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  • steam engine (machine)

    Steam engine, machine using steam power to perform mechanical work through the agency of heat. A brief treatment of steam engines follows. For full treatment of steam power and production and of steam engines and turbines, see Energy Conversion: Steam engines. In a steam engine, hot steam, usually

  • steam flooding (extraction process)

    heavy oil and tar sand: Steam flooding: Continuous steam injection heats a larger portion of the reservoir and achieves the most efficient heavy oil recoveries. Known as steam flooding, this technique is a displacement process similar to waterflooding. Steam is pumped into injection wells, which in some cases are artificially…

  • steam generator (engineering)

    Boiler, apparatus designed to convert a liquid to vapour. In a conventional steam power plant, a boiler consists of a furnace in which fuel is burned, surfaces to transmit heat from the combustion products to the water, and a space where steam can form and collect. A conventional boiler has a f

  • steam hammer (engineering)

    James Nasmyth: …for his invention of the steam hammer.

  • steam heating (energy)

    construction: Improvements in building services: …technology in the form of steam heating. James Watt heated his own office with steam running through pipes as early as 1784. During the 19th century, systems of steam and later hot-water heating were gradually developed; these used coal-fired central boilers connected to networks of pipes that distributed the heated…

  • steam leavening

    baking: Entrapped air and vapour: The vaporization of volatile fluids (e.g., ethanol) under the influence of oven heat can have a leavening effect. Water-vapour pressure, too low to be significant at normal temperatures, exerts substantial pressure on the interior walls of bubbles already formed by other means as the interior of…

  • steam power (energy)

    energy conversion: Steam engines: …foundations for the use of steam power are often traced to the experimental work of the French physicist Denis Papin. In 1679 Papin invented a type of pressure cooker, a closed vessel with a tightly fitting lid that confined steam until high pressure was generated. Observing that the steam in…

  • steam soak (extraction process)

    heavy oil and tar sand: Steam soak: A common method involving the use of steam to recover heavy oil is known as steam soak, or steam cycling. It is essentially a well-bore stimulation technique in which steam generated in a boiler at the surface is injected into a production well…

  • steam turbine

    turbine: Steam turbines: A steam turbine consists of a rotor resting on bearings and enclosed in a cylindrical casing. The rotor is turned by steam impinging against attached vanes or blades on which it exerts a force in the tangential direction. Thus a steam turbine could…

  • steam-hauled plow (agriculture)

    John Fowler: …who helped to develop the steam-hauled plow. He began his career in the grain trade but later trained as an engineer. In 1850 he joined Albert Fry in Bristol to found a works to produce steam-hauled implements. Later, with Jeremiah Head, he produced a steam-hauled plow, which in winning the…

  • steamboat (vessel)

    Steamboat, any watercraft propelled by steam, but more narrowly, a shallow-draft paddle wheel steamboat widely used on rivers in the 19th century, and particularly on the Mississippi River and its principal tributaries in the United States. Steamboat pioneering began in America in 1787 when John

  • Steamboat ’Round the Bend (film by Ford [1935])

    Will Rogers: His last two films, Steamboat ’Round the Bend and In Old Kentucky, were released posthumously the same year.

  • Steamboat Geyser (geyser, Wyoming, United States)

    Yellowstone National Park: Physical features: …the park and also includes Steamboat Geyser, which can throw water to heights of 300 feet (90 metres) and higher and is the world’s highest-erupting geyser. Mammoth Hot Springs consists of a broad terraced hillside of travertine (calcium carbonate) deposited there by dozens of hot springs. Among its notable formations…

  • Steamboat Springs (Colorado, United States)

    Steamboat Springs, city, seat (1877) of Routt county, north-central Colorado, U.S. Located in the high Rocky Mountains at an elevation of 6,762 feet (2,061 metres), the town was supposedly named for Steamboat Spring, reported to have recalled to trappers the chugging of a steamboat. The area was

  • Steamboat Willie (cartoon)

    animation: Walt Disney: Steamboat Willie (1928), Mickey’s third film, took the country by storm. A missing element—sound—had been added to animation, making the illusion of life that much more complete, that much more magical. Later, Disney would add carefully synchronized music (The Skeleton Dance, 1929), three-strip Technicolor (Flowers…

  • steamer (mollusk)

    clam: The soft-shell clam (Mya arenaria), also known as the longneck clam, or steamer, is a common ingredient of soups and chowders. Found in all seas, it buries itself in the mud to depths from 10 to 30 cm. The shell is dirty white, oval, and 7.5…

  • steamer (ship)

    United Kingdom: Economy and society: …the 1870s and ’80s that steamship production came to its full realization, and by then British engineers and workers had been responsible for building railways in all parts of the world. By 1890 Britain had more registered shipping tonnage than the rest of the world put together.

  • steamer clam (mollusk)

    clam: The soft-shell clam (Mya arenaria), also known as the longneck clam, or steamer, is a common ingredient of soups and chowders. Found in all seas, it buries itself in the mud to depths from 10 to 30 cm. The shell is dirty white, oval, and 7.5…

  • steamer duck (bird)

    Steamer duck, (genus Tachyeres), any of four species of heavily built, big-billed sea ducks of southernmost South America and the Falkland Islands. The bird is named for its habit of running across the water with wings thrashing like a paddle-wheel steamboat. Of the four species, T. pteneres, T.

  • steaming (cooking)

    boiling: Steaming comprises two related techniques, both used primarily for the cooking of vegetables. In the first, the food is placed on a rack above a shallow portion of water, heated to the boil, in a covered pan; this method is valued for its preservation of…

  • steamship (ship)

    United Kingdom: Economy and society: …the 1870s and ’80s that steamship production came to its full realization, and by then British engineers and workers had been responsible for building railways in all parts of the world. By 1890 Britain had more registered shipping tonnage than the rest of the world put together.

  • Steamship Edmund Fitzgerald (ship)

    Edmund Fitzgerald, American freighter that sank during a storm on November 10, 1975, in Lake Superior, killing all 29 aboard. Its mysterious demise inspired Gordon Lightfoot’s hit song “The Wreck of the Edmund Fitzgerald” (1976), which helped make it the most famous shipwreck in the Great Lakes. In

  • stearic acid (chemical compound)

    Stearic acid, one of the most common long-chain fatty acids, found in combined form in natural animal and vegetable fats. Commercial “stearic acid” is a mixture of approximately equal amounts of stearic and palmitic acids and small amounts of oleic acid. It is employed in the manufacture of

  • stearin (chemical compound)

    fat and oil processing: Destearinating or winterizing: Separation of high-melting glycerides, or stearine, usually requires very slow cooling in order to form crystals that are large enough to be removed by filtration or centrifuging. Thus linseed oil may be winterized to remove traces of waxes that otherwise interfere with its use in paints and varnishes. Stearine may…

  • stearine (chemical compound)

    fat and oil processing: Destearinating or winterizing: Separation of high-melting glycerides, or stearine, usually requires very slow cooling in order to form crystals that are large enough to be removed by filtration or centrifuging. Thus linseed oil may be winterized to remove traces of waxes that otherwise interfere with its use in paints and varnishes. Stearine may…

  • Stearns, J. B. (American scientist)

    telegraph: Signal processing and transmission: Stearns of the United States completed refinement of the duplex transmission system originated in Germany by Wilhelm Gintl, which allowed the same line to be used simultaneously for sending and receiving, thus doubling its capacity. This system was further improved by the American inventor Thomas…

  • Stearns, Richard E. (American mathematician and computer scientist)

    Richard E. Stearns, American mathematician and computer scientist and cowinner, with American computer scientist Juris Hartmanis, of the 1993 A.M. Turing Award, the highest honour in computer science. Stearns and Hartmanis were cited for their “seminal paper which established the foundations for

  • Stearns, Richard Edwin (American mathematician and computer scientist)

    Richard E. Stearns, American mathematician and computer scientist and cowinner, with American computer scientist Juris Hartmanis, of the 1993 A.M. Turing Award, the highest honour in computer science. Stearns and Hartmanis were cited for their “seminal paper which established the foundations for

  • Stearns, Shubael (American religious leader)

    Baptist: Colonial period: Shubael Stearns, a New England Separate Baptist, migrated to Sandy Creek, North Carolina, in 1755 and initiated a revival that quickly penetrated the entire Piedmont region. The churches he organized were brought together in 1758 to form the Sandy Creek Association. Doctrinally these churches did…

  • stearyl alcohol (chemical compound)

    Stearyl alcohol, waxy solid alcohol formerly obtained from whale or dolphin oil and used as a lubricant and antifoam agent and to retard evaporation of water from reservoirs. It is now manufactured by chemical reduction of stearic

  • steatite (mineral)

    Steatite, compact form of talc

  • Steatornis caripensis (bird)

    Oilbird, (Steatornis caripensis), nocturnal bird of South America that lives in caves and feeds on fruit, mainly the nuts of oil palms. The oilbird is an aberrant member of the order Caprimulgiformes; it comprises the family Steatornithidae. About 30 centimetres (12 inches) long, with fanlike tail

  • steatorrhea (pathology)

    celiac disease: …of foul pale-coloured stools (steatorrhea), progressive malnutrition, diarrhea, decreased appetite and weight loss, multiple vitamin deficiencies, stunting of growth, abdominal pain, skin rash, and defects in tooth enamel. Advanced disease may be characterized by anemia

  • St?bark (Poland)

    Battle of Tannenberg: …War I battle fought at Tannenberg, East Prussia (now St?bark, Poland), that ended in a German victory over the Russians. The crushing defeat occurred barely a month into the conflict, but it became emblematic of the Russian Empire’s experience in World War I.

  • Stebbins, George Ledyard, Jr. (American botanist)

    George Ledyard Stebbins, Jr., American botanist and geneticist known for his application of the modern synthetic theory of evolution to plants. Called the father of evolutionary botany, he was the first scientist to synthesize artificially a species of plant that was capable of thriving under

  • Stebnitsky (Russian writer)

    Nikolay Semyonovich Leskov, novelist and short-story writer who has been described as the greatest of Russian storytellers. As a child Leskov was taken to different monasteries by his grandmother, and he used those early memories of Russian monastic life with good effect in his most famous novel,

  • Stechlin, Der (novel by Fontane)

    Theodor Fontane: His other major works are Der Stechlin (1899), which is noted for its charming style, and Schach von Wuthenow (1883; A Man of Honor), in which he portrays the weaknesses of the Prussian upper class.

  • Stecknitz Canal (canal, Germany)

    Stecknitz Canal, Europe’s first summit-level canal (canal that connects two water-drainage regions), linking the Stecknitz River (a tributary of the Trave River) with the Delvenau River (a tributary of the Elbe River). The 11.5-km (7-mile) canal was built between 1390 and 1398 to enable water

  • Stecknitzfahrt (canal, Germany)

    Stecknitz Canal, Europe’s first summit-level canal (canal that connects two water-drainage regions), linking the Stecknitz River (a tributary of the Trave River) with the Delvenau River (a tributary of the Elbe River). The 11.5-km (7-mile) canal was built between 1390 and 1398 to enable water

  • Steckrübenwinter (German history [1917])

    German Empire: The political crisis of 1916–17: …remembered in Germany as the Steckrübenwinter (“turnip winter”). Ludendorff had taken over a difficult strategic situation and had to conduct a defensive war, with dispiriting results, throughout 1917. The first Russian revolution (March 1917) encouraged left-wing feeling in Germany, and on April 7 Bethmann once more promised a democratic reform…

  • STED microscopy (physics)

    Stefan Hell: In Hell’s technique—called stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy—one laser beam excites the fluorescent molecules, but another turns off the fluorescence except from a small area. The laser beams are moved over the specimen, and an image is gradually built up. When he returned to Germany, he and his…

  • Stedelijk Museum (museum, Amsterdam, Netherlands)

    Stedelijk Museum, (Dutch: “City Museum”), in Amsterdam, municipal museum (established 1895) that has a famous collection of 19th- and 20th-century painting and sculpture. It features notable collections of canvases by Vincent van Gogh, artists of the de Stijl movement, and European and American

  • Stedfrysk (language)

    West Germanic languages: Dialects: …of these is the so-called City Frisian (Stedfrysk, or Stedsk) spoken in the cities of Leeuwarden, Franeker, Harlingen, Bolsward, Sneek, Staveren, and Dokkum. Despite the name, this is not Frisian at all but a variety of Dutch strongly influenced by Frisian. Similar in nature are the dialects of Heerenveen and…

  • Stedinger Crusade (European history)

    Stedinger Crusade, crusade (1229–34) against the Stedinger, a body of peasants labeled as heretics by the archbishop of Bremen. Although the archbishop secured papal support for a crusade, the charge of heresy was unsubstantiated, and the “crusade” was an attack led by the archbishop’s brother and

  • Stedman, Edmund Clarence (American writer)

    Edmund Clarence Stedman, poet, critic, and editor, whose writing was popular in the United States during the late 19th century. Stedman attended Yale, from which he was expelled, and became successively a newspaper proprietor and a stockbroker, writing all the while. As a critic Stedman wrote of

  • Stedman, Fabian (English musician)

    change ringing: …treatises on the subject were Fabian Stedman’s Tintinnalogia (1668) and his Campanologia (1677), which introduced his Grandsire Method and his Stedman’s Principle (a method).

  • Stedsk (language)

    West Germanic languages: Dialects: …of these is the so-called City Frisian (Stedfrysk, or Stedsk) spoken in the cities of Leeuwarden, Franeker, Harlingen, Bolsward, Sneek, Staveren, and Dokkum. Despite the name, this is not Frisian at all but a variety of Dutch strongly influenced by Frisian. Similar in nature are the dialects of Heerenveen and…

  • Steedman, James (United States general)

    Battle of Nashville: Battle: James Steedman led the first phase of the assault against the Army of Tennessee. He succeeded in keeping the Confederate right flank at bay until noon, when the main Union force advanced on Hood’s redoubts to the left. Hood’s men began to break, and by…

  • steel (metallurgy)

    Steel, alloy of iron and carbon in which the carbon content ranges up to 2 percent (with a higher carbon content, the material is defined as cast iron). By far the most widely used material for building the world’s infrastructure and industries, it is used to fabricate everything from sewing

  • steel alloy (metallurgy)

    materials science: Steel: …less than 1 percent), and alloy steels, which derive their strength, toughness, and corrosion resistance primarily from other elements, including silicon, nickel, and manganese, added in somewhat larger amounts. Developed in the l960s and resurrected in the late 1970s to satisfy the need for weight savings through greater strength, the…

  • steel band (music group)

    Steel band, Trinidadian music ensemble, particularly associated with Carnival, that is primarily composed of steel idiophones—called pans or steel pans—made from the bottoms of 55-gallon oil barrels. The barrel bottoms are hammered inward, different areas being shaped to yield distinct pitches.

  • Steel Committee, The (Iranian nationalist society)

    Sayyid Zia od-Din Tabataba?i: …joined a secret nationalist society, Anjuman-i Fulad (“The Steel Committee”), created a coalition of anticommunist politicians, and masterminded the coup d’état of Feb. 21/22, 1921, that made him prime minister of Iran. Soon after assuming that office, he quarreled with the coup’s military leader, Colonel Reza Khan (who in 1925…

  • steel drum (musical instrument)

    Steel drum, tuned gong made from the unstoppered end and part of the wall of a metal shipping drum. The end surface is hammered concave, and several areas are outlined by acoustically important chiseled grooves. It is heated and tempered, and bosses, or domes, are hammered into the outlined areas.

  • steel guitar (musical instrument)

    Oceanic music and dance: Hawaii: The Hawaiian, or steel, guitar is a metal-stringed adaptation of the European instrument that is played by stopping the strings with a metal bar.

  • Steel Helmet, The (film by Fuller [1951])

    Samuel Fuller: Films of the 1950s: The Steel Helmet (1951) was the first of Fuller’s war movies, a blistering account of the Korean War. It was the first American movie about that war and the first to mention the internment of Japanese Americans that had occurred during World War II. The…

  • steel industry

    Lakshmi Mittal: …of ArcelorMittal, the world’s largest steelmaking company.

  • Steel Magnolias (film by Ross [1989])

    Herbert Ross: Films of the 1980s: On the other hand, Steel Magnolias (1989), adapted by Robert Harling from his own play, was generally well received by the critics and a hit at the box office. The titular southern belles in this star-studded comedy set in Louisiana included MacLaine, Julia Roberts, Dolly Parton, and Sally Field

  • steel pan (musical instrument)

    Steel drum, tuned gong made from the unstoppered end and part of the wall of a metal shipping drum. The end surface is hammered concave, and several areas are outlined by acoustically important chiseled grooves. It is heated and tempered, and bosses, or domes, are hammered into the outlined areas.

  • steel pen (writing instrument)

    pen drawing: The development of excellent steel pens by the Englishman James Perry in the 1830s and the mass production by stamping pens from steel blanks led to the metal pen’s supplanting the quill. Nevertheless, artists only reluctantly adopted the steel pen, and most drawings in pen and ink done before…

  • steel rib set (construction)

    tunnels and underground excavations: Rock support: For many years steel rib sets were the usual first-stage support for rock tunnels, with close spacing of the wood blocking against the rock being important to reduce bending stress in the rib. Advantages are increased flexibility in changing rib spacing plus the ability to handle squeezing ground…

  • steel square (measurement instrument)

    square: …of machinist squares: the precision steel square, which resembles the try square in the Figure but is not graduated, and the combination square set. The latter consists of a steel ruler and three attachments that can slide and be clamped on it—namely, the centre head, the protractor, and the square…

  • Steel Wheels (album by the Rolling Stones)

    the Rolling Stones: Lineup changes, disbanding, and reunion: …reconvened in 1989 for their Steel Wheels album and tour. Wyman retired in 1992 and was replaced on tour by Daryl Jones, formerly a bassist for Miles Davis and Sting, and in the studio by a variety of guest musicians. Jagger, Richards, Watts, and Wood continue to trade as the…

  • steel wool (steel and abrasive)

    abrasive: Other abrasive products: …replaced much hand cleaning with steel wool. Steel wool still has some applications.

  • Steel Workers Organizing Committee (American labour union)

    United Steelworkers (USW), American labour union representing workers in metallurgical industries as well as in healthcare and other service industries. The union grew out of an agreement reached in 1936 between the newly formed Committee for Industrial Organization (CIO; later the Congress of

  • Steel, Danielle (American writer)

    Danielle Steel, American writer best known for her numerous best-selling romance novels. Steel was an only child. After her parents divorced, she was reared by relatives and family employees in Paris and New York City. By age 15 she had graduated from the Lycée Fran?ais, and in 1963 she enrolled in

  • Steel, David (British politician)

    Social Democratic Party: History: …whose relationship with Liberal leader David Steel proved to be considerably less harmonious than Jenkins’ had been. Aside from personal antipathies, the tension was caused partly by Owen’s desire to take economic and industrial policy further to the right and partly by the Liberals’ refusal to acknowledge Owen’s right to…

  • Steel, Dawn (American business executive)

    Dawn Steel, American business executive who became the first woman to head a major Hollywood film studio when she became (1987) president of Columbia Pictures; the intrepid Steel had shown her mettle while serving at Paramount Pictures as director of merchandising and both vice president and

  • Steel, John (British musician)

    the Animals: July 17, 1996), and John Steel (b. February 4, 1941, Gateshead, Durham).

  • steel, stainless (metallurgy)

    Stainless steel, any one of a family of alloy steels usually containing 10 to 30 percent chromium. In conjunction with low carbon content, chromium imparts remarkable resistance to corrosion and heat. Other elements, such as nickel, molybdenum, titanium, aluminum, niobium, copper, nitrogen, sulfur,

  • steel-belted tire

    tire: Pneumatic tire structures: …wire-mesh, hence the term “steel-belted radial” tire.

  • steel-frame (construction)

    Framed building, structure in which weight is carried by a skeleton or framework, as opposed to being supported by walls. The essential factor in a framed building is the frame’s strength. Timber-framed or half-timbered houses were common in medieval Europe. In this type the frame is filled in

  • steelband (music group)

    Steel band, Trinidadian music ensemble, particularly associated with Carnival, that is primarily composed of steel idiophones—called pans or steel pans—made from the bottoms of 55-gallon oil barrels. The barrel bottoms are hammered inward, different areas being shaped to yield distinct pitches.

  • Steele Rudd’s Magazine (Australian publication)

    Steele Rudd: In 1904 he founded Steele Rudd’s Magazine, a popular periodical that appeared at irregular intervals over the next 25 years. A champion of Australian writing, he published the work of many unknown writers who later achieved fame.

  • Steele, Alfred (American businessman)

    Joan Crawford: …Phillip Terry (1942–46) and to Alfred Steele (1955–59), chairman of the Pepsi-Cola Company. After his death in 1959 she became a director of the company and in that role hired her friend Dorothy Arzner to film several Pepsi commercials. Crawford’s adopted daughter Christina published Mommie Dearest (1978), an account of…

  • Steele, Jeffrey (artist)

    Op art: Anuszkiewicz, Larry Poons, and Jeffrey Steele. The movement first attracted international attention with the Op exhibition “The Responsive Eye” at the Museum of Modern Art in New York City in 1965. Op art painters devised complex and paradoxical optical spaces through the illusory manipulation of such simple repetitive forms…

  • Steele, Joshua (British writer)

    prosody: The 18th century: Joshua Steele’s Prosodia Rationalis (1779) is an early attempt to scan English verse by means of musical notation. (A later attempt was made by the American poet Sidney Lanier in his Science of English Verse, 1880.) Steele’s method is highly personal, depending on an idiosyncratic…

  • Steele, Michael (American politician)

    Michael Steele, American politician, the first African American to serve as chairman of the Republican National Committee (RNC; 2009–2011). Steele attended Johns Hopkins University, where he received a B.A. (1981) in international relations. A devout Roman Catholic, he studied for the priesthood

  • Steele, Michael Stephen (American politician)

    Michael Steele, American politician, the first African American to serve as chairman of the Republican National Committee (RNC; 2009–2011). Steele attended Johns Hopkins University, where he received a B.A. (1981) in international relations. A devout Roman Catholic, he studied for the priesthood

  • Steele, Shelby (American author and educator)
  • Steele, Sir Richard (British author and politician)

    Sir Richard Steele, English essayist, dramatist, journalist, and politician, best known as principal author (with Joseph Addison) of the periodicals The Tatler and The Spectator. Steele’s father, an ailing and somewhat ineffectual attorney, died when the son was about five, and the boy was taken

  • steelhead (fish)

    Steelhead, saltwater form of rainbow trout

  • steeling (welding process)

    hand tool: European usage: Steeling, or the welding of strips of steel to the iron head, was invented in the Middle Ages. The head was first rough-forged by bending a properly shaped piece of flat iron stock around an iron handle pattern to form the eye. Steeling could take…

  • Steely Dan (American rock band)

    Steely Dan, American rock band. Essentially a studio-based duo, Steely Dan drew from the gamut of American musical styles to create some of the most intelligent and complex pop music of the 1970s. The band members were guitarist Walter Becker (b. February 20, 1950, New York, New York, U.S.—d.

  • Steelyard, Merchants of the (association of German towns)

    Merchants of the Steelyard, in the later Middle Ages, members of the Hanseatic League, an association of north German towns, who resided at its London establishment, known as the Steelyard (probably from Low German stalgard, a courtyard). German merchants from Cologne had enjoyed privileges in

  • Steen, Jan (Dutch painter)

    Jan Steen, Dutch painter of genre, or everyday, scenes, often lively interiors bearing a moralizing theme. Steen is unique among leading 17th-century Dutch painters for his humour; he has often been compared to the French comic playwright Molière, his contemporary, and indeed both men treated life

  • Steen, Jan Havickszoon (Dutch painter)

    Jan Steen, Dutch painter of genre, or everyday, scenes, often lively interiors bearing a moralizing theme. Steen is unique among leading 17th-century Dutch painters for his humour; he has often been compared to the French comic playwright Molière, his contemporary, and indeed both men treated life

  • Steenberg, Ris? Gus (American opera singer)

    Ris? Stevens, (Ris? Gus Steenberg), American opera singer (born June 11, 1913, Bronx, N.Y.—died March 20, 2013, New York, N.Y.), attained superstar status onstage, on television and radio, and in films with her rich, velvety mezzo-soprano vocals. She was especially remembered for her performances

  • Steenburgen, Mary (American actress)

    Mary Steenburgen, American actress who was known for her charming and gentle demeanor in a wide variety of roles ranging from comic to villainous and from long-suffering to authoritative. Steenburgen grew up in Arkansas and performed in high school plays. She briefly attended Hendrix College in

  • Steenburgen, Mary Nell (American actress)

    Mary Steenburgen, American actress who was known for her charming and gentle demeanor in a wide variety of roles ranging from comic to villainous and from long-suffering to authoritative. Steenburgen grew up in Arkansas and performed in high school plays. She briefly attended Hendrix College in

  • Steenhoven, Cornelius (Dutch bishop)

    Old Catholic Church of the Netherlands: In 1723 the church elected Cornelius Steenhoven as its bishop, and he was subsequently consecrated by the missionary bishop of Babylon, Dominique-Marie Varlet. The church bases its claim to the apostolic succession of its bishops upon this event.

  • Steenrod, Norman (American mathematician)

    mathematics: Developments in pure mathematics: …member, and the American mathematician Norman Steenrod. Saunders Mac Lane, also of the United States, and Eilenberg extended this axiomatic approach until many types of mathematical structures were presented in families, called categories. Hence there was a category consisting of all groups and all maps between them that preserve multiplication,…

  • Steensen, Niels (Danish geologist)

    Nicolaus Steno, geologist and anatomist whose early observations greatly advanced the development of geology. In 1660 Steno went to Amsterdam to study human anatomy, and while there he discovered the parotid salivary duct, also called Stensen’s duct. In 1665 he went to Florence, where he was

  • Steep Canyon Rangers (American musical group)

    Steve Martin: …with the bluegrass band the Steep Canyon Rangers, and Love Has Come for You (2013), a Grammy-winning collaboration with singer-songwriter Edie Brickell. The latter album inspired the musical Bright Star, which premiered in 2014 and made its Broadway debut two years later. The duo cowrote the score, and Martin penned…

  • Steep Rock Lake belt (geological region, Ontario, Canada)

    Precambrian: Microfossils and stromatolites: 7-billion-year-old Steep Rock Lake belt in Ontario, Canada, they reach 3 metres (9 feet) in height and diameter. Stromatolites continued to form all the way through the geologic record and today grow in warm intertidal waters, as exemplified by those of Shark Bay in Western Australia.…

  • steeping (industry)

    beer: Steeping: Malting begins by immersing barley, harvested at less than 12 percent moisture, in water at 12 to 15 °C (55 to 60 °F) for 40 to 50 hours. During this steeping period, the barley may be drained and given air rests, or the steep…

  • steeple (architecture)

    Steeple, tall ornamental tower, sometimes a belfry, usually attached to an ecclesiastical or public building. The steeple is usually composed of a series of diminishing stories and is topped by a spire, cupola, or pyramid (qq.v.), although in ordinary usage the term steeple denotes the entire

  • steeple cup (metalwork)

    Steeple cup, tall standing cup, the cover of which characteristically bears an obelisk finial (sometimes surmounted by a figure) that rises on scrolled brackets from the cover. With an egg-shaped or globular bowl and cover, a short baluster stem, and a tall, trumpet-shaped foot, these cups seem to

  • steeple headdress

    dress: Colonial America: …men and women wore a steeple hat of felt or the more expensive beaver. Men also wore the montero cap, which had a flap that could be turned down, and the Monmouth cap, a kind of stocking cap. Women of all ages wore a French hood, especially in winter, when…

  • steeplechase (horse racing)

    Steeplechase, in horse racing, a race over jumps or obstacles. Although dating back to Xenophon (4th century bc), it derives its name from impromptu races by fox hunters in 18th-century Ireland over natural country in which church steeples served as course landmarks. It differs from hurdle racing,

  • steeplechase (athletics)

    Steeplechase, in athletics (track-and-field), a footrace over an obstacle course that includes such obstacles as water ditches, open ditches, and fences. The sport dates back to a cross-country race at the University of Oxford in 1850. As an Olympic track event (for men only), it was first run in

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