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  • Stonebreakers, The (painting by Courbet)

    Gustave Courbet: The development of Realism: …two of his greatest paintings: The Stonebreakers and Burial at Ornans. Painted in 1849, The Stonebreakers is a realistic rendering of two figures doing physical labour in a barren rural setting. The Burial at Ornans, from the following year, is a huge representation of a peasant funeral, containing more than…

  • stonebrood (insect disease)

    beekeeping: Diseases: Stonebrood, which affects both brood and adults, is also caused by a fungus, Aspergillus flavus, which can usually be isolated from bees that have stonebrood.

  • stonecat (fish)

    madtom: Species include the stonecat (N. flavus), a common, yellow-brown fish usually found under stones by day, and the tadpole madtom (N., or Schilbeodes, gyrinus), a tadpolelike catfish common in the eastern and central United States.

  • stonechat (bird)

    Stonechat, (species Saxicola torquatus), Eurasian and African thrush (family Muscicapidae, order Passeriformes) named for its voice, which is said to sound like pebbles clicked together. In this species, 13 cm (5 inches) long, the male is black above, with white neck patch and a smudge of reddish

  • stonecress (plant)

    Stonecress, (genus Aethionema), genus of about 65 species of mostly sprawling low herbs of the mustard family (Brassicaceae). Most species are native to chalky, dry soil areas of the Mediterranean region, with a few species in eastern Asia. A number of stonecresses are grown as rock garden or

  • stonecrop (plant)

    Stonecrop, (genus Sedum), genus of about 600 species of succulent plants in the family Crassulaceae, native to the temperate zone and to mountains in the tropics. Some species are grown in greenhouses for their unusual foliage and sometimes showy flowers. Low-growing species are popular in rock

  • stonecrop family (plant family)

    Crassulaceae, the stonecrop family of about 30 genera and 1,400 species of perennial herbs or low shrubs, the largest family in the order Saxifragales. The family is widespread from tropical to boreal regions but is concentrated in arid regions of the world. Many species are succulents and are

  • Stonecutters Island (area, Hong Kong, China)

    Hong Kong: …of the Kowloon Peninsula and Stonecutters (Ngong Shuen) Island (now joined to the mainland), ceded in 1860, and the New Territories, which include the mainland area lying largely to the north, together with 230 large and small offshore islands—all of which were leased from China for 99 years from 1898…

  • Stoned Soul Picnic (song by Nyro)

    Laura Nyro: … (“Wedding Bell Blues” and “Stoned Soul Picnic”), Barbra Streisand (“Stoney End”), Three Dog Night (“Eli’s Coming”), and Blood, Sweat and Tears (“And When I Die”). A wayward yet reclusive artist, Nyro resisted pressure to streamline her songs for mass consumption. She was shaken after being booed off the stage…

  • stoneface (plant)

    Lithops, (genus Lithops), genus of about 40 species of small succulent plants of the carpetweed family (Aizoaceae), native to southern Africa. The plants are generally found in rocky arid regions of southern Angola, Botswana, Namibia, and South Africa, and it is believed that their small rocklike

  • stonefish (fish, genus Synanceia)

    Stonefish, (Synanceia), any of certain species of venomous marine fish of the genus Synanceia and the family Synanceiidae, found in shallow waters of the tropical Indo-Pacific. Stonefish are sluggish bottom-dwelling fish that live among rocks or coral and in mudflats and estuaries. Thickset fish

  • stonefish (fish)

    Scorpionfish, any of the numerous bottom-living marine fish of the family Scorpaenidae, especially those of the genus Scorpaena, widely distributed in temperate and tropical waters. Sometimes called rockfish or stonefish because they commonly live among rocks, scorpionfish are perchlike fish with

  • stonefly (insect)

    Stonefly, (order Plecoptera), any of about 2,000 species of insects, the adults of which have long antennae, weak, chewing mouthparts, and two pairs of membranous wings. The stonefly ranges in size from 6 to more than 60 mm (0.25 to 2.5 inches). The hindwings are generally larger and shorter than

  • Stonehenge (ancient monument, Wiltshire, England, United Kingdom)

    Stonehenge, prehistoric stone circle monument, cemetery, and archaeological site located on Salisbury Plain, about 8 miles (13 km) north of Salisbury, Wiltshire, England. It was built in six stages between 3000 and 1520 bce, during the transition from the Neolithic Period (New Stone Age) to the

  • Stonehenge I (ancient monument, Salisbury, England, United Kingdom)

    Stonehenge: First stage: 3000–2935 bce: The oldest part of the Stonehenge monument was built during the period from 3000 to 2935 bce. It consists of a circular enclosure that is more than 330 feet (100 metres) in diameter, enclosing 56 pits called the Aubrey Holes, named…

  • Stonehenge II (ancient monument, Salisbury, England, United Kingdom)

    Stonehenge: Second stage: 2640–2480 bce: Except for human burials, there is no evidence of activity between Stonehenge’s first and second stages of construction. About 2500 bce the sarsen stones were brought from the Avebury area of the Marlborough Downs, about 20 miles (32 km) to the…

  • Stonehenge III (ancient monument, Salisbury, England, United Kingdom)

    Stonehenge: Third stage: 2470–2280 bce: Radiocarbon dating indicates that the side ditches and banks of a ceremonial avenue almost 2 miles (3 km) long were dug from Stonehenge to the River Avon at some time in the period between 2470 and 2280 bce. It is possible…

  • Stonehenge IV (ancient monument, Salisbury, England, United Kingdom)

    Stonehenge: Fourth, fifth, and sixth stages: 2280–1520 bce: The fourth stage of Stonehenge’s construction occurred between 2280 and 2030 bce. About 2200 bce the bluestones were rearranged to form a circle and an inner oval. Atkinson thought that this inner oval was subsequently modified in prehistory to form a horseshoe, but this transformation may…

  • Stonehenge Riverside Project (archaeology project, United Kingdom)

    Stonehenge: Speculation and excavation: …the research team of the Stonehenge Riverside Project led to further revisions of the context and sequence of Stonehenge. Darvill and Wainwright’s 2008 excavation was smaller but nonetheless important.

  • Stonehenge V (ancient monument, Salisbury, England, United Kingdom)

    Stonehenge: Fourth, fifth, and sixth stages: 2280–1520 bce: At some point during Stonehenge’s fifth stage, between 2030 and 1750 bce, a ring of pits known as the Z Holes was dug outside the sarsen circle. A second ring of pits, called the Y Holes, was dug during the monument’s sixth and final stage of construction, between 1640 and…

  • Stonehenge VI (ancient monument, Salisbury, England, United Kingdom)

    Stonehenge: Fourth, fifth, and sixth stages: 2280–1520 bce: …was dug during the monument’s sixth and final stage of construction, between 1640 and 1520 bce. As with all radiocarbon dating, the precise dates of such events can only be estimated within many decades, if not centuries.

  • Stonehenge: Plans, Description, and Theories (work by Petrie)

    Sir Flinders Petrie: His Stonehenge: Plans, Description, and Theories was published in 1880, and in that same year he began the surveys and excavation of the Great Pyramid at Giza, which initiated his four decades of exploration in the Middle East.

  • Stoneman, Ernest (American musician)

    autoharp: In the 1920s Ernest (“Pop”) Stoneman developed an Appalachian folk style of plucking and strumming the strings and began making recordings. The instrument was also made popular by Maybelle Carter, affiliated after World War II with the Grand Ole Opry in Nashville.

  • Stonemason’s Yard, The (painting by Canaletto)

    Canaletto: …the late 1720s, such as The Stonemason’s Yard, he combined a freedom and subtlety of manner that he was rarely to achieve again with an unrivaled imaginative and dramatic interpretation of Venetian architecture. His understanding of sunlight and shadow, cloud effects, and the play of light on buildings support the…

  • stonemint (plant)

    dittany: (gas plant; Dictamnus albus), American dittany (common dittany; Cunila origanoides), and dittany of Crete (Cretan dittany, or hop marjoram; Origanum dictamnus). European dittany is in the rue family (Rutaceae), while the other two species are in the mint family (Lamiaceae). All three species are bushy perennials cultivated for their…

  • Stones of the Field (work by Thomas)

    R.S. Thomas: …most notably those found in Stones of the Field (1946) and Song at the Year’s Turning: Poems 1942–1954 (1955), contained a harshly critical but increasingly compassionate view of the Welsh people and their stark homeland. In Thomas’s later volumes, starting with Poetry for Supper (1958), the subjects of his poetry…

  • Stones of Venice, The (treatise by Ruskin)

    The Stones of Venice, treatise on architecture by John Ruskin. It was published in three volumes in 1851–53. Ruskin wrote the work in order to apply to the architecture of Venice the general principles enunciated in his The Seven Lamps of Architecture. Volume I, The Foundations, discusses

  • Stones River (river, Tennessee, United States)

    Stones River, river formed by the confluence of the East Fork Stones and West Fork Stones rivers in Rutherford county, central Tennessee, U.S. It flows about 40 miles (65 km) northwest to enter the Cumberland River 8 miles (13 km) east of Nashville and was named for Uriah Stone, one of four men who

  • Stones River, Battle of (American Civil War [1862–1863])

    Battle of Stones River, (December 31, 1862–January 2, 1863), bloody but indecisive American Civil War clash in Tennessee that was a psychological victory for Union forces. General Braxton Bragg’s 34,700-man Confederate army was confronted on Stones River near Murfreesboro by 41,400 Union troops

  • stonewall (beverage)

    rum: …to produce a beverage called stonewall.

  • Stonewall Inn (bar, New York City, New York, United States)

    gay rights movement: The gay rights movement since the mid-20th century: …of June 28, 1969, the Stonewall Inn, a gay bar in New York City’s Greenwich Village, was raided by the police. Nearly 400 people joined a riot that lasted 45 minutes and resumed on succeeding nights. “Stonewall” came to be commemorated annually in June with Gay Pride celebrations, not only…

  • Stonewall riots (United States history)

    Stonewall riots, series of violent confrontations that began in the early hours of June 28, 1969, between police and gay rights activists outside the Stonewall Inn, a gay bar in the Greenwich Village section of New York City. As the riots progressed, an international gay rights movement was born.

  • Stonewall uprising (United States history)

    Stonewall riots, series of violent confrontations that began in the early hours of June 28, 1969, between police and gay rights activists outside the Stonewall Inn, a gay bar in the Greenwich Village section of New York City. As the riots progressed, an international gay rights movement was born.

  • stoneware

    Stoneware, pottery that has been fired at a high temperature (about 1,200° C [2,200° F]) until vitrified (that is, glasslike and impervious to liquid). Although usually opaque, some stoneware is so thinly potted that it is somewhat translucent. Because stoneware is nonporous, it does not require a

  • stonework

    Masonry, the art and craft of building and fabricating in stone, clay, brick, or concrete block. Construction of poured concrete, reinforced or unreinforced, is often also considered masonry. The art of masonry originated when early man sought to supplement his valuable but rare natural caves with

  • stonewort (green algae)

    Stonewort, (order Charales), order of green algae (class Charophyceae) comprising six genera. Most stoneworts occur in fresh water and generally are submerged and attached to the muddy bottoms of fresh or brackish rivers and lakes. Stoneworts are of little direct importance to humans. However, many

  • Stoney End (song by Nyro)

    Laura Nyro: …Soul Picnic”), Barbra Streisand (“Stoney End”), Three Dog Night (“Eli’s Coming”), and Blood, Sweat and Tears (“And When I Die”). A wayward yet reclusive artist, Nyro resisted pressure to streamline her songs for mass consumption. She was shaken after being booed off the stage by Janis Joplin fans at…

  • Stoney, George C. (American filmmaker)

    George Cashel Stoney, American filmmaker (born July 1, 1916, Winston-Salem, N.C.—died July 12, 2012, New York, N.Y.), focused on social issues and ordinary people in some 50 documentaries. The best known of his films, All My Babies (1953), was intended to educate midwives in rural areas; it was

  • Stoney, George Cashel (American filmmaker)

    George Cashel Stoney, American filmmaker (born July 1, 1916, Winston-Salem, N.C.—died July 12, 2012, New York, N.Y.), focused on social issues and ordinary people in some 50 documentaries. The best known of his films, All My Babies (1953), was intended to educate midwives in rural areas; it was

  • Stoney, George Johnstone (Irish physicist)

    George Johnstone Stoney, physicist who introduced the term electron for the fundamental unit of electricity. In 1848 Stoney became assistant to the astronomer William Parsons Rosse, who secured for him a professorship in natural philosophy (natural science) at Queen’s College, Galway (1852). In

  • Stonies (people)

    Assiniboin, North American Plains Indians belonging to the Siouan linguistic family. During their greatest prominence the tribe lived in the area west of Lake Winnipeg along the Assiniboin and Saskatchewan rivers, in what are now the Canadian provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba. The

  • Stonington (Connecticut, United States)

    Stonington, town (township), New London county, southeastern Connecticut, U.S., on Long Island Sound and the Rhode Island state line. The town includes Stonington borough (incorporated 1801) and the villages of Mystic and Pawcatuck. Settled in 1649 by colonists from Plymouth, it was given its

  • Stonington Island (island, Antarctica)

    Stonington Island, island, eastern Marguerite Bay, west of Palmer Peninsula, Antarctica. The island, about 2,500 feet (760 m) long and 1,000 feet (300 m) wide, was named for Stonington, Conn., the home port of the sloop Hero, from which Nathaniel Palmer saw Antarctica in 1820. It was the East

  • Stono rebellion (American slave rebellion [1739])

    Stono rebellion, large slave uprising on September 9, 1739, near the Stono River, 20 miles (30 km) southwest of Charleston, South Carolina. Slaves gathered, raided a firearms shop, and headed south, killing more than 20 white people as they went. Other slaves joined the rebellion until the group

  • Stony Brook (New Jersey, United States)

    Princeton, borough (town) and township, Mercer county, western New Jersey, U.S. It lies along the Millstone River, 11 miles (18 km) northeast of Trenton. The borough was incorporated in 1813; it is surrounded by the township (incorporated 1838) that also includes the community of North Princeton.

  • Stony Brook (New York, United States)

    Stony Brook, unincorporated village in Brookhaven town (township), Suffolk county, southeastern New York, U.S. Located on the northern shore of Long Island, on Stony Brook Harbor, it was settled by Boston colonists in 1655. In the 19th century the shipbuilding industry flourished there. Stony Brook

  • stony coral (invertebrate)

    cnidarian: Size range and diversity of structure: …hydroids, hydrocorals, and soft and hard corals, however, proliferate asexually into colonies, which can attain much greater size and longevity than their component polyps. Certain tropical sea anemones (class Anthozoa) may be a metre in diameter, and some temperate ones are nearly that tall. Anthozoans are long-lived, both individually and…

  • Stony Hill (Jamaica)

    Jamaica: Climate: At Stony Hill, 1,400 feet (427 metres) above sea level, the maximum and minimum means are only a few degrees cooler.

  • stony iron meteorite (astronomy)

    Stony iron meteorite, any meteorite containing substantial amounts of both rocky material (silicates) and nickel-iron metal. Such meteorites, which are often called stony irons, are an intermediate type between the two more common types, stony meteorites and iron meteorites. In specimens of one

  • Stony Man (mountain, Virginia, United States)

    Blue Ridge: …the highest point in Georgia; Stony Man (4,011 feet [1,223 metres]) and Hawksbill (4,051 feet [1,235 metres]), in Virginia; and Grandfather Mountain (5,946 feet [1,812 metres]), in North Carolina.

  • stony meteorite (astronomy)

    Stony meteorite, any meteorite consisting largely of rock-forming (silicate) minerals. Stony meteorites, which are the most abundant kind of meteorite, are divided into two groups: chondrites and achondrites. Chondrites are physically and chemically the most primitive meteorites in the solar

  • Stony Point (New York, United States)

    Stony Point, unincorporated village and town (township), Rockland county, southeastern New York, U.S. It lies on the west bank of the Hudson River, about 38 miles (61 km) north of midtown New York City. The name derives from the rocky promontory jutting into the Hudson. The Stony Point Battlefield

  • Stony Point Battlefield State Historic Site (park, Stony Point, New York, United States)

    Stony Point: The Stony Point Battlefield State Historic Site (part of the Palisades Interstate Park) commemorates an event in July 1779 during the American Revolution, when a strongly fortified British post was stormed and captured by General Anthony Wayne’s American troops. The Treason (Joshua Hett Smith) House (now…

  • Stony Point, Battle of (United States history)

    Anthony Wayne: …of the British fort at Stony Point, New York (July 16, 1779). This feat gave a huge boost in morale to the American armies. Wayne earned the name “Mad Anthony” because of his tactical boldness and his personal courage in the field. In September 1780, when it was learned that…

  • Stony the Road: Reconstruction, White Supremacy, and the Rise of Jim Crow (work by Gates)

    Henry Louis Gates, Jr.: …of Our Roots (2009), and Stony the Road: Reconstruction, White Supremacy, and the Rise of Jim Crow (2019).

  • Stony Tunguska River (river, Russia)

    Podkamennaya Tunguska River, tributary of the Yenisey River in western Siberia, Irkutsk oblast (province), Russia. It has a total length of 1,159 miles (1,865 km) and a drainage basin of 96,100 square miles (249,000 square km). Known in its upper section as the Katanga, it rises on the Central

  • Stonyhurst College (school, Clitheroe, England, United Kingdom)

    Stonyhurst College, Roman Catholic school for boys in Lancanshire, Eng., conducted by the Jesuits. It originated in a college for English boys founded at Saint-Omer (France) in 1593, later moved to Bruges and then to Liège. In 1794 it moved into its present home, Stonyhurst Hall. Its observatory

  • Stonypath (work by Finlay)

    Western painting: Land art: …is Ian Hamilton Finlay’s garden, Stonypath, in Lanarkshire, Scotland. Dotted with clumps of trees harbouring stone tablets inscribed with allusive epigrams, it speaks knowingly of the 18th-century principle of the Picturesque rather than courting the sublime effects of American land art.

  • Stooge, Iggy (American musician)

    Iggy and the Stooges: …in his subsequent solo career, Iggy Pop had a far-reaching influence on later performers. The principal members of the band were vocalist Iggy Pop (original name James Jewel Osterberg; b. April 21, 1947, Ypsilanti, Michigan, U.S.), bassist Dave Alexander (b. June 3, 1947, Whitmore Lake, Michigan—d. February 10, 1975, Ann…

  • Stooge, The (film by Taurog [1952])

    Norman Taurog: Martin and Lewis films: …duo undergoing paratrooper training, and The Stooge (both 1952) was a period piece, with vaudeville star (Martin) waxing jealous as his antic partner (Lewis) increasingly becomes the focus of the act. The Stars Are Singing (1953) featured Anna Maria Alberghetti as a Polish illegal immigrant with operatic ambitions and Rosemary…

  • Stooges, the (American rock group)

    Iggy and the Stooges, American rock band, initially active in the late 1960s and early 1970s, that helped define punk music. Both with the Stooges and in his subsequent solo career, Iggy Pop had a far-reaching influence on later performers. The principal members of the band were vocalist Iggy Pop

  • Stookey, Noel Paul (American vocalist and songwriter)

    Peter, Paul and Mary: ), Paul (later Noel Paul) Stookey (b. November 30, 1937, Baltimore, Maryland), and Mary Allin Travers (b. November 9, 1936, Louisville, Kentucky—d. September 16, 2009, Danbury, Connecticut).

  • Stookey, S. Donald (American inventor)

    S(tanley) Donald Stookey, American inventor (born May 23, 1915, Hay Springs, Neb.—died Nov. 4, 2014, Rochester, N.Y.), devised a ceramic made from glass (trademarked Pyroceram), which he used to create the durable ceramic glass cookware CorningWare. When Stookey accidentally overheated

  • Stookey, Stanley Donald (American inventor)

    S(tanley) Donald Stookey, American inventor (born May 23, 1915, Hay Springs, Neb.—died Nov. 4, 2014, Rochester, N.Y.), devised a ceramic made from glass (trademarked Pyroceram), which he used to create the durable ceramic glass cookware CorningWare. When Stookey accidentally overheated

  • stool (furniture)

    Stool, armless and backless seat for one person. Folding stools with skin or fabric seats and solid framed stools with wood or rush seats were known to the Egyptians, the early Greeks and Romans, and the Vikings. These stools were supported on four straight legs or on four legs arranged

  • stool (biology)

    Feces, solid bodily waste discharged from the large intestine through the anus during defecation. Feces are normally removed from the body one or two times a day. About 100 to 250 grams (3 to 8 ounces) of feces are excreted by a human adult daily. Normally, feces are made up of 75 percent water and

  • stool culture (biochemistry)

    fecal occult blood test: Stool cultures are obtained when diarrhea is severe and particular bacteria such as Salmonella, Shigella, or Giardia are suspected. If a parasitic infection is suspected, the stool is examined under a microscope for the eggs or cysts of parasites such as

  • stoop labour

    Migrant labour, casual and unskilled workers who move about systematically from one region to another offering their services on a temporary, usually seasonal, basis. Migrant labour in various forms is found in South Africa, the Middle East, western Europe, North America, and India. In Europe and

  • stop (music)

    Stop, in music, on the organ, mechanism controlling the entry of air from the pressurized wind chest into a rank of pipes producing a distinctive tone colour. The word stop also denotes, by extension, the register, or rank of pipes, controlled by a stop. Stop also occasionally refers to mechanisms

  • stop (speech sound)

    Stop, in phonetics, a consonant sound characterized by the momentary blocking (occlusion) of some part of the oral cavity. A completely articulated stop usually has three stages: the catch (implosion), or beginning of the blockage; the hold (occlusion); and the release (explosion), or opening of

  • stop codon (genetics)

    mutation: Some base-pair substitutions produce a stop codon. Normally, when a stop codon occurs at the end of a gene, it stops protein synthesis, but, when it occurs in an abnormal position, it can result in a truncated and nonfunctional protein. Another type of simple change, the deletion or insertion of…

  • Stop ERA (American organization)

    Phyllis Schlafly: …eventually subsumed into the broader-based Eagle Forum, which Schlafly founded in 1975.) Schlafly’s well-organized campaign became a cause célèbre, and when the ERA eventually failed to be ratified by the requisite majority of states, she was widely credited with having helped to bring about its collapse.

  • Stop Making Sense (film by Demme [1984])

    Jonathan Demme: Talking Heads concert film Stop Making Sense (1984); the cult classic romantic road film Something Wild (1986), whose tone shifts from mirthful to menacing; and the quirky comedy Married to the Mob (1988).

  • stop number (optics)

    Relative aperture, the measure of the light-gathering power of an optical system. It is expressed in different ways according to the instrument involved. The relative aperture for a microscope is called the numerical aperture (NA) and is equal to the sine of half the angle subtended by the

  • Stop of the Exchequer (English history)

    United Kingdom: War and government: …crown’s debts led to the Stop of the Exchequer (1672), by which Charles suspended payment of his bills. The king now ruled through a group of ministers known as the Cabal, an anagram of the first letters of their names. None of the five was Anglican, and two were Roman…

  • stop order

    security: Types of orders: A stop order or stop-loss order is an order to purchase or sell a security after a designated price is reached or passed, when it then becomes a market order. It differs from the limit order in that it is designed to protect the customer from…

  • Stop TB Initiative (international organization)

    tuberculosis: Tuberculosis through history: Global programs such as the Stop TB Partnership, which was established in 2000, have worked to increase awareness of tuberculosis and to make new and existing treatments available to people living in developing countries most affected by the disease. In the early 2000s, as a result of the rapid implementation…

  • Stop TB Partnership (international organization)

    tuberculosis: Tuberculosis through history: Global programs such as the Stop TB Partnership, which was established in 2000, have worked to increase awareness of tuberculosis and to make new and existing treatments available to people living in developing countries most affected by the disease. In the early 2000s, as a result of the rapid implementation…

  • Stop the Music (racehorse)

    Secretariat: Breeding and early years: …dropped to second place behind Stop the Music. Apparently, Secretariat had bumped Stop the Music when Turcotte hit the colt with his whip in his right hand, causing Secretariat to duck left into his opponent; when Turcotte switched his whip to his left hand, the horse straightened out and went…

  • Stop the Music (American quiz show)

    Television in the United States: Developing genres: …and game shows such as Stop the Music (ABC, 1949–56) and Groucho Marx’s You Bet Your Life (NBC, 1950–61) were all represented in the top 25 highest-rated shows of the 1950–51 season.

  • stop-and-frisk program (law enforcement)

    Michael Bloomberg: Mayor of New York City: …York Police Department’s so-called “stop-and-frisk” practice, which allowed police officers to detain, question, and search suspected individuals without probable cause. Whereas many criticized this practice as unfairly targeting minorities, Bloomberg defended it as a necessary tool of crime prevention. When Bloomberg’s last term ended, in 2013, he was succeeded…

  • stop-cylinder press

    printing: Koenig’s mechanical press (early 19th century): In 1814 the first stop-cylinder press of this kind to be driven by a steam engine was put into service at the Times of London. It had two cylinders, which revolved one after the other according to the to-and-fro motion of the bed so as to double the number…

  • stop-loss order

    security: Types of orders: A stop order or stop-loss order is an order to purchase or sell a security after a designated price is reached or passed, when it then becomes a market order. It differs from the limit order in that it is designed to protect the customer from…

  • stop-motion animation (film technique)

    animation: Early history: …Blackton also experimented with the stop-motion technique—in which objects are photographed, then repositioned and photographed again—for his short film Haunted Hotel.

  • stope (mining)

    mining: Underground mining: …of extracting ore are called stopes or rooms. There are two steps involved in stoping. The first is development—that is, preparing the ore blocks for mining—and the second is production, or stoping, itself. Ore development is generally much more expensive on a per-ton basis than stoping, so that every effort…

  • stoper drill (tool)

    pneumatic device: Major types of pneumatic devices: Stoper drills are used primarily on up-hole or overhead drilling because of the automatic-feed characteristics. The usual stoper is a hammer drill with a self-rotating drill bit and an automatic feed by means of an air piston. Large air-operated earth drills, mounted on motor trucks…

  • Stopes, Marie (British botanist and social worker)

    Marie Stopes, advocate of birth control who, in 1921, founded the United Kingdom’s first instructional clinic for contraception. Although her clinical work, writings, and speeches evoked violent opposition, especially from Roman Catholics, she greatly influenced the Church of England’s gradual

  • Stopes, Marie Charlotte Carmichael (British botanist and social worker)

    Marie Stopes, advocate of birth control who, in 1921, founded the United Kingdom’s first instructional clinic for contraception. Although her clinical work, writings, and speeches evoked violent opposition, especially from Roman Catholics, she greatly influenced the Church of England’s gradual

  • Stopford, Alice Sophia Amelia (Irish historian)

    Alice Stopford Green, Irish historian, supporter of Irish independence. She lived in London from 1874, and in 1877 she married the historian John Richard Green. After his death in 1883, her home became a centre for such diverse Londoners as Florence Nightingale and Winston Churchill. Mrs. Green’s

  • Stoph, Willi (German politician)

    Willi Stoph, German politician who served two terms (1964–73 and 1976–89) as premier of East Germany, the second of which ended two days before the opening of the Berlin Wall; while on trial in 1992 on manslaughter charges because of his shoot-to-kill orders against those attempting to escape from

  • stoping (mining)

    Stoping, in mining engineering, the opening of large underground rooms, or stopes, by the excavation of ore. Stoping is practiced in underground mineral mining when the surrounding rock is strong enough to permit the drilling, blasting, and removal of ore without caving. In mines where the rock

  • stoping (geology)

    Reginald Aldworth Daly: …independently developed the theory of magmatic stoping, whereby molten magma rises through the Earth’s crust and shatters, but does not melt, the surrounding rocks. The rocks, being denser than the magma, then sink, making room for the magma to rise. This theory was instrumental in explaining the structure of many…

  • Stoppard, Sir Tom (British writer)

    Tom Stoppard, Czech-born British playwright and screenwriter whose work is marked by verbal brilliance, ingenious action, and structural dexterity. Stoppard’s father was working in Singapore in the late 1930s. After the Japanese invasion, his father stayed on and was killed, but Stoppard’s mother

  • Stoppard, Tom (British writer)

    Tom Stoppard, Czech-born British playwright and screenwriter whose work is marked by verbal brilliance, ingenious action, and structural dexterity. Stoppard’s father was working in Singapore in the late 1930s. After the Japanese invasion, his father stayed on and was killed, but Stoppard’s mother

  • stopped pipe (musical organ)

    keyboard instrument: Flue pipes: …said to be stopped; a stopped pipe sounds an octave lower in pitch than an open pipe of the same speaking length.

  • Stoppers (Islamic sect)

    Seveners, in Islām, minority subsect within the Ismā?īlīte (q.v.) sect of

  • Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening (poem by Frost)

    Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening, poem by Robert Frost, published in the collection New Hampshire (1923). One of his most frequently explicated works, it describes a solitary traveler in a horse-drawn carriage who is both driven by the business at hand and transfixed by a wintry woodland scene.

  • stopping power (physics)

    radiation: Stopping power: By use of classical mechanics, Bohr developed an equation of stopping power, -dE/dx, given as the product of a kinematic factor and a stopping number.

  • stopping rules (mathematics)

    operations research: Deriving solutions from models: …terminating such a process—known as “stopping rules”—involves the determination of the point at which the expected improvement of the solution on the next trial is less than the cost of the trial.

  • stopping time (physics)

    radiation measurement: Interactions of heavy charged particles: The time that elapses before the particle is stopped ranges from a few picoseconds (1 × 10?12 second) in solids or liquids to a few nanoseconds (1 × 10?9 second) in gases. These times are short enough that the stopping time can be considered to be…

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