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  • Salvelinus fontinalis (fish)

    Brook trout, (Salvelinus fontinalis), popular freshwater game fish, a variety of char, regarded for its flavour and its fighting qualities when hooked. The brook trout belongs to the salmon family, Salmonidae. A native of the northeastern United States and Canada, it has been transplanted to many

  • Salvelinus malma (fish)

    Dolly Varden trout, (species Salvelinus malma), char of the family Salmonidae, found in northwestern North America and northeastern Asia. It has yellow spots on the back, reddish spots on the sides, and a white edge on the lower fins; it takes its name from that of a character in Charles Dickens’

  • Salvelinus namaycush (fish)

    Lake trout, (Salvelinus namaycush), large, voracious char, family Salmonidae, widely distributed from northern Canada and Alaska, U.S., south to New England and the Great Lakes basin. It is usually found in deep, cool lakes. The fish are greenish gray and covered with pale spots. In spring, lake

  • Salvi, Niccolò (Italian sculptor and architect)

    Nicola Salvi, Italian sculptor and architect whose late Roman Baroque masterpiece is the Trevi Fountain in Rome. After studying painting and architecture, Salvi competed unsuccessfully in 1732 for the commission to make the facade of San Giovanni in Laterano, Rome, but in the same year his project

  • Salvi, Nicola (Italian sculptor and architect)

    Nicola Salvi, Italian sculptor and architect whose late Roman Baroque masterpiece is the Trevi Fountain in Rome. After studying painting and architecture, Salvi competed unsuccessfully in 1732 for the commission to make the facade of San Giovanni in Laterano, Rome, but in the same year his project

  • salvia (plant)

    Salvia, (genus Salvia), genus of about 960 species of herbaceous and woody plants of the mint family (Lamiaceae). The genus is distributed throughout Eurasia and the Americas and is especially diverse in Central America and in the Mediterranean region. Some members are important as sources of

  • Salvia (plant)

    Salvia, (genus Salvia), genus of about 960 species of herbaceous and woody plants of the mint family (Lamiaceae). The genus is distributed throughout Eurasia and the Americas and is especially diverse in Central America and in the Mediterranean region. Some members are important as sources of

  • salvia (plant species, Salvia divinorum)

    salvia: divinorum, known colloquially as salvia, is a hallucinogenic plant native to Mexico. Salvia has historically been used by shamans to achieve altered states of consciousness and has grown in popularity as a recreational drug; the leaves can be eaten or smoked. The active ingredient, salvinorin A, induces intense but…

  • Salvia apiana (plant)

    evolution: Mechanical isolation: …in the upper lip, whereas S. apiana has long stamens and style and a specialized floral configuration. S. mellifera is pollinated by small or medium-sized bees that carry pollen on their backs from flower to flower. S. apiana, however, is pollinated by large carpenter bees and bumblebees that carry the…

  • Salvia farinacea (plant)

    salvia: Blue sage (S. farinacea) opens bright blue flowers after rains in the hills of southwestern North America. Possibly the best-known species is the garden annual scarlet sage (S. splendens) from Brazil, the blazing spikes of which contrast with dark green oval leaves.

  • Salvia hispanica (plant)

    Chia, (Salvia hispanica), species of flowering plant in the mint family (Lamiaceae), grown for its edible seeds. The plant is native to Mexico and Guatemala, where it was an important crop for pre-Columbian Aztecs and other Mesoamerican Indian cultures. Chia seeds are touted for their health

  • Salvia mellifera (plant)

    evolution: Mechanical isolation: …example: The two-lipped flowers of Salvia mellifera have stamens and style (respectively, the male structure that produces the pollen and the female structure that bears the pollen-receptive surface, the stigma) in the upper lip, whereas S. apiana has long stamens and style and a specialized floral configuration. S. mellifera is…

  • Salvia officinalis (plant)

    Sage, (Salvia officinalis), aromatic herb of the mint family (Lamiaceae) cultivated for its pungent leaves. Sage is native to the Mediterranean region and is used fresh or dried as a flavouring in many foods, particularly in stuffings for poultry and pork and in sausages. Some varieties are also

  • Salvia rosmarinus (herb)

    Rosemary, (Rosmarinus officinalis), small evergreen plant of the mint family (Lamiaceae), the leaves of which are used to flavour foods. Native to the Mediterranean region, rosemary has naturalized throughout much of Europe and is widely grown in gardens in warm climates. The leaves have a pungent,

  • Salvia sclarea (plant)

    salvia: …foliage used for flavouring is clary sage (S. sclarea), a taller, biennial herb with strong-smelling, hairy, heart-shaped leaves. Its white flowers and leaflike bracts below them are pinkish or violet-flushed. Both species are native to southern Europe.

  • Salvia splendens (plant)

    salvia: …species is the garden annual scarlet sage (S. splendens) from Brazil, the blazing spikes of which contrast with dark green oval leaves.

  • Salvia wagneri (plant)

    salvia: …most spectacular of which is Wagner’s salvia (S. wagneri), or chupamiel, a treelike shrub, native near the mountain lakes of Guatemala. It attains more than 4 metres (13 feet) in height and has triangular 30-cm (12-inch) spikes of woolly scarlet corollas opening from magenta calyxes. Blue sage (S. farinacea) opens…

  • Salviati, Antonio (Italian glassmaker)

    Antonio Salviati, Italian glass manufacturer who helped reestablish Murano as a centre of Italian glassworking and was instrumental in stimulating European interest in brightly coloured, ornate pieces of Italian glass. Murano had been a glassmaking centre since the European Middle Ages, but in the

  • Salviati, Francesco (Italian painter)

    Francesco Salviati, painter and designer, one of the leading Mannerist fresco painters of the Florentine-Roman school. Salviati studied and worked with Andrea del Sarto and in about 1531 was called by Cardinal Giovanni Salviati (from whom he took his surname) to work in Rome. He later worked for

  • Salvin, Anthony (British architect)

    Alnwick: …was replaced about 1855 by Anthony Salvin, who converted the interior to an Italian Renaissance-style palace.

  • Salvini, Matteo (Italian politician)

    Silvio Berlusconi: Political comeback: …a government, and Lega leader Matteo Salvini was named interior minister. Salvini used his position to advance a nativist Euroskeptic platform, and he quickly emerged as the most visible face on the Italian right. Berlusconi, however, continued to pursue a political comeback by tacking to the centre and promoting a…

  • Salvinia (fern)

    fern: Annotated classification: …Azolla (about 6 species) and Salvinia (about 10 species), of floating aquatics, distributed nearly worldwide but most diverse in the tropics. Family Marsileaceae (clover ferns) Plants heterosporous; rhizomes long-creeping, slender, glabrous or hairy; leaves with two or four leaflets at the petiole tip or lacking a blade altogether, the venation…

  • Salvinia auriculata (plant)

    fern: Distribution and abundance: …species of water spangles (Salvinia auriculata) became a major pest in India, blocking irrigation ditches and rice paddies. Another species (S. molesta) within three years covered 520 square kilometres (200 square miles) of the artificial Lake Kariba in southern Africa, cutting off light and oxygen and thus killing other…

  • Salvinia molesta (plant)

    fern: Distribution and abundance: Another species (S. molesta) within three years covered 520 square kilometres (200 square miles) of the artificial Lake Kariba in southern Africa, cutting off light and oxygen and thus killing other plant life and fish. Some fern species have been introduced into tropical or subtropical areas (e.g.,…

  • Salviniaceae (plant family)

    fern: Annotated classification: Salviniaceae (floating ferns) Plants heterosporous; stems usually relatively short, mostly appearing dichotomously branched, sometimes lacking roots; leaves either alternate and two-lobed with one lobe green and floating and the other submerged and white or translucent (Azolla) or in whorls of three with two leaves unlobed…

  • Salviniales (plant order)

    Salviniales, plant order containing two families of tiny ferns that float on water: Salviniaceae and Azollaceae, each consisting of one genus. Salvinia (water spangle, or floating moss) has about 10 species, and Azolla (mosquito fern) has six species. Roots are present in Azolla but missing from

  • Salvius, Johann Adler (Swedish diplomat)

    history of Europe: Problems solved by the war: …principal Swedish diplomat at Westphalia, Johann Adler Salvius, complained to his government in 1646 that

  • Salween River (river, Asia)

    Salween River, major stream of Southeast Asia and the longest in Myanmar (Burma). Rising in the T’ang-ku-la Mountains, a range of eastern Tibet, the river flows generally south for about 1,500 miles (2,400 km) through Yunnan province, China, and eastern Myanmar, emptying into the Gulf of Martaban

  • Salye, Marina Yevgenyevna (Russian geologist and politician)

    Marina Yevgenyevna Salye, Russian geologist and politician (born Oct. 19, 1934, Leningrad, Russia, U.S.S.R. [now St. Petersburg, Russia]—died March 21, 2012, Ostrov, Russia), sought to bring criminal charges for corruption against Vladimir Putin in the 1990s, claiming that in his role as head of

  • Salyut (Soviet space station series)

    Salyut, any of a series of Soviet space stations (of two designs), launched between 1971 and 1982, that served as living quarters and scientific laboratories or military reconnaissance platforms. The program name Salyut (Russian: “Salute”) was chosen to honour cosmonaut Yury Gagarin’s historic

  • Salyut 1 (Soviet space station series)

    Salyut, any of a series of Soviet space stations (of two designs), launched between 1971 and 1982, that served as living quarters and scientific laboratories or military reconnaissance platforms. The program name Salyut (Russian: “Salute”) was chosen to honour cosmonaut Yury Gagarin’s historic

  • Salyut 3 (Soviet space station series)

    Salyut, any of a series of Soviet space stations (of two designs), launched between 1971 and 1982, that served as living quarters and scientific laboratories or military reconnaissance platforms. The program name Salyut (Russian: “Salute”) was chosen to honour cosmonaut Yury Gagarin’s historic

  • Salyut 4 (Soviet space station series)

    Salyut, any of a series of Soviet space stations (of two designs), launched between 1971 and 1982, that served as living quarters and scientific laboratories or military reconnaissance platforms. The program name Salyut (Russian: “Salute”) was chosen to honour cosmonaut Yury Gagarin’s historic

  • Salyut 5 (Soviet space station series)

    Salyut, any of a series of Soviet space stations (of two designs), launched between 1971 and 1982, that served as living quarters and scientific laboratories or military reconnaissance platforms. The program name Salyut (Russian: “Salute”) was chosen to honour cosmonaut Yury Gagarin’s historic

  • Salyut 6 (Soviet space station series)

    Salyut, any of a series of Soviet space stations (of two designs), launched between 1971 and 1982, that served as living quarters and scientific laboratories or military reconnaissance platforms. The program name Salyut (Russian: “Salute”) was chosen to honour cosmonaut Yury Gagarin’s historic

  • Salyut 7 (Soviet space station series)

    Salyut, any of a series of Soviet space stations (of two designs), launched between 1971 and 1982, that served as living quarters and scientific laboratories or military reconnaissance platforms. The program name Salyut (Russian: “Salute”) was chosen to honour cosmonaut Yury Gagarin’s historic

  • Salza, Hermann von (German crusader)

    Hermann Von Salza , German grand master (Hochmeister), from 1210 to 1239, of the organization of German crusaders called the Teutonic Order. Born to a minor aristocratic family of Thuringia, Hermann had made his way by sheer ability to the powerful office of grand master of the Teutonic Order by

  • Salzburg (Austria)

    Salzburg, city, capital of Salzburg Bundesland (federal state), north-central Austria. It is situated in a level basin on both sides of the Salzach River near the northern foothills of the Alps and the Bavarian (German) border. The historic centre of the city, with its rich mix of art and

  • Salzburg (state, Austria)

    Salzburg, Bundesland (federal state), west-central Austria. It is bordered by Bavaria (Germany) on the west and north and is bounded by the Bundesl?nder Ober?sterreich on the north and east, Steiermark on the east, K?rnten on the south, and Tirol on the south and west. The province is drained by

  • Salzburg Festival (music festival, Salzburg, Austria)

    Salzburg: The Salzburg Festival now comprises recitals, concerts of orchestral and chamber music, church music, opera, and drama. The music of Mozart dominates the festival. The Festspielhaus (Festival Theatre), converted from the court stables built into the cliff of Monks’ Hill, consists of the Rock Riding School…

  • Salzburg Limestone Alps (mountains, Austria)

    Salzburg: …Alps and, farther north, the Salzburg Limestone Alps, whose karst features include caves, notably the ice caves of the Tennen Mountains. The Flysch Alps north and east of the city of Salzburg are part of the Alpine Salzkammergut.

  • Salzburg Marionette Theatre (theatre, Salzburg, Austria)

    puppetry: Styles of puppet theatre: In Austria the Salzburg Marionette Theatre specializes in Mozart operas and has achieved a high degree of naturalism and technical expertise. In Czechoslovakia—a country with a fine puppet tradition—Josef Skupa’s marionette theatre presented musical turns interspersed with witty satiric sketches introducing the two characters who gave their names…

  • Salzgitter (Germany)

    Salzgitter, city, Lower Saxony Land (state), north-central Germany. It lies in the foothills of the Harz Mountains, southwest of Braunschweig. The area covers the largest deposit of iron ore in Germany (no longer mined), and in 1937 the former Reichswerke (“state works”), the Hermann G?ring Reich

  • Salzillo y Alcaraz, Francisco (Spanish sculptor)

    Francisco Salzillo, sculptor, a prolific creator of figures for the Holy Week procession. He is considered by some authorities to be the greatest sculptor in 18th-century Spain and by others as merely an excellent folk artist. Growing up in provincial Murcia, he received his training from his

  • Salzillo, Francisco (Spanish sculptor)

    Francisco Salzillo, sculptor, a prolific creator of figures for the Holy Week procession. He is considered by some authorities to be the greatest sculptor in 18th-century Spain and by others as merely an excellent folk artist. Growing up in provincial Murcia, he received his training from his

  • Salzkammergut (region, Austria)

    Salzkammergut, region, north-central Austria. The region consists mainly of the Traun River basin and is renowned for its lake and mountain scenery. Often called the Austrian “Lake District,” it has more than 30 lakes, including the Atter, Traun, Mond, Wolfgang (Aber), and Hallst?tter. The highest

  • Salzmann, Siegmund (Austrian novelist)

    Felix Salten, Austrian novelist and journalist, author of the children’s classic and adult allegory Bambi, a sensitively told subjective story of the life of a wild deer. As a self-taught young writer he was befriended by Hugo von Hofmannsthal, Arthur Schnitzler, and Hermann Bahr. A journalist at

  • SAM (chemical compound)

    organosulfur compound: Sulfonium and oxosulfonium salts; sulfur ylides: …in nature; some examples include S-adenosyl methionine, a key biological source of the methyl group; thetin or 3-dimethylsulfonium propanoate, (CH3)2S+CH2CH2CO2?; and certain (2-hydroxyethyl)dimethylsulfoxonium salts, (CH3)2S+(O)CH2CH2OH. The latter two compounds occur in marine organisms. Thetin is an example

  • SAM (military weapon)

    Surface-to-air missile (SAM), radar or infrared guided missile fired from a ground position to intercept and destroy enemy aircraft or missiles. Surface-to-air missiles (SAMs) were developed to protect ground positions from hostile air attacks, specifically high-altitude bombers flying beyond the

  • Sam ’n’ Henry (American radio program)

    Amos ‘n’ Andy Show, popular radio and television program that had its roots in a 1926 radio program called Sam ‘n’ Henry. Because the Amos ‘n’ Andy radio show was based on the model of minstrel shows, thus based on racial stereotypes, and was voiced by two white entertainers from the late 1920s to

  • Sam and Dave (American music duo)

    Sam and Dave, American vocal duo who were among the most popular performers of soul music in the late 1960s and whose gritty, gospel-drenched style typified the Memphis Sound. Samuel Moore (b. Oct. 12, 1935, Miami, Fla., U.S.) and David Prater (b. May 9, 1937, Ocilla, Ga.—d. April 9, 1988) were

  • Sam Bass (ballad)

    ballad: Outlaws and badmen: …(“Dupree”), or pathological killers (“Sam Bass,” “Billy the Kid”) comments on the folk’s hostile attitude toward the church, constabulary, banks, and railroads. The kindly, law-abiding, devout, enduring steel driver “John Henry” is a rarity among ballad heroes.

  • Sam Browne belt (clothing)

    police: Personal equipment: …holster was attached to a Sam Browne belt—a wide belt, usually made of leather, supported by a strap extending diagonally over the right shoulder. The belt was ill-adapted to changes in other police equipment, however, and its use declined in the late 20th century. Today, the belts worn by uniformed…

  • Sam Houston Normal Institute (university, Huntsville, Texas, United States)

    Sam Houston State University, public coeducational institution of higher learning in Huntsville, Texas, U.S. It is part of the Texas State University System. The university includes colleges of business administration, criminal justice, sciences, fine arts and mass communication, humanities and

  • Sam Houston State College (university, Huntsville, Texas, United States)

    Sam Houston State University, public coeducational institution of higher learning in Huntsville, Texas, U.S. It is part of the Texas State University System. The university includes colleges of business administration, criminal justice, sciences, fine arts and mass communication, humanities and

  • Sam Houston State Teachers College (university, Huntsville, Texas, United States)

    Sam Houston State University, public coeducational institution of higher learning in Huntsville, Texas, U.S. It is part of the Texas State University System. The university includes colleges of business administration, criminal justice, sciences, fine arts and mass communication, humanities and

  • Sam Houston State University (university, Huntsville, Texas, United States)

    Sam Houston State University, public coeducational institution of higher learning in Huntsville, Texas, U.S. It is part of the Texas State University System. The university includes colleges of business administration, criminal justice, sciences, fine arts and mass communication, humanities and

  • Sam Houston, Fort (fort, Texas, United States)

    San Antonio: The contemporary city: Fort Sam Houston (1879), inside the city, is the headquarters of the U.S. Fifth Army and is the site of a national cemetery and the Academy of Health Sciences, the army’s basic school for medical personnel. Nearby are three U.S. Air Force bases: Lackland, Randolph,…

  • Sam Peng (section of Bangkok, Thailand)

    Bangkok: Traditional areas: …the area now known as Sam Peng. Business was at first carried on in one-story wood and thatch houses. By the early 1900s a number of streets had been lined with two-story masonry shop-houses. This ever-expanding district now contains rows of shop-houses that are sometimes five or more stories high.…

  • Sam Rainsy Party (political party, Cambodia)

    Cambodia: Tensions between the CPP and the opposition: …Funcinpec—as well as with the Sam Rainsy Party (SRP), another opposition party that had won nearly as many seats as Funcinpec in the elections—dragged into 2004, however, and were resolved only by midyear. In October 2004 Sihanouk resigned as king, and his youngest son, Norodom Sihamoni, succeeded him. Sihanouk continued…

  • Sam Saen Thai (king of Lan Xang)

    Sam Saen Thai, great sovereign of the Lan Xang kingdom of Laos, whose reign brought peace, prosperity, and stability to the kingdom. The eldest son of Fa Ngum, founder of Lan Xang, Un Heuan was installed as king in 1373. While his father had been a conqueror, Un Heuan excelled in administration.

  • Sam Sene Thai (king of Lan Xang)

    Sam Saen Thai, great sovereign of the Lan Xang kingdom of Laos, whose reign brought peace, prosperity, and stability to the kingdom. The eldest son of Fa Ngum, founder of Lan Xang, Un Heuan was installed as king in 1373. While his father had been a conqueror, Un Heuan excelled in administration.

  • Sam w?ród ludzi (novel by Brzozowski)

    Stanis?aw Brzozowski: The novel Sam w?ród ludzi (1911; “Alone Among Men”) is the first volume of what was intended to be a series of examinations of “the philosophical and political transformation of European consciousness.” Brzozowski started another novel that was incomplete at his death. His other novels include Pod…

  • Sam’s Club (American company)

    Sam Walton: In 1983 Walton founded Sam’s Wholesale Club, a chain of deep-discount wholesale warehouse outlets, and in 1988 he began opening Supercenters, which added full grocery fare to the regular merchandise offerings and dwarfed even the barnlike Wal-Mart stores in size. By 1990 Wal-Mart Stores had passed Sears, Roebuck and…

  • Sam’s Wholesale Club (American company)

    Sam Walton: In 1983 Walton founded Sam’s Wholesale Club, a chain of deep-discount wholesale warehouse outlets, and in 1988 he began opening Supercenters, which added full grocery fare to the regular merchandise offerings and dwarfed even the barnlike Wal-Mart stores in size. By 1990 Wal-Mart Stores had passed Sears, Roebuck and…

  • Sama (people)

    Sama, one of the largest and most diverse ethnolinguistic groups of insular Southeast Asia. The Sama live mainly in the southern half of the Sulu Archipelago, in the southwestern Philippines, although significant populations also live along the coasts of northeastern Borneo—primarily in the

  • SAMA (financial institution, Saudi Arabia)

    Saudi Arabia: Finance: The Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency (SAMA) was established in 1952 as the kingdom’s central money and banking authority. It regulates commercial and development banks and other financial institutions. Its functions include issuing, regulating, and stabilizing the value of the national currency, the riyal; acting as banker…

  • Sama, Bālkrish?a (Nepalese author)

    Nepali literature: …’30s with the work of Bālkrish?a Sama, who wrote lyric poetry, plays based on Sanskrit and English models, and some short stories. Sama and his great contemporary, the poet Lak?mīprasād Devko?ā, discarded the earlier Sanskrit-dominated literary tradition and adopted some literary forms of the West, notably prose poetry, tragic drama,…

  • samabhava (Hinduism)

    Mahatma Gandhi: The religious quest: The other was samabhava (“equability”), which enjoins people to remain unruffled by pain or pleasure, victory or defeat, and to work without hope of success or fear of failure.

  • Samadet faience (pottery)

    Samadet faience, tin-glazed earthenware made in the 18th century in Samadet, Landes, France, at a factory founded in 1732. It is delicately painted with such motifs as formal flowers and cupids, in pink, blue, yellow green, and purplish black on

  • samādhi (Indian philosophy)

    Samadhi, (Sanskrit: “total self-collectedness”) in Indian religion, and particularly in Hinduism and Buddhism, the highest state of mental concentration that a person can achieve while still bound to the body and which unites him with the highest reality. Samadhi is a state of profound and utterly

  • samadhi (Indian philosophy)

    Samadhi, (Sanskrit: “total self-collectedness”) in Indian religion, and particularly in Hinduism and Buddhism, the highest state of mental concentration that a person can achieve while still bound to the body and which unites him with the highest reality. Samadhi is a state of profound and utterly

  • samahartri (Mauryan official)

    India: Mauryan government: …kept the account, and the samahartri (chief collector), who was responsible for revenue records, formed the hub of the revenue administration. Each administrative department, with its superintendents and subordinate officials, acted as a link between local administration and the central government. Kautilya believed that a quarter of the total income…

  • Samain (ancient Celtic festival)

    Samhain, (Celtic: “End of Summer”) in ancient Celtic religion, one of the most important and sinister calendar festivals of the year. At Samhain, held on November 1, the world of the gods was believed to be made visible to humankind, and the gods played many tricks on their mortal worshippers; it

  • Samajwadi Party (political party, India)

    Samajwadi Party (SP), regional political party in India based in Uttar Pradesh state. The SP was formed in 1992 in Lucknow, and it professes a socialist ideology. Influenced by the veteran socialist leader Ram Manohar Lohia (1910–67), the party aimed at “creating a socialist society, which works on

  • Samak Sundaravej (prime minister of Thailand)

    Samak Sundaravej, Thai journalist and politician who served as prime minister of Thailand for several months (January–September) in 2008. He was the first Thai prime minister to be democratically elected since the ousting of Thaksin Shinawatra as prime minister in a September 2006 military coup.

  • Samakow, Battle of (Turkish history)

    Murad I: …over a Bulgarian-Serbian coalition at Samakow (now Samokovo). These victories brought large territories under direct Ottoman rule and made the princes of northern Serbia and Bulgaria, as well as the Byzantine emperor, Murad’s vassal.

  • Samakuva, Isaias (Angolan politician)

    UNITA: Isaias Samakuva was elected president of UNITA in June 2003.

  • Samal (people)

    Sama, one of the largest and most diverse ethnolinguistic groups of insular Southeast Asia. The Sama live mainly in the southern half of the Sulu Archipelago, in the southwestern Philippines, although significant populations also live along the coasts of northeastern Borneo—primarily in the

  • Samal (archaeological site, Turkey)

    Zincirli H?yük, archaeological site in the foothills of the Anti-Taurus Mountains, south-central Turkey. Samal was one of the Late Hittite city-states that perpetuated the more or less Semitized southern Anatolian culture for centuries after the downfall of the Hittite empire (c. 1190 bc). The

  • Samalan language

    Austronesian languages: Philippine languages: The Samalan dialects—spoken by the Sama-Bajau, the so-called sea gypsies in the Sulu Archipelago, and elsewhere in the Philippines—do not appear to belong to the Philippine group, and their exact linguistic position within the Austronesian family remains to be determined. Although the term Philippine language or…

  • Sāmān-Khudā (Sāmānid ruler)

    Iran: The Sāmānids: Their eponym was Sāmān-Khodā, a landlord in the district of Balkh and, according to the dynasty’s claims, a descendant of Bahrām Chūbīn, the Sāsānian general. Sāmān became Muslim. His four grandsons were rewarded for services to the caliph al-Ma?mūn (reigned 813–833) and received the caliph’s investiture for areas…

  • Samaná (Dominican Republic)

    Samaná, city, northeastern Dominican Republic, on the southern shore of the Samaná Peninsula. The city was founded in 1756 by Spaniards from the Canary Islands. In 1825 there was a notable influx of black immigrants from the United States. Samaná serves as a commercial and manufacturing centre for

  • Samaná Bay (bay, Dominican Republic)

    Samaná Bay, bay located in the northeastern Dominican Republic and lying along the Mona Passage joining the Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean Sea. Bounded on the north by the Samaná Peninsula, the bay measures about 40 miles (65 km) east-west and 15 miles (25 km) north-south. Its well-protected

  • Samana Cay (island, The Bahamas)

    Samana Cay, islet, eastern Bahamas, 22 miles (35 km) northeast of Acklins Island. About 10 miles (16 km) long and up to 2 miles (3 km) wide and bound by reefs, the verdant cay has long been uninhabited, but figurines, pottery shards, and other artifacts discovered there in the mid-1980s have been

  • samanantara-pratyaya (Buddhist philosophy)

    pratyaya: …the immediately preceding cause (samanantara-pratyaya), for, according to the Buddhist theory of universal momentariness (k?a?ikatva), the disappearance of the mental activity of the first moment is regarded as the cause for the appearance of that of the second moment; (3) the object as a cause (ālambana-pratyaya), since the object…

  • samandarin (chemical compound)

    steroid: Steroids of insects, fungi, and other organisms: … secretes a comparably poisonous alkaloid—samandarin (15).

  • sāma?era (Buddhism)

    pabbajjā: …a novice (Pāli sāma?era; Sanskrit ?rāma?era). The ceremony is also the preliminary part of higher ordination, raising a novice to a monk (see upasa?padā).

  • Sāmānid dynasty (Iranian dynasty)

    Sāmānid dynasty, (819–999 ce), Iranian dynasty that arose in what is now eastern Iran and Uzbekistan. It was renowned for the impulse that it gave to Iranian national sentiment and learning. The four grandsons of the dynasty’s founder, Sāmān-Khodā, had been rewarded with provinces for their

  • Samaniego, Félix María (Spanish poet)

    Félix María Samaniego, poet whose books of fables for schoolchildren have a grace and simplicity that has won them a place as the first poems that Spanish children learn to recite in school. Born into an aristocratic Basque family, Samaniego came under the influence of the French Encyclopédistes

  • Samaniego, Manuel (artist)

    Latin American art: Rococo: Manuel Samaniego portrayed the Virgin as a good shepherdess in peasant costume and Joseph as a worker with his clothes unbuttoned and loose. These aspects are both found in his painting of a full scene (late 18th century) depicting Joseph’s workshop, in which Joseph practices…

  • samanta (Indian government)

    India: The Guptas: During that period the term samanta, which originally meant neighbour, was beginning to be applied to intermediaries who had been given grants of land or to conquered feudatory rulers. There was also a noticeable tendency for some of the higher administrative offices to become hereditary. The lack of firm control…

  • Samantabhadra (bodhisattva)

    Samantabhadra, in Mahayana Buddhism, the bodhisattva (“buddha-to-be”) representing kindness or happiness. He is often represented in a triad with Shakyamuni (the Buddha) and the bodhisattva Manjushri; he appears seated on an elephant with three heads or with one head and six tusks. In China he is

  • Samantabhadra-cari-pra?idhāna-gatha (Buddhist text)

    Bhadracaryā-pra?idhāna, (Sanskrit: “Vows of Good Conduct”, ) (“Practical Vows of Samantabhadra”), a Mahāyāna (“Greater Vehicle”) Buddhist text that has also made an important contribution to the Tantric Buddhism of Tibet. Closely related to the Avata?saka-sūtra (“Discourse on the Adornments of the

  • Samantabhadra-caryā-pra?idhāna (Buddhist text)

    Bhadracaryā-pra?idhāna, (Sanskrit: “Vows of Good Conduct”, ) (“Practical Vows of Samantabhadra”), a Mahāyāna (“Greater Vehicle”) Buddhist text that has also made an important contribution to the Tantric Buddhism of Tibet. Closely related to the Avata?saka-sūtra (“Discourse on the Adornments of the

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    Vaisheshika: To these six was later added abhava,

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    Buddhist meditation: …four further spiritual exercises, the samapattis (“attainments”): (1) consciousness of infinity of space, (2) consciousness of the infinity of cognition, (3) concern with the unreality of things (nihility), and (4) consciousness of unreality as the object of thought.

  • Samar (island, Philippines)

    Samar, island, east-central Philippines, the third largest (after Luzon and Mindanao), part of the Visayan Islands archipelago. It lies between the Samar and Philippine seas and is separated from the Bicol Peninsula of Luzon (northwest) by the San Bernardino Strait. A bridge across the San Juanico

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    Samara, oblast (region), western Russia. It is located in the middle Volga River area where the river makes a great loop around the Zhiguli Hills. The hills, heavily forested and deeply dissected by ravines, rise to 1,214 feet (370 metres). The Volga left (east) bank, constituting most of the

  • samara (plant reproductive body)

    box elder: …seed is borne in a samara, or key—i.e., a broad, flat winglike structure. Owing to its quick growth and its drought resistance, the box elder was widely planted for shade by early settlers in the prairie areas of the United States. Maple syrup and sugar are sometimes obtained from the…

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