the Stavropol Upland near the source of the Grachovka River. It was founded in 1777 as a fortress. Although it was at first a major route and administrative centre, the city was later bypassed

  • Stavropol (kray, Russia)

    Stavropol, kray (territory), southwestern Russia, on the northern flank of the Greater Caucasus. The territory stretches from the crestline, which reaches 13,274 feet (4,046 m) in Mount Dombay-Ulgen, across the lower parallel ranges, which are broken by deep river gorges, and then across the

  • Stavropol (Russia)

    Tolyatti, city, Samara oblast (province), western Russia, on the Volga River. Founded as a fortress in 1738 and known as Stavropol, it was given city status in 1780 and again in 1946. Overshadowed by Samara, it remained unimportant until the beginning in 1950 of the huge V.I. Lenin barrage (dam)

  • Stavropol Upland (region, Russia)

    Caucasus: Physiography: Central Ciscaucasia includes the Stavropol Upland, characterized mainly by tablelands of limestone or sandstone separated by deep valleys; the Mineralnye Vody-Pyatigorsk zone to the southeast, where Mount Beshtau rises to 4,593 feet (1,400 metres) from the surrounding plateau; and, still farther to the southeast, the Terek and the Sunzha…

  • Stavropolis (ancient city, Turkey)

    Aphrodisias, ancient city of the Caria region of southwestern Asia Minor (Anatolia, or modern Turkey), situated on a plateau south of the Maeander River (modern Büyük Menderes). Remains of an Ionic temple of Aphrodite and of a stadium and portions of a bathhouse have long been evident, but,

  • Stavros (peak, Crete)

    ídi: One of ídi’s two peaks, Timios Stavros, at 8,058 feet (2,456 m), is Crete’s highest mountain. According to one legend Zeus was reared in the ídiean cave on the peak’s scrub-covered slopes. The well-known Kamares wares (Minoan polychrome pottery) are named for Kameres cave, where they were discovered. The limestone…

  • Stavrovouni (mountain, Cyprus)

    Cyprus: Relief: …coast to the 2,260-foot (689-metre) Stavrovouni peak, about 12 miles (19 km) from the southeastern coast. The range’s summit, Mount Olympus (also called Mount Troodos), reaches an elevation of 6,401 feet (1,951 metres) and is the island’s highest point.

  • Stax Records (American company)

    Stax Records: Founded in Memphis, Tennessee, in 1960 by country music fiddle player Jim Stewart and his sister Estelle Axton, following a previous false start with Satellite Records, Stax maintained a down-home, family atmosphere during its early years. Black and white musicians and singers worked together in…

  • Stax Records

    Founded in Memphis, Tennessee, in 1960 by country music fiddle player Jim Stewart and his sister Estelle Axton, following a previous false start with Satellite Records, Stax maintained a down-home, family atmosphere during its early years. Black and white musicians and singers worked together in

  • Stax/Volt Records (American company)

    Stax Records: Founded in Memphis, Tennessee, in 1960 by country music fiddle player Jim Stewart and his sister Estelle Axton, following a previous false start with Satellite Records, Stax maintained a down-home, family atmosphere during its early years. Black and white musicians and singers worked together in…

  • stay (ship part)

    rigging: The mast is supported by stays and shrouds that are known as the standing rigging because they are made fast; the shrouds also serve as ladders to permit the crew to climb aloft. The masts and forestays support all the sails. The ropes by which the yards, on square riggers,…

  • Stay with Me (recording by Smith)

    Sam Smith: …In the Lonely Hour, “Stay with Me,” a keening falsetto ballad that wistfully implores a one-night stand for affection, became a radio staple following its release in 2014. Smith cited the influences of singers such as Houston and Aretha Franklin, who both propelled their powerful, soaring voices to the…

  • stay-at-home order

    coronavirus: …and many businesses closed, and stay-at-home guidelines were implemented, which strongly encouraged people not to leave their places of residence.

  • Staying Alive (film by Stallone [1983])

    Sylvester Stallone: Stallone also wrote and directed Staying Alive (1983), a poorly received sequel to Saturday Night Fever (1977); both films starred John Travolta.

  • stays (clothing)

    Corset, article of clothing worn to shape or constrict the waist and support the bosom, whether as a foundation garment or as outer decoration. During the early eras of corsetry, corsets—called stays before the 19th century and made stiff with heavy boning—molded a woman’s upper body into a V-shape

  • Sta?ewski, Henryk (Polish artist)

    Henryk Sta?ewski, Polish painter and graphic artist who was a leading figure in Polish avant-garde art. Educated at the Warsaw Academy of Fine Arts (1913–19), Sta?ewski was a founding member of three Polish artist groups: Blok (1924–26), Praesens (1926–29), and a.r. (1929–36). During the early

  • STD (pathology)

    Sexually transmitted disease (STD), any disease (such as syphilis, gonorrhea, AIDS, or a genital form of herpes simplex) that is usually or often transmitted from person to person by direct sexual contact. It may also be transmitted from a mother to her child before or at birth or, less frequently,

  • STD system

    undersea exploration: Water sampling for temperature and salinity: Salinity-Temperature-Depth (STD) and the more recent Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) systems have greatly improved on-site hydrographic sampling methods. They have enabled oceanographers to learn much about small-scale temperature and salinity distributions.

  • Ste. Michelle Wine Estates (American company)

    Altria Group: …as Skoal and Copenhagen, and Ste. Michelle Wine Estates, a wine-making company based in Washington state. These two companies became subsidiaries of Altria Group. Another subsidiary, investment company Philip Morris Capital Corporation, was formed in 1982.

  • Stead, C. K. (New Zealand author)

    C.K. Stead, New Zealand poet and novelist who gained an international reputation as a critic with The New Poetic: Yeats to Eliot (1964), which became a standard work on Modernist poetry. Stead studied at the University of Auckland (B.A., 1954; M.A., 1955) and the University of Bristol, England

  • Stead, Christian Karlson (New Zealand author)

    C.K. Stead, New Zealand poet and novelist who gained an international reputation as a critic with The New Poetic: Yeats to Eliot (1964), which became a standard work on Modernist poetry. Stead studied at the University of Auckland (B.A., 1954; M.A., 1955) and the University of Bristol, England

  • Stead, Christina (Australian author)

    Christina Stead, Australian novelist known for her political insights and firmly controlled but highly individual style. Stead was educated at New South Wales Teachers College; she traveled widely and at various times lived in the United States, Paris, and London. In the early 1940s she worked as a

  • Stead, Christina Ellen (Australian author)

    Christina Stead, Australian novelist known for her political insights and firmly controlled but highly individual style. Stead was educated at New South Wales Teachers College; she traveled widely and at various times lived in the United States, Paris, and London. In the early 1940s she worked as a

  • Stead, William Thomas (British journalist)

    William Thomas Stead, British journalist, editor, and publisher who founded the noted periodical Review of Reviews (1890). Stead was educated at home by his father, a clergyman, until he was 12 years old and then attended Silcoates School at Wakefield. He became an apprentice in a merchant’s

  • Steadicam (photographic instrument)

    motion-picture technology: Camera supports: One such support is the Steadicam, which eliminates the tell-tale motions of the hand-held camera.

  • Steadman, Ralph (British artist and cartoonist)

    Ralph Steadman, British artist and cartoonist known for his provocative, often grotesque, illustrations frequently featuring spatters and splotches of ink and for his collaboration with American author and journalist Hunter S. Thompson. While Steadman was serving in the Royal Air Force (1954–56),

  • Steady Eddie (British economist and banker)

    Eddie George, British economist and banker who, as governor (1993–2003) of the Bank of England (BOE), guided the British central bank to independence and thus full control over the country’s monetary policy. After studying economics at Emmanuel College, Cambridge, George served briefly in the Royal

  • steady flow (physics)

    fluid mechanics: Bernoulli’s law: In steady flow, the fluid is in motion but the streamlines are fixed. Where the streamlines crowd together, the fluid velocity is relatively high; where they open out, the fluid becomes relatively stagnant.

  • steady-state hypothesis (cosmology)

    Steady-state theory, in cosmology, a view that the universe is always expanding but maintaining a constant average density, with matter being continuously created to form new stars and galaxies at the same rate that old ones become unobservable as a consequence of their increasing distance and

  • steady-state model (cosmology)

    Steady-state theory, in cosmology, a view that the universe is always expanding but maintaining a constant average density, with matter being continuously created to form new stars and galaxies at the same rate that old ones become unobservable as a consequence of their increasing distance and

  • steady-state theory (cosmology)

    Steady-state theory, in cosmology, a view that the universe is always expanding but maintaining a constant average density, with matter being continuously created to form new stars and galaxies at the same rate that old ones become unobservable as a consequence of their increasing distance and

  • steady-state universe (cosmology)

    Steady-state theory, in cosmology, a view that the universe is always expanding but maintaining a constant average density, with matter being continuously created to form new stars and galaxies at the same rate that old ones become unobservable as a consequence of their increasing distance and

  • steady-state wave (physics)

    sound: Steady-state waves: Fundamental to the analysis of any musical tone is the spectral analysis, or Fourier analysis, of a steady-state wave. According to the Fourier theorem, a steady-state wave is composed of a series of

  • steak (food)
  • steak and kidney pie (food)

    Steak and kidney pie, a traditional British dish consisting of diced steak, onion, and kidney—typically from a lamb or pig—cooked in a brown gravy and then wrapped in a pastry and baked. Mushrooms and bacon are sometimes included, and various ales, notably stout, can be added to the gravy. Steak

  • steak and kidney pudding (food)

    Steak and kidney pudding, a traditional British dish consisting of diced steak, onion, and kidney—generally from a lamb or pig—cooked in a brown gravy and then encased in a soft suet pastry and steamed for several hours. Mushrooms and bacon are sometimes added to the meat, and stout or other types

  • steak frites (food)

    Steak frites, (French: “steak [and] fries”) a simple dish of beef steak alongside strips of deep-fried potato. Its origins trace back to France and Belgium, and it is a mainstay in the cuisine of both countries. The dish can also be found in French-style bistros around the world. Steak frites has

  • Steal This Movie (film by Greenwald [2000])

    Abbie Hoffman: …operations—were dramatized in the film Steal This Movie (2000).

  • stealing (law)

    Theft, in law, a general term covering a variety of specific types of stealing, including the crimes of larceny, robbery, and burglary. Theft is defined as the physical removal of an object that is capable of being stolen without the consent of the owner and with the intention of depriving the

  • Stealing Beauty (work by Ben-Ner)

    Guy Ben-Ner: In 2007 he completed Stealing Beauty, a mischievous guerrilla video of sorts that he filmed without permission in several IKEA department stores. Using IKEA’s showrooms as if they were the setting for a sitcom, Ben-Ner and his family performed as characters. In this video he amusingly addressed such philosophical…

  • Stealing Beauty (film by Bertolucci [1996])

    Bernardo Bertolucci: Subsequent films included Stealing Beauty (1996), which centres on an American teenager’s visit to Italy, and The Dreamers (2003), an erotic thriller about an American student in Paris during the student protests of 1968.

  • stealth (military technology)

    Stealth, any military technology intended to make vehicles or missiles nearly invisible to enemy radar or other electronic detection. Research in antidetection technology began soon after radar was invented. During World War II, the Germans coated their U-boat snorkels with radar-absorbent

  • steam

    Steam, odourless, invisible gas consisting of vaporized water. It is usually interspersed with minute droplets of water, which gives it a white, cloudy appearance. In nature, steam is produced by the heating of underground water by volcanic processes and is emitted from hot springs, geysers,

  • steam automobile

    automobile: The age of steam: …runs unbroken to the 20th-century steam automobiles made as late as 1926. The grip of the steam automobile on the American imagination has been strong ever since the era of the Stanley brothers—one of whose “steamers” took the world speed record at 127.66 miles (205.45 km) per hour in 1906.…

  • steam blanching

    food preservation: Blanching: …a water bath or a steam chamber. Because steam blanchers use a minimal amount of water, extra care must be taken to ensure that the product is uniformly exposed to the steam. Steam blanching leafy vegetables is especially difficult because they tend to clump together. The effectiveness of the blanching…

  • steam blast

    George Stephenson: …power and introduced the “steam blast,” by which exhaust steam was redirected up the chimney, pulling air after it and increasing the draft. The new design made the locomotive truly practical.

  • steam carriage (vehicle)

    Sir Goldsworthy Gurney: …inventor who built technically successful steam carriages a half century before the advent of the gasoline-powered automobile.

  • steam coal (coal classification)

    bituminous coal: …coal is commonly called “steam coal,” and in Germany the term Steinkohle (“rock coal”) is used. In the United States and Canada bituminous coal is divided into high-volatile, medium-volatile, and low-volatile bituminous groups. High-volatile bituminous coal is classified on the basis of its calorific value on a moist, ash-free…

  • steam cracking

    petroleum refining: Olefins: Ethylene manufacture via the steam cracking process is in widespread practice throughout the world. The operating facilities are similar to gas oil cracking units, operating at temperatures of 840 °C (1,550 °F) and at low pressures of 165 kilopascals (24 pounds per square inch). Steam is added to the…

  • steam cycling (extraction process)

    heavy oil and tar sand: Steam soak: A common method involving the use of steam to recover heavy oil is known as steam soak, or steam cycling. It is essentially a well-bore stimulation technique in which steam generated in a boiler at the surface is injected into a production well…

  • steam digester

    Pressure cooker, hermetically sealed pot which produces steam heat to cook food quickly. The pressure cooker first appeared in 1679 as Papin’s Digester, named for its inventor, the French-born physicist Denis Papin. The cooker heats water to produce very hot steam which forces the temperature

  • steam distillation (process)

    distillation: Steam distillation is an alternative method of achieving distillation at temperatures lower than the normal boiling point. It is applicable when the material to be distilled is immiscible (incapable of mixing) and chemically nonreactive with water. Examples of such materials include fatty acids and soybean…

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