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  • Stout, Rex Todhunter (American author)

    Rex Stout, American author who wrote genteel mystery stories revolving around the elegantly eccentric and reclusive detective Nero Wolfe and his wisecracking aide, Archie Goodwin. Stout worked odd jobs until 1912, when he began to write sporadically for magazines. After writing four moderately

  • Stout, Sir Robert (prime minister of New Zealand)

    Sir Robert Stout, New Zealand statesman and judge who helped unify the Liberal Party during the late 1870s; as prime minister (1884–87) he worked to expand opportunities for small farmers. A surveyor and an advocate of radical land reform in Lerwick, Stout emigrated to New Zealand in 1863 after

  • Stoutt, Hamilton Lavity (chief minister of British Virgin Islands)

    H. Lavity Stoutt, chief minister of the British Virgin Islands five times from 1967 to 1995 and a member of the Legislative Council from 1957, the longest-serving parliamentarian in the region (b. March 7, 1929--d. May 14,

  • stove

    Stove, device used for heating or cooking. The first of historical record was built in 1490 in Alsace, entirely of brick and tile, including the flue. The later Scandinavian stove had a tall, hollow iron flue containing iron baffles arranged to lengthen the travel of the escaping gases in order to

  • stovehouse (horticulture)

    greenhouse: In a tropical greenhouse, or hothouse, which has nighttime temperatures of 16–21 °C (60–70 °F), caladiums, philodendrons, gardenias, poinsettias, bougainvilleas,

  • Stover, Charles B. (American philanthropist)

    social settlement: …to the United States when Charles B. Stover and an American lecturer at the West London Ethical Society, Stanton Coit, an early visitor to Toynbee Hall, established Neighborhood Guild, now University Settlement, on the Lower East Side of New York City in 1886. In Chicago in 1889, Jane Addams bought…

  • Stovey, George (American baseball player)

    baseball: Segregation: …second baseman Bud Fowler, pitcher George Stovey, pitcher Robert Higgins, and Frank Grant, a second baseman who was probably the best black player of the 19th century, were on rosters of clubs in the International League, one rung below the majors. At least 15 other black players were in lesser…

  • Stow, David (British educator)

    teacher education: Early development: …of the Lancastrian system was David Stow, who in 1834 founded the Glasgow Normal Seminary from which “trainers,” as his graduates came to be called, went to schools in Scotland and many of the British colonial territories. In the United States, after an uncertain start, the Massachusetts Normal Schools founded…

  • Stow, John (English author)

    John Stow, one of the best-known Elizabethan antiquaries, author of the famous A Survey of London (1598; revised and enlarged, 1603). Stow was a prosperous tailor until about 1565–70, after which he devoted his time to collecting rare books and manuscripts, a hobby that left him impoverished.

  • Stow, Julian Randolph (Australian writer)

    Randolph Stow, Australian novelist and poet noted for his economical style and great powers of description. Stow’s first novel, A Haunted Land (1956), a wild, almost Gothic tale, appeared in the same year that he graduated from the University of Western Australia. In 1957 he began to teach English

  • Stow, Randolph (Australian writer)

    Randolph Stow, Australian novelist and poet noted for his economical style and great powers of description. Stow’s first novel, A Haunted Land (1956), a wild, almost Gothic tale, appeared in the same year that he graduated from the University of Western Australia. In 1957 he began to teach English

  • stowage factor (nautical science)

    ship: Hydrostatics: …cargo of such a high stowage factor (i.e., volume per weight unit) that providing for the required internal volume is more of a problem than providing for a specific deadweight. Nevertheless, the problem of designing for a displacement that matches the weight of the ship is essentially the same.

  • Stowe (estate, Buckinghamshire, England, United Kingdom)

    Stowe, former estate of the Temple family, the dukes of Buckingham (the title became extinct in 1889), in Buckinghamshire, England. The mansion was begun in 1697 and was remodeled in 1775. It is now the site of Stowe School. Among the architects, designers, and decorators who worked on the house

  • Stowe, Calvin E. (American educator)

    Calvin E. Stowe, professor of biblical studies who greatly influenced the development of public education in the United States. Though raised in poverty following his father’s death in 1808, Stowe managed to secure a sufficient preparatory education to enter Bowdoin College in Brunswick, Maine,

  • Stowe, Calvin Ellis (American educator)

    Calvin E. Stowe, professor of biblical studies who greatly influenced the development of public education in the United States. Though raised in poverty following his father’s death in 1808, Stowe managed to secure a sufficient preparatory education to enter Bowdoin College in Brunswick, Maine,

  • Stowe, Harriet Beecher (American writer and educator)

    Harriet Beecher Stowe, American writer and philanthropist, the author of the novel Uncle Tom’s Cabin, which contributed so much to popular feeling against slavery that it is cited among the causes of the American Civil War. Harriet Beecher was a member of one of the 19th century’s most remarkable

  • stownet (fishing)

    commercial fishing: Methods: … or large net bags (stownets). Such gear is known on many European and Asian rivers. The net bag is fixed to the river bottom to catch migrating or drifting fish. Some human control may be necessary; sometimes a watchman lives on a vessel or raft next to the stownet…

  • Stoyadinovitch, Milan (premier of Yugoslavia)

    Milan Stojadinovi?, Serbian politician, Yugoslav minister of finance from 1922 to 1926, and premier and foreign minister of Yugoslavia from 1935 to 1939. After graduation from the University of Belgrade in 1910, he studied in Germany, England, and France and then served in the Serbian ministry of

  • Stoyanov, Petar (president of Bulgaria)

    Bulgaria: Bulgaria’s transition: Zhelev’s successor as president, Petar Stoyanov, called a new election, and, after a decisive victory, UDF leader Ivan Kostov formed a pro-market government. It reduced inflation by introducing a currency board (an institution dedicated to reinforcing a fixed exchange rate and to a monetary policy that defends that rate),…

  • Stoyanov, Peter (president of Bulgaria)

    Bulgaria: Bulgaria’s transition: Zhelev’s successor as president, Petar Stoyanov, called a new election, and, after a decisive victory, UDF leader Ivan Kostov formed a pro-market government. It reduced inflation by introducing a currency board (an institution dedicated to reinforcing a fixed exchange rate and to a monetary policy that defends that rate),…

  • Stoyanov, Z. (Bulgarian writer)

    Bulgarian literature: Most notable here was Z. Stoyanov, whose Zapiski po bulgarskite vuzstaniya (1883–85; translated as Notes on the Bulgarian Uprisings) recorded eyewitness experiences of then recent history with a directness rarely equalled since in Bulgarian prose.

  • STR (biochemistry)

    heredity: Repetitive DNA: Microsatellite DNA is composed of tandem repeats of two nucleotide pairs that are dispersed throughout the genome. Minisatellite DNA, sometimes called variable number tandem repeats (VNTRs), is composed of blocks of longer repeats also dispersed throughout the genome. There is no known function for satellite…

  • straat (geological feature)

    Kalahari Desert: Physiography and geology: …parallel depression locally called a straat (“street,” or “lane”), because each constitutes the easy way to travel.

  • Strabane (former district, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom)
  • Strabane (Northern Ireland, United Kingdom)

    Strabane, town and former district (1973–2015) within the former County Tyrone, now in Derry City and Strabane district, northwestern Northern Ireland. The town is located on the River Mourne at its confluence with the Finn to form the River Foyle near the border of the republic of Ireland. It is a

  • strabismus (physiology)

    Strabismus, misalignment of the eyes. The deviant eye may be directed inward toward the other eye (cross-eye, or esotropia), outward, away from the other eye (exotropia), upward (hypertropia), or downward (hypotropia). The deviation is called “concomitant” if it remains constant in all directions

  • Strabo (Greek geographer and historian)

    Strabo, Greek geographer and historian whose Geography is the only extant work covering the whole range of peoples and countries known to both Greeks and Romans during the reign of Augustus (27 bce–14 ce). Its numerous quotations from technical literature, moreover, provide a remarkable account of

  • Straccioni (work by Caro)

    Annibale Caro: …original comedies of his time, Straccioni (completed 1544), and a version of Longus’ Daphnis and Chloe called Amori pastorali di Dafni e Cloe (“The Pastoral Loves of Daphnis and Chloe”).

  • Strachan, David P. (American immunologist)

    immune system disorder: Deficiencies associated with limited environmental exposure: …late 1980s by American immunologist David P. Strachan in his hygiene hypothesis. The hypothesis suggested that small family size and increased personal hygiene reduced childhood exposure to infections and thereby resulted in the development of allergic disorders. Building on the hygiene hypothesis, scientists later proposed that the continued increase in…

  • Strachan, John (British clergyman)

    John Strachan, educator and clergyman who, as the first Anglican bishop of Toronto, was responsible for organizing the church in Canada as a self-governing denomination within the Anglican community. Strachan emigrated from Scotland to Canada in 1799. After teaching school in Kingston, he was

  • Strachan, Quentin (Australian governor-general)

    Quentin Bryce, Australian lawyer, educator, and politician who was the first woman to serve as governor-general of Australia (2008–14). Strachan grew up in Ilfracombe, which she described as “a little bush town in western Queensland of two hundred people.” While attending the University of

  • Strache, Heinz-Christian (Austrian politician)

    Austria: Austria in the European Union: …made by Freedom Party leader Heinz-Christian Strache drew criticism from the mainstream parties. Those denouncements intensified in August 2012, after Strache posted a cartoon to the social media site Facebook that was widely characterized as anti-Semitic. Support for the Freedom Party was diluted when Austrian-born Canadian billionaire Frank Stronach announced…

  • Strachey, Christopher (British computer scientist)

    artificial intelligence: The first AI programs: …was written in 1951 by Christopher Strachey, later director of the Programming Research Group at the University of Oxford. Strachey’s checkers (draughts) program ran on the Ferranti Mark I computer at the University of Manchester, England. By the summer of 1952 this program could play a complete game of checkers…

  • Strachey, Evelyn John St. Loe (British writer and politician)

    John Strachey, British Socialist writer and Labour politician known for his contributions to leftist thought and for his peacetime rationing policies as British food minister. Son of John St. Loe Strachey, publisher and editor of The Spectator, Strachey broke with his family’s Conservative

  • Strachey, Giles Lytton (British biographer)

    Lytton Strachey, English biographer and critic who opened a new era of biographical writing at the close of World War I. Adopting an irreverent attitude to the past and especially to the monumental life-and-letters volumes of Victorian biography, Strachey proposed to write lives with “a brevity

  • Strachey, John (British writer and politician)

    John Strachey, British Socialist writer and Labour politician known for his contributions to leftist thought and for his peacetime rationing policies as British food minister. Son of John St. Loe Strachey, publisher and editor of The Spectator, Strachey broke with his family’s Conservative

  • Strachey, John (British geologist)

    John Strachey, early geologist who was the first to suggest the theory of stratified rock formations. He wrote Observations on the Different Strata of Earths and Minerals (1727) and stated that there was a relation between surface features and the rock structure, an idea that was not commonly

  • Strachey, Lytton (British biographer)

    Lytton Strachey, English biographer and critic who opened a new era of biographical writing at the close of World War I. Adopting an irreverent attitude to the past and especially to the monumental life-and-letters volumes of Victorian biography, Strachey proposed to write lives with “a brevity

  • Strachwitz, Moritz Karl Wilhelm Anton, Graf von (German poet)

    Moritz, count von Strachwitz, German poet remembered for his Neue Gedichte (“New Poems”), which included such distinctive poems as “Der Himmel ist blau” and a national patriotic song, “Germania.” After studying in Breslau and Berlin, Strachwitz settled on his estate in Moravia, where he did his

  • stracittà (Italian literary movement)

    Stracittà, an Italian literary movement that developed after World War I. Massimo Bontempelli was the leader of the movement, which was connected with his idea of novecentismo. Bontempelli called for a break from traditional styles of writing, and his own writings reflected his interest in such

  • Straczynski, J. Michael (American comic book writer)

    Thor: The 1990s to the present: …story line, initially written by J. Michael Straczynski, Thor returned to Earth and used the Odin power to recreate Asgard as a city floating over the town of Broxton, Oklahoma. The culmination of the “Dark Reign” event saw Norman Osborn (alter ego of the Spider-Man villain Green Goblin), who had…

  • strada che va in città, La (work by Ginzburg)

    Natalia Ginzburg: …che va in città (1942; The Road to the City), is the story of a young peasant girl who, lured by the excitement of the city, is seduced by and marries a man she does not love. A second novella, è stato così (1947; “The Dry Heart,” in The Road…

  • strada, La (film by Fellini [1954])

    Federico Fellini: Major works: With La strada (1954; “The Road”), Fellini returned to the world of showmen. It starred Anthony Quinn as Zampanò, a brutish but phoney itinerant "strong man," and Masina as the waif who loves him. The film was shot on desolate locations between Viterbo and Abruzzi, mean…

  • strada, La (film score by Rota)

    La strada, (Italian: “The Street” or “The Road”) film score by Italian composer Nino Rota for the 1954 film of the same name by Federico Fellini. Rota’s music was one of the relatively rare European film scores to attract wide attention in the United States as well. Many European composers of

  • Stradbroke Island (islands, Queensland, Australia)

    North and South Stradbroke Islands, two islands consisting of North and South sections, off Moreton Bay, southeastern Queensland, Australia, named for the earl of Stradbroke in 1827. It was originally one island, but a storm in 1892 severed it in two by creating Jumpinpin Channel. South Stradbroke

  • straddle truck (vehicle)

    industrial truck: The straddle truck resembles a gantry crane on four pneumatic-tired wheels; the operator rides above the inverted U-frame, within which the load—lumber, bar steel, or pipe—is carried on elevating bolsters. Other common types include high- and low-lift platform trucks, motorized pedestrian-led, side-clamp, tractor, and side-loading trucks.

  • Stradella accordion (musical instrument)

    accordion: …the rows in traditional “fixed-bass,” or Stradella, models give three-note chords—major and minor triads and dominant and diminished sevenths—while “free-bass” accordions overcome melodic restrictions by providing extra buttons or a converter switch for bass melodies and counterpoint. Many accordions include up to five registers for the basses, allowing each…

  • Stradella, Alessandro (Italian composer)

    Alessandro Stradella, Italian composer, singer, and violinist known primarily for his cantatas. Stradella apparently lived for periods in Modena, Venice, Rome, and Florence. In Turin in 1677 an attempt was made to murder him, for reasons that are not known, though it was believed to be at the

  • Stradivari, Antonio (Italian violin maker)

    Antonio Stradivari, Italian violin maker who brought the craft of violin-making to its highest pitch of perfection. Stradivari was still a pupil of Nicolò Amati in 1666 when he began to place his own label on violins of his making. These at first followed the smaller of Amati’s models, solidly

  • Stradivari, Francesco (Italian violin maker)

    Antonio Stradivari: Stradivari’s success probably came from expertly optimizing all these and other factors within his designs.

  • Stradivari, Omobono (Italian violin maker)

    Antonio Stradivari: Stradivari’s sons Francesco (1671–1743) and Omobono (1679–1742) were also violin makers. They are believed to have assisted their father, probably with Carlo Bergonzi, who appears to have succeeded to the possession of Antonio’s stock-in-trade.

  • Stradivarius, Antonio (Italian violin maker)

    Antonio Stradivari, Italian violin maker who brought the craft of violin-making to its highest pitch of perfection. Stradivari was still a pupil of Nicolò Amati in 1666 when he began to place his own label on violins of his making. These at first followed the smaller of Amati’s models, solidly

  • Stradlin, Izzy (American musician)

    Guns N' Roses: ), Izzy Stradlin (original name Jeff Isbell; b. April 8, 1962, Lafayette, Indiana), Steve Adler (b. January 22, 1965, Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.), Matt Sorum (b. November 19, 1960, Long Beach, California, U.S.), Dizzy Reed (original name Darren Reed; b. June 18, 1963, Hinsdale, Illinois, U.S.), and…

  • Stradling, Harry (American cinematographer)
  • Stradonitz, Friedrich August Kekule von (German chemist)

    August Kekule von Stradonitz, German chemist who established the foundation for the structural theory in organic chemistry. Kekule was born into an upper-middle-class family of civil servants and as a schoolboy demonstrated an aptitude for art and languages, as well as science subjects. Intending

  • Stradun (street, Dubrovnik, Croatia)

    Dubrovnik: The contemporary city: The Stradun, or main street, with beautiful late-Renaissance houses on each side, runs along a valley that, until 1272, was a marshy channel dividing the Latin island of Ragusa from the forest settlement of Dubrovnik. No motor vehicles are allowed inside the walls, and, except for…

  • Strafford (county, New Hampshire, United States)

    Strafford, county, southeastern New Hampshire, U.S., bounded to the east by Maine and to the southeast by Little and Great bays; the Salmon Falls and Piscataqua rivers constitute the boundary with Maine. It comprises a lowland region that rises toward the northwest. The Cocheco River supplies

  • Strafford, Thomas Wentworth, 1st Earl of (English noble)

    Thomas Wentworth, 1st earl of Strafford, leading adviser of England’s King Charles I. His attempt to consolidate the sovereign power of the king led to his impeachment and execution by Parliament. Wentworth was the eldest surviving son of Sir William Wentworth, a Yorkshire landowner. Educated at

  • Strafford, Thomas Wentworth, 1st Earl of, Baron of Raby (English noble)

    Thomas Wentworth, 1st earl of Strafford, leading adviser of England’s King Charles I. His attempt to consolidate the sovereign power of the king led to his impeachment and execution by Parliament. Wentworth was the eldest surviving son of Sir William Wentworth, a Yorkshire landowner. Educated at

  • straggling (particle radiation)

    radiation: Range: …general, these fluctuations are called straggling, and there are several kinds. Most important among them is the range straggling, which suggests that, for statistical reasons, particles in the same medium have varying path lengths between the same initial and final energies. Bohr showed that for long path lengths the range…

  • Stragorodsky, Ivan Nikolayevich (Russian theologian and patriarch)

    Sergius, theologian and patriarch of Moscow and the Russian Orthodox church who, by his leadership in rallying the church membership in a united effort with the Soviet government to repel the German invasion of 1941, obtained substantial advantages for the church in the postwar period. The son of a

  • Strahan, Michael (American football player)

    Michael Strahan, American professional gridiron football player who, playing defensive end for the New York Giants, established himself as one of the premier pass rushers in the history of the National Football League (NFL). He later had a successful career as a television host. At age nine Strahan

  • Strahan, Michael Anthony (American football player)

    Michael Strahan, American professional gridiron football player who, playing defensive end for the New York Giants, established himself as one of the premier pass rushers in the history of the National Football League (NFL). He later had a successful career as a television host. At age nine Strahan

  • Strahler, Arthur N. (American geographer and climatologist)

    climate classification: Genetic classifications: In 1951 Arthur N. Strahler described a qualitative classification based on the combination of air masses present at a given location throughout the year. Some years later (1968 and 1970) John E. Oliver placed this type of classification on a firmer footing by providing a quantitative framework…

  • Strahov Stadium (stadium, Prague, Czech Republic)

    stadium: Modern stadiums: …20th century, notably the vast Strahov Stadium, in Prague, which was completed in 1934 for the Sokol gymnastics exhibition and had a seating capacity of more than 240,000. Other stadiums built to accommodate in excess of 100,000 people include May Day Stadium, in P’y?ngyang, North Korea; Melbourne Cricket Ground, in…

  • Straight Creek Tunnel (Colorado, United States)

    tunnels and underground excavations: Ground support: …1971, for example, on the Straight Creek interstate highway tunnel in Colorado, a very complex pattern of multiple drifts was found necessary to advance this large horseshoe-shaped tunnel 42 by 45 feet high through a weak shear zone more than 1,000 feet wide, after unsuccessful trials with full-face operation of…

  • straight fastball (baseball)

    baseball: The pitching repertoire: The fastball is the basis of pitching skill. Good fastball pitchers are capable of throwing the ball 100 miles (160 km) per hour, but simply being fast is not enough to guarantee success. A fastball should not fly flat but have some movement in order to…

  • straight left (boxing)

    boxing: Techniques: …referred to as a “cross.” All other punches are modifications of these basic punches. The jab, whether thrown from an orthodox or a southpaw stance, is a straight punch delivered with the lead hand, which moves directly out from the shoulder. The hook, also thrown with the lead hand,…

  • Straight Outta Compton (album by N.W.A.)

    Dr. Dre: The group’s second album, Straight Outta Compton (1988), was a breakthrough for the nascent gangsta rap movement, featuring explicit descriptions (and often glorifications) of street violence and drug dealing. While Dre appeared prominently as a rapper in N.W.A, his most-lauded role was as a producer, crafting ambitiously noisy, multilayered…

  • Straight Outta Compton (film by Grey [2015])

    Ice Cube: Film and TV career: A biopic Straight Outta Compton (2015), in which his son, O’Shea Jackson, Jr., played Ice Cube. Ice Cube and his wife, Kimberly Woodruff, whom he married in 1992, also had three other children in addition to O’Shea. Ice Cube executive produced a single-season television adaptation of the…

  • Straight Poker (card game)

    poker: Draw poker: In straight poker each player is dealt five cards facedown, and the deal is followed by one betting interval, beginning with the player nearest the dealer’s left, and then by a showdown. After the 1850s, straight poker was eclipsed by draw poker, which…

  • straight position (diving)

    diving: In the straight position, the body is held extended, with no flexion at the hips or knees. In the pike position, there is a bend at the hips but no knee flexion. In the tuck position, both hips and knees are flexed and the body resembles a…

  • straight right (boxing)

    boxing: Techniques: …referred to as a “cross.” All other punches are modifications of these basic punches. The jab, whether thrown from an orthodox or a southpaw stance, is a straight punch delivered with the lead hand, which moves directly out from the shoulder. The hook, also thrown with the lead hand,…

  • straight rille (lunar structure)

    rille: …divided into two main types, straight rilles and sinuous rilles, which seem to have different origins. Those of the first variety are flat-floored and relatively straight; they are occasionally associated with crater chains and sometimes arranged in an echelon pattern. Some of these structures are thought to be grabens, elongated…

  • Straight to Hell (film by Cox [1987])

    Courtney Love: …Sid and Nancy (1986) and Straight to Hell (1987). During this time, Love formed the band Sugar Baby Doll with Kat Bjelland and developed her signature style of baby doll dresses, ripped stockings, and smeared makeup. Following a brief stint playing bass in Bjelland’s band Babes in Toyland, Love became…

  • straight truck (vehicle)

    truck: Types and definitions: A straight truck is one in which all axles are attached to a single frame. An articulated vehicle is one that consists of two or more separate frames connected by suitable couplings. A truck tractor is a motor vehicle designed primarily for drawing truck trailers and…

  • straight whiskey

    whiskey: Straight whiskeys are unmixed or mixed only with whiskey from the same distillation period and distiller. Blended whiskeys include mixtures of similar products made by different distillers and in different periods (Scotch) and also whiskeys made with combinations of the neutral whiskeys (which have no…

  • Straight, Beatrice (American actress)

    Beatrice Whitney Straight, American actress (born Aug. 2, 1914, Old Westbury, N.Y.—died April 7, 2001, Los Angeles, Calif.), won an Academy Award for best supporting actress in 1976 for her portrayal of a spurned wife in the motion picture Network. In 1953 she also earned a Tony Award for best s

  • Straight, Beatrice Whitney (American actress)

    Beatrice Whitney Straight, American actress (born Aug. 2, 1914, Old Westbury, N.Y.—died April 7, 2001, Los Angeles, Calif.), won an Academy Award for best supporting actress in 1976 for her portrayal of a spurned wife in the motion picture Network. In 1953 she also earned a Tony Award for best s

  • Straight, Willard (American publisher)

    The New Republic: The magazine was begun by Willard Straight with Herbert David Croly as its editor. The New Republic reflected the progressive movement and sought reforms in American government and society. Among its early editors or contributors were Randolph Silliman Bourne, Walter Lippmann, and Malcolm Cowley.

  • straight-chain hydrocarbon

    hydrocarbon: Physical properties: …number of carbon atoms, an unbranched alkane has a higher boiling point than any of its branched-chain isomers. This effect is evident upon comparing the boiling points (bp) of selected C8H18 isomers. An unbranched alkane has a more extended shape, thereby increasing the number of intermolecular attractive forces that must…

  • straight-dough process (baking)

    bread: Mixing is performed by the straight-dough or sponge-dough methods or the newer continuous-mixing process. In the straight-dough method, frequently used in small bakeries, all ingredients are mixed at one time. In the sponge-dough method, only some of the ingredients are mixed, forming a sponge that is allowed to ferment and…

  • straight-horned markhor (mammal)

    markhor: …Afghanistan, Pakistan, and India; the straight-horned markhor (C. f. megaceros) lives in Afghanistan and Pakistan; and the Bukharan markhor (C. f. heptneri) is present in Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, and Turkmenistan. All subspecies are considered endangered to critically endangered. Habitat loss, overhunting for meat and trophies, and competition from livestock are…

  • straight-line depreciation (accounting)

    depreciation: Straight-line, fixed-percentage, and, more rarely, annuity methods of depreciation (giving, respectively, constant, gradually decreasing, and gradually increasing charges) are standard. Sometimes charges vary with use (e.g., with the number of miles per year a truck is driven). Special rules allow depletion of nonreproducible capital (such…

  • straight-line evolution (biology)

    Orthogenesis, theory that successive members of an evolutionary series become increasingly modified in a single undeviating direction. That evolution frequently proceeds in orthogenetic fashion is undeniable, though many striking features developed in an orthogenetic group appear to have little if

  • straight-line programming (education)

    programmed learning: Linear programming immediately reinforces student responses that approach the learning goal. Responses that do not lead toward the goal go unreinforced. Each bit of learning is presented in a “frame,” and a student who has made a correct response proceeds to the next frame. All…

  • straight-rail billiards (game)

    Straight-rail billiards, billiard game played with three balls (one red and two white) on a table without pockets. The object is to score caroms by hitting both object balls with a cue ball. A player may use either white ball as cue ball but not one that has been placed on one of the small spots

  • strain (taxon)

    taxon: …line is usually called a strain. In botany the term cultivar is applied to a recognizable variant that originates under cultivation.

  • strain (mechanics)

    Strain, in physical sciences and engineering, number that describes relative deformation or change in shape and size of elastic, plastic, and fluid materials under applied forces. The deformation, expressed by strain, arises throughout the material as the particles (molecules, atoms, ions) of which

  • strain analysis (geology)

    geology: Structural geology: Strain analysis is another important technique of structural geology. Strain is change in shape; for example, by measuring the elliptical shape of deformed ooliths or concretions that must originally have been circular, it is possible to make a quantitative analysis of the strain patterns in…

  • strain component (mechanics)

    mechanics of solids: The general theory of elasticity: …stress components to the 6 strains, at most 21 could be independent. The Scottish physicist Lord Kelvin put this consideration on sounder ground in 1855 as part of his development of macroscopic thermodynamics, showing that a strain energy function must exist for reversible isothermal or adiabatic (isentropic) response and working…

  • strain energy (physics)

    mechanics of solids: Beams, columns, plates, and shells: …1744 introduced the concept of strain energy per unit length for a beam and showed that it is proportional to the square of the beam’s curvature. Euler regarded the total strain energy as the quantity analogous to the potential energy of a discrete mechanical system. By adopting procedures that were…

  • strain gauge (instrument)

    Strain gauge, device for measuring the changes in distances between points in solid bodies that occur when the body is deformed. Strain gauges are used either to obtain information from which stresses (internal forces) in bodies can be calculated or to act as indicating elements on devices for

  • strain hardening (mechanics)

    metallurgy: Metallurgy: …those which grow stronger with strain (strain harden)—for example, the copper-zinc alloy, brass, used for cartridges and the aluminum-magnesium alloys in beverage cans, which exhibit greater strain hardening than do pure copper or aluminum, respectively.

  • strain point (mechanics)

    industrial glass: Viscosity: …1013 poise, and finally the strain point by 1014.5 poise. Upon further cooling, viscosity increases rapidly to well beyond 1018 poise, where it can no longer be measured meaningfully. (The softening point and working point of the major oxide glass families are indicated in the table of properties of oxide…

  • strain seismograph (instrument)

    seismograph: Basic principles of the modern seismograph: The strain seismograph, in contrast, employs no pendulum, and its operation depends on changes in the distance between two points on the ground. That type of seismograph was devised in 1935 by American seismologist Hugo Benioff.

  • strain theory (sociology)

    Strain theory, in sociology, proposal that pressure derived from social factors, such as lack of income or lack of quality education, drives individuals to commit crime. The ideas underlying strain theory were first advanced in the 1930s by American sociologist Robert K. Merton, whose work on the

  • strain theory (chemistry)

    Strain theory, in chemistry, a proposal made in 1885 by the German chemist Adolf von Baeyer that the stability of carbocyclic compounds (i.e., those of which the molecular structure includes one or more rings of carbon atoms) depends on the amount by which the angles between the chemical bonds

  • strain-energy function (physics)

    elasticity: …construction of specific forms of strain-energy function from the results of experiments involving three-dimensional deformations, generalizing the one-dimensional situation described above.

  • Strait Is the Gate (work by Gide)

    Strait Is the Gate, tale by André Gide, published in 1909 as La Porte étroite. It is one of the first of his works to treat the problems of human relationships. The work contrasts the yearning toward asceticism and self-sacrifice with the need for sensual exploration as a young woman struggles with

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