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  • Stranitzky, Joseph Anton (Austrian actor)

    Joseph Anton Stranitzky, actor and manager of the indigenous Austrian popular theatre, who developed the improvisational character Hanswurst. Stranitzky began his career as an itinerant puppeteer. After his arrival in Vienna (c. 1705) he formed his own company, which performed burlesques and farces

  • Stranny chelovek (drama by Lermontov)

    Mikhail Lermontov: Life: His drama Stranny chelovek (1831; “A Strange Man”) reflected the attitudes current among members of student societies: hatred of the despotic tsarist regime and of serfdom. In 1832, after clashing with a reactionary professor, Lermontov left the university and went to St. Petersburg, where he entered the…

  • Stransky-Krastanov growth (physics)

    nanotechnology: Communications: …layers, by a process called Stransky-Krastanov growth. They arise because of the lattice mismatch stress and surface tension of the growing film. Improvements in ways to control precisely the resulting quantum dots to a more uniform single size are still being sought.

  • strap (baking)

    baking: Ovens: … that carries pan assemblies (called straps) along a roughly spiral path through an insulated baking chamber. The straps are automatically added to the conveyor before it enters the oven and then automatically removed and the bread dumped at the conveyor’s exit point. Although the conveyor is of a complex design,…

  • strap drill (tool)

    hand tool: Drilling and boring tools: Such a strap, or thong, drill could be applied to drilling either with an abrasive or with a tool point hafted onto the end of the stick. The upper end of the shaft required a pad or socket (drill pad) in which it could rotate freely.

  • strap-toothed whale (mammal)

    beaked whale: Natural history: In the strap-toothed whale (M. layardii), these two tusklike teeth are remarkable in that they curve upward out of the mouth, holding the jaws partially shut. Shepherd’s beaked whale (Tasmacetus shepherdi) is unusual in having numerous small functional teeth.

  • Straparola, Gianfrancesco (Italian writer)

    Gianfrancesco Straparola, Italian author of one of the earliest and most important collections of traditional tales. Straparola’s Piacevoli notti (1550–53; The Nights of Straparola) contains 75 novellas (short prose tales) that were later used as source material by William Shakespeare, Molière, and

  • strapdown inertial navigation system

    inertial guidance system: In a strapdown inertial navigation system the accelerometers are rigidly mounted parallel to the body axes of the vehicle. In this application the gyroscopes do not provide a stable platform; they are instead used to sense the turning rates of the craft. Double numerical integration, combining the…

  • Straperlo scandal (Spanish history)

    Alejandro Lerroux: …to recover politically from the “Straperlo” scandal in late 1935, in which several of his relatives and Radical Party associates were charged with corruption involving gambling concessions. In the elections of February 1936 he lost his seat in parliament in the midst of a Radical electoral debacle. He went to…

  • Strapping Youth (hominin fossil)

    Homo erectus: African fossils: …more complete skeleton named “Turkana Boy” (KNM-WT 15000) was found nearby at Nariokotome, a site on the northwestern shore of Lake Turkana. The remains of this juvenile male have provided much information about growth, development, and body proportions of an early member of the species.

  • strappo (art restoration)

    art conservation and restoration: Wall paintings: …are not always clearly distinguishable, strappo, the more radical procedure, consists of gluing canvas firmly to the surface of the fresco and then pulling and easing away a thin layer of the plaster containing the pigment particles of the fresco. The bond between the facing and the fresco must be…

  • strapwork (decorative art)

    Strapwork, decorative motif, in flat relief, consisting variously of interlaced scrollwork, braiding, shield forms, or cross-hatching, often pierced with circular or oval holes. At times strapwork is bordered with a raised fillet (band). The whole design is usually formed of connected units, all

  • Strasberg, Lee (American director)

    Lee Strasberg, theatre director, teacher, and actor, known as the chief American exponent of “method acting,” in which actors are encouraged to use their own emotional experience and memory in preparing to “live” a role. Strasberg’s family emigrated to the United States when he was seven, and he

  • Strasberg, Susan (American actress)

    Susan Strasberg, American actress who, though she was the daughter of legendary Actors Studio director Lee Strasberg, made her mark without his tutelage when she triumphed in her 1955 Broadway debut in the title role of The Diary of Anne Frank; she appeared in a number of other productions,

  • Strasbourg (France)

    Strasbourg, city, capital of Bas-Rhin département, Grand Est région, eastern France. It lies 2.5 miles (4 km) west of the Rhine River on the Franco-German frontier. The city was originally a Celtic village, and under the Romans it became a garrison town called Argentoratum. It was captured in the

  • Strasbourg Cathedral (cathedral, Strasbourg, France)

    Strasbourg: The contemporary city: Strasbourg’s 11th–15th-century Cathedral of Notre-Dame, damaged in 1870 and again in World War II, has been carefully restored. Built of red Vosges sandstone, it is a harmonious edifice despite the variety of its architectural styles. It has an asymmetrical facade (mainly 13th century) with fine sculptured portals…

  • Strasbourg faience (pottery)

    Lunéville faience: …green cama?eu—and is reminiscent of Strasbourg faience. But the Chinese figures on Lunéville are “Chinois distingués” (“refined Chinese gentlemen”), while on Strasbourg they are simple folk such as fishermen. Lunéville produced large faience dogs and lions that were used as garden ornaments.

  • Strasbourg I, II, and III, Universities of (university, Strasbourg, France)

    University of Strasbourg, autonomous state-financed institution of higher learning in Strasbourg, France. The original university was founded by Protestants in 1537 as a German gymnasium (secondary school for the study of the classics) when Strasbourg was under German rule. The gymnasium became an

  • Strasbourg porcelain (decorative art)

    Strasbourg ware: …overglaze painting in France, and Strasbourg colour schemes were often dominated by an intense carmine.

  • Strasbourg ware (pottery)

    Strasbourg ware, pottery made mostly in Strasbourg, Fr., under the direction of members of the Hannong family from 1721 to 1780. The factory was founded by Charles-Fran?ois Hannong and was later administered (1730–60) by his son Paul-Antoine and then by the latter’s son Joseph-Adam (1762–80).

  • Strasbourg, Oath of (French history)

    Germany: The kingdom of Louis the German: …this alliance in the famous Oath of Strasbourg in 842 (an important political and linguistic document that contains versions of the Romance language and Old High German). The success of Charles and Louis against their older brother Lothar led to a formal end to the civil wars in the Treaty…

  • Strasbourg, Université de (university, Strasbourg, France)

    University of Strasbourg, autonomous state-financed institution of higher learning in Strasbourg, France. The original university was founded by Protestants in 1537 as a German gymnasium (secondary school for the study of the classics) when Strasbourg was under German rule. The gymnasium became an

  • Strasbourg, University of (university, Strasbourg, France)

    University of Strasbourg, autonomous state-financed institution of higher learning in Strasbourg, France. The original university was founded by Protestants in 1537 as a German gymnasium (secondary school for the study of the classics) when Strasbourg was under German rule. The gymnasium became an

  • Strasburg, Stephen (American baseball player)

    Washington Nationals: …most-prized prospects in decades: pitcher Stephen Strasburg and outfielder Bryce Harper. The pair joined an existing group of solid players, and in 2012 the Nationals posted an 18-game improvement over the previous season, finished with the best record in the majors (98–64), and won the franchise’s first division title. However,…

  • Strasburger, Eduard Adolf (German cytologist)

    Eduard Adolf Strasburger, German plant cytologist who elucidated the process of nuclear division in the plant kingdom. Strasburger was educated at the universities of Paris, Bonn, and Jena, where he received a Ph.D. in 1866. He taught at the universities of Warsaw (1868), Jena (1869–80), and Bonn

  • Strashimirov, Anton (Bulgarian writer)

    Bulgarian literature: …work of such writers as Anton Strashimirov and G. Stamatov, whose cynical stories denigrated Sofia’s society. Strashimirov was an acute observer of the contemporary social scene; one of his best stories of peasant life was “Kochalovskata kramola” (1895; “The Kochalovo Quarrel”), and he also wrote the novels Esenni dni (1902;…

  • strass stone (imitation gem)

    paste: …of this paste are called strass stones.

  • Strassburg (France)

    Strasbourg, city, capital of Bas-Rhin département, Grand Est région, eastern France. It lies 2.5 miles (4 km) west of the Rhine River on the Franco-German frontier. The city was originally a Celtic village, and under the Romans it became a garrison town called Argentoratum. It was captured in the

  • Strassburg, Gottfried von (German poet)

    Gottfried von Strassburg, one of the greatest medieval German poets, whose courtly epic Tristan und Isolde is the classic version of this famous love story. The dates of his birth and death are unknown, and the only information about him consists of references to him in the work of other poets and

  • Strassendorf (German settlement form)

    Germany: Rural settlement: …a single village street (Strassendorf) or an elongated green, on which stood the church (Angerdorf); long unfenced strips of land were allotted at right angles to the road or green.

  • Strasser, Gregor (German political activist)

    Gregor Strasser , German political activist who, with his brother Otto, occupied a leading position in the Nazi Party during its formative period. His opposition to Adolf Hitler’s anti-Semitism and unwillingness to make broadscale social reforms eventually brought about Strasser’s demise. Strasser

  • Strasser, Joseph (Austrian goldsmith)

    paste: In 1758 the Viennese goldsmith Joseph Strasser succeeded in inventing a colourless glass paste that could be cut and that superficially approached the sparkle of genuine diamond; the products of this paste are called strass stones.

  • Strasser, Otto (German political activist)

    Otto Strasser, German political activist who, with his brother Gregor, occupied a leading position in the Nazi Party during its formative period. His leftist leanings and opposition to Adolf Hitler caused his downfall shortly before Hitler’s accession to power. Strasser was born into a Bavarian

  • Strasser, Stephen (Dutch philosopher)

    phenomenology: In other European countries: In the Netherlands, Stephan Strasser, oriented particularly toward phenomenological psychology, was especially influential. And in Italy, the phenomenology circle centred around Enzo Paci. The Husserl scholar Jan Patocka, a prominent expert in phenomenology as well as in the metaphysical tradition, was influential in the former Czechoslovakia; in Poland,…

  • Strasser, Valentine E. M. (head of state of Sierra Leone)

    Sierra Leone: Civil war: Valentine E.M. Strasser, who cited the poor conditions endured by the troops engaged in fighting the rebels as one of the reasons for ousting Momoh. A National Provisional Ruling Council (NPRC) was established with Strasser as the head of state. During Strasser’s administration the civil…

  • Strassler Center for Holocaust and Genocide Studies (institution, United States)

    Clark University: The Strassler Center for Holocaust and Genocide Studies, which initiated a doctoral degree program in 1998, maintains an extensive collection of books and materials. Total enrollment is approximately 3,300.

  • Strassmann, Fritz (German chemist)

    Fritz Strassmann, German physical chemist who, with Otto Hahn, discovered neutron-induced nuclear fission in uranium (1938) and thereby opened the field of atomic energy. Strassmann received his Ph.D. from the Technical University in Hannover in 1929. He helped develop the rubidium-strontium method

  • Strat-o-matic (sports game)

    baseball: Fantasy baseball: A similar game called Strat-o-matic first appeared in the 1960s. Having purchased the APBA or Strat-o-matic board game, players annually ordered cards that listed the statistical data for the ballplayers from the prior season. A combination of data given on these cards and the rolling of dice determined the…

  • strata (geology)

    Stratum, sedimentary rock layer bounded by two stratification planes, the latter being produced by visible changes in the grain size, texture, or other diagnostic features of the rocks above and below the plane. A stratum that is less than one centimetre (0.4 inch) in thickness is termed a lamina,

  • strata (statistics)

    statistics: Sample survey methods: …into relatively homogeneous groups called strata and a simple random sample is selected from each stratum. The results from the strata are then aggregated to make inferences about the population. A side benefit of this method is that inferences about the subpopulation represented by each stratum can also be made.

  • strata (biological community)

    inland water ecosystem: Permanent bodies of standing fresh water: This type of lake stratifies in summer as the surface water (epilimnion) warms and ceases to mix with the lower, colder layer (hypolimnion). Water circulates within but not between the layers, more vigorously within the epilimnion. The boundary between these layers is the metalimnion, a zone of rapid temperature…

  • Strata Identified by Organized Fossils (work by Smith)

    Earth sciences: William Smith and faunal succession: …Smith published a companion work, Strata Identified by Organized Fossils, in which the organic remains characteristic of each of his rock units were illustrated. His generalization that each formation is “possessed of properties peculiar to itself [and] has the same organized fossils throughout its course” is the first clear statement…

  • Stratapax (diamond material)

    materials science: Diamond drills: This limitation was overcome by Stratapax, a sintered diamond material developed by the General Electric Company of the United States. This consists of synthetic diamond powder that is formed into a thin plate and bonded to tungsten-carbide studs by sintering (fusing by heating the material below the melting point). Because…

  • Strateburgum (France)

    Strasbourg, city, capital of Bas-Rhin département, Grand Est région, eastern France. It lies 2.5 miles (4 km) west of the Rhine River on the Franco-German frontier. The city was originally a Celtic village, and under the Romans it became a garrison town called Argentoratum. It was captured in the

  • Strategemata (work by Polyaenus)

    Polyaenus: …author of a work entitled Strategica (or Strategemata), which he dedicated to the emperors Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus on the outbreak of the Parthian War (162–165).

  • Strategematicon libri iii (work by Frontinus)

    Sextus Julius Frontinus: His Strategematicon libri iii is a collection of examples of military stratagems from Greek and Roman history; a fourth book, the plan and style of which is different from the rest (more stress is laid on the moral aspects of war, such as discipline), was probably…

  • strategi (ancient Greek officer)

    Strategus, in ancient Greece, a general, frequently functioning as a state officer with wider functions; also, a high official in medieval Byzantium. An annual board of 10 strategi was introduced in Athens during the reorganization of the tribal system under Cleisthenes (c. 508 bc), each of the 1

  • stratēgia (ancient Greek officer)

    Strategus, in ancient Greece, a general, frequently functioning as a state officer with wider functions; also, a high official in medieval Byzantium. An annual board of 10 strategi was introduced in Athens during the reorganization of the tribal system under Cleisthenes (c. 508 bc), each of the 1

  • Strategic Air Command (film by Mann [1955])

    Anthony Mann: The 1950s: westerns: Strategic Air Command (1955) was about a ballplayer (Stewart) who is recalled to active service in the air force to fly bombers; the film was one of Paramount’s biggest moneymakers that year. Mann collaborated a final time with Stewart on The Man from Laramie (1955),…

  • Strategic Air Command (United States Air Force)

    Strategic Air Command (SAC), U.S. military command that served as the bombardment arm of the U.S. Air Force and as a major part of the nuclear deterrent against the Soviet Union between 1946 and 1992. Headquartered first at Andrews Air Force Base in Maryland and then, after November 1948, at Offutt

  • Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (international negotiations)

    Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT), negotiations between the United States and the Soviet Union that were aimed at curtailing the manufacture of strategic missiles capable of carrying nuclear weapons. The first agreements, known as SALT I and SALT II, were signed by the United States and the

  • Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (international arms control negotiations)

    Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (START), arms control negotiations between the United States and the Soviet Union (and, later, Russia) that were aimed at reducing those two countries’ arsenals of nuclear warheads and of the missiles and bombers capable of delivering such weapons. The talks, which

  • Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (international treaty [1991])

    Going It Alone Is Not an Option: …Treaty in 1963, and the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty of 1991, among others. To generate such global cooperation, the United States and other world leaders should accentuate areas where they share similar goals, such as curbing global terrorism or coordinating scientific research that benefits the world. At the same time,…

  • strategic bias

    environmental economics: Sources of bias: …a range in survey), and strategic bias (where the respondent wants a specific outcome). Because any bias can hinder the usefulness of a contingent valuation survey, special care must be taken to ensure that bias is minimized.

  • strategic bombing (military tactic)

    Strategic bombing, approach to aerial bombardment designed to destroy a country’s ability to wage war by demoralizing civilians and targeting features of an enemy’s infrastructure—such as factories, railways, and refineries—that are essential for the production and supply of war materials. Some

  • strategic control (business)

    marketing: Strategic control: Strategic control processes allow managers to evaluate a company’s marketing program from a critical long-term perspective. This involves a detailed and objective analysis of a company’s organization and its ability to maximize its strengths and market opportunities. Companies can use two types of…

  • Strategic Defense Initiative (United States defense system)

    Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI), proposed U.S. strategic defensive system against potential nuclear attacks—as originally conceived, from the Soviet Union. The SDI was first proposed by President Ronald Reagan in a nationwide television address on March 23, 1983. Because parts of the defensive

  • strategic embargo (international law)

    embargo: In contrast, a strategic embargo restricts only the sale of goods that make a direct and specific contribution to a country’s military power; similarly, an oil embargo prohibits only the export of oil. Broad embargoes often allow the export of certain goods (e.g., medicines or foodstuffs) to continue…

  • Strategic Hamlet Program (warfare)

    Vietnam War: The conflict deepens: …extensive security campaign called the Strategic Hamlet Program. The object of the program was to concentrate rural populations into more defensible positions where they could be more easily protected and segregated from the Viet Cong. The hamlet project was inspired by a similar program in Malaya, where local farmers had…

  • strategic intelligence

    intelligence: Levels of intelligence: …is conducted on three levels: strategic (sometimes called national), tactical, and counterintelligence. The broadest of these levels is strategic intelligence, which includes information about the capabilities and intentions of foreign countries. Tactical intelligence, sometimes called operational or combat intelligence, is information required by military field commanders. Because of the enormous…

  • Strategic Lawsuits Against Public Participation (lawsuit)

    Michel Thomas: …of California’s so-called anti-SLAPP (Strategic Lawsuits Against Public Participation) law, which required the plaintiff in a civil suit that arises from the defendant’s exercise of the right of freedom of speech to establish by “reasonable probability” that the plaintiff would prevail should the case go to trial.

  • strategic maneuver (warfare)

    strategy: Strategy in the age of total war: Only the British attempted large-scale maneuvers: by launching campaigns in several peripheral theatres, including the Middle East, Greece, and most notably Turkey. These all failed, although the last—a naval attack and then two amphibious assaults on the Gallipoli Peninsula (see Gallipoli Campaign)—had moments of promise. These reflected, at any rate,…

  • strategic marketing analysis (economics)

    marketing: Strategic marketing analysis: The aim of marketing in profit-oriented organizations is to meet needs profitably. Companies must therefore first define which needs—and whose needs—they can satisfy. For example, the personal transportation market consists of people who put different values on an automobile’s cost,…

  • strategic missile (military technology)

    rocket and missile system: Strategic missiles: Strategic missiles represent a logical step in the attempt to attack enemy forces at a distance. As such, they can be seen as extensions of either artillery (in the case of ballistic missiles) or manned aircraft (in the case of cruise missiles). Ballistic…

  • Strategic National Stockpile (United States civil defense)

    biological weapon: Civil defense: …a biological emergency is the Strategic National Stockpile program, which has created 50-ton “push packages” of vaccines, medicines, decontamination agents, and emergency medical equipment, which are stored in a dozen locations across the country in preparation for emergencies. Furthermore, every U.S. state has bioterrorism response plans in place, including plans…

  • strategic offense (warfare)

    nuclear strategy: Conventional strategy: The Soviet Union preferred the offensive because it would make it possible to defeat the enemy quickly, before the full weight of its power could be brought to bear. Soviet doctrine during the 1970s suggested that a key aspect of that offensive would be the neutralization of NATO’s nuclear assets…

  • Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty (United States-Russia [2002])

    arms control: Recent efforts: …the two countries signed the Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty, which committed each side to reducing its store of strategic nuclear warheads. Russia subsequently announced that it would no longer be bound by the START II agreement, which its parliament had ratified in 2000.

  • strategic planning (organizational management)

    Strategic planning, disciplined effort to produce decisions and actions that shape and guide an organization’s purpose and activities, particularly with regard to the future. Strategic planning is a fundamental component of organizational management and decision making in public, private, and

  • strategic planning (warfare)

    strategy: Fundamentals: Strategic planning is rarely confined to a single strategist. In modern times, planning reflects the contributions of committees and working groups, and even in ancient times the war council was a perennial resort of anxious commanders. For example, Thucydides’ History of the Peloponnesian War (c.…

  • Strategic Problems of China’s Revolutionary War (work by Mao Zedong)

    Mao Zedong: The road to power: …military matters there was first Strategic Problems of China’s Revolutionary War, written in December 1936 to sum up the lessons of the Jiangxi period (and also to justify the correctness of his own military line at the time), and then On Protracted War and other writings of 1938 on the…

  • strategic submarine (military technology)

    submarine: The nuclear navies: …new kind of submarine, the strategic submarine. The other is a revolution in antisubmarine warfare, with attack submarines becoming the primary antisubmarine weapons. Attack submarines are armed with torpedoes and, in some cases, with antiship missiles. Strategic submarines may carry similar weapons, but their primary weapons are submarine-launched ballistic missiles…

  • strategic warning system (military science)

    warning system: Medium-term, or strategic, warning, usually involving a time span of a few days or weeks, is a notification or judgment that hostilities may be imminent. Short-term, or tactical, warning, often hours or minutes in advance, is a notification that the enemy has initiated hostilities.

  • strategic weapons system

    Strategic weapons system, any weapons system designed to strike an enemy at the source of his military, economic, or political power. In practice, this means destroying a nation’s cities, factories, military bases, transportation and communications infrastructure, and seat of government. Strategic

  • Strategica (work by Polyaenus)

    Polyaenus: …author of a work entitled Strategica (or Strategemata), which he dedicated to the emperors Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus on the outbreak of the Parthian War (162–165).

  • stratēgoi (ancient Greek officer)

    Strategus, in ancient Greece, a general, frequently functioning as a state officer with wider functions; also, a high official in medieval Byzantium. An annual board of 10 strategi was introduced in Athens during the reorganization of the tribal system under Cleisthenes (c. 508 bc), each of the 1

  • stratēgos (ancient Greek officer)

    Strategus, in ancient Greece, a general, frequently functioning as a state officer with wider functions; also, a high official in medieval Byzantium. An annual board of 10 strategi was introduced in Athens during the reorganization of the tribal system under Cleisthenes (c. 508 bc), each of the 1

  • strategus (ancient Greek officer)

    Strategus, in ancient Greece, a general, frequently functioning as a state officer with wider functions; also, a high official in medieval Byzantium. An annual board of 10 strategi was introduced in Athens during the reorganization of the tribal system under Cleisthenes (c. 508 bc), each of the 1

  • strategy (military)

    Strategy, in warfare, the science or art of employing all the military, economic, political, and other resources of a country to achieve the objects of war. The term strategy derives from the Greek strategos, an elected general in ancient Athens. The strategoi were mainly military leaders with

  • strategy game, electronic (electronic game genre)

    Electronic strategy game, electronic game genre that emphasizes strategic or tactical planning, involving the control of multiple units, rather than the quick reflexes typical of electronic shooter games. There are two major types of electronic strategy games: turn-based strategy (TBS) and

  • Strategy of Conflict, The (book by Schelling)

    Thomas C. Schelling: …led to his publication of The Strategy of Conflict (1960). His book promoted game theory as “the” mathematical technique for the social sciences. Among his insights were the efficacy of voluntarily limiting one’s options in order to make the remaining ones more credible, that uncertain retaliation can be a greater…

  • strategy of exhaustion (warfare)

    strategy: Medieval strategy: …both types of strategy—overthrow and exhaustion. The Crusader states of the Middle East were gradually exhausted and overwhelmed by constant raiding warfare and the weight of numbers. On the other hand, one or two decisive battles, most notably the ruinous disaster at the Battle of ?a??īn (1187), doomed the Crusader…

  • Stratemeyer Literary Syndicate (American company)

    Edward Stratemeyer: …of popular juvenile fiction, whose Stratemeyer Literary Syndicate (1906–84) produced such books as the Rover Boys series, the Hardy Boys series, the Tom Swift series, the Bobbsey Twins series, and the Nancy Drew series.

  • Stratemeyer, Edward (American writer)

    Edward Stratemeyer, American writer of popular juvenile fiction, whose Stratemeyer Literary Syndicate (1906–84) produced such books as the Rover Boys series, the Hardy Boys series, the Tom Swift series, the Bobbsey Twins series, and the Nancy Drew series. Stratemeyer worked as a store clerk and, on

  • Straten, Peter van (Flemish composer)

    Pierre de La Rue, composer in the Flemish, or Netherlandish, style that dominated Renaissance music, known for his religious music. Little is known of La Rue’s early life. He may have worked first as a part-time singer in Brussels (1469), then perhaps in Ghent (1471–72) and Nieuwpoort (1472–77).

  • Stratfield (Connecticut, United States)

    Bridgeport, city, coextensive with the town (township) of Bridgeport, Fairfield county, southwestern Connecticut, U.S. The city, the most populous in the state, is a port on Long Island Sound at the mouth of the Pequonnock River. Settled in 1639, it was first known as Newfield and later as

  • Stratford (Connecticut, United States)

    Stratford, urban town (township), Fairfield county, southwestern Connecticut, U.S., on Long Island Sound and the Housatonic River just east of Bridgeport. The original site was a Pequannock Indian tract called Cupheag (“Harbour”). European settlers arrived in 1639, and in 1643 their settlement was

  • Stratford (New Zealand)

    Stratford, town (“district”), Taranaki and Manawatu-Wanganui local government regions, west-central North Island, New Zealand. It is located on the Patea River just east of Mount Taranaki (Egmont). Land was set aside in 1877 for the town, which was constituted five years later. Gazetted a borough

  • Stratford (Ontario, Canada)

    Stratford, city, seat (1853) of Perth county, southeastern Ontario, Canada. It lies along the Avon River in the heart of dairy-farming country. The settlement was founded during the winter of 1831–32 by William Seargeant (or Sargint), who erected the Shakespeare Hotel near the Avon; both the river

  • Stratford (England, United Kingdom)

    Stratford-upon-Avon, town (parish), Stratford-on-Avon district, administrative and historic county of Warwickshire, central England, and the birthplace of William Shakespeare. For centuries a country market town, it became a major British tourist centre because of its associations with Shakespeare.

  • Stratford de Redcliffe, Stratford Canning, Viscount (British diplomat)

    Stratford Canning, Viscount Stratford, diplomat who represented Great Britain at the Ottoman court for almost 20 years intermittently between 1810 and 1858, exerting a strong influence on Turkish policy. Stratford Canning was a cousin of George Canning, British foreign secretary (1807–09, 1822–27)

  • Stratford Festival (theatrical festival, Ontario, Canada)

    Jean Gascon: …spent 19 seasons at the Stratford Festival and served as its artistic director (1969–74). At the festival he appeared in Henry V (1956) and directed Othello (1959), The Comedy of Errors (1964), and The Misanthrope (1981). For his longtime contributions to the arts, he was made an Officer (1967) and…

  • Stratford Shakespeare Festival (festival, Stratford, Ontario, Canada)

    Stratford Shakespeare Festival, Canadian summer theatrical festival in Stratford, Ontario. It was founded by the journalist Tom Patterson in 1953; among its first artistic directors was Tyrone Guthrie. It includes four permanent theatres: the open-stage Festival Theatre, the Avon Theatre, the Tom

  • Stratford Shakespearean Festival (festival, Stratford, Ontario, Canada)

    Stratford Shakespeare Festival, Canadian summer theatrical festival in Stratford, Ontario. It was founded by the journalist Tom Patterson in 1953; among its first artistic directors was Tyrone Guthrie. It includes four permanent theatres: the open-stage Festival Theatre, the Avon Theatre, the Tom

  • Stratford, John (archbishop of Canterbury)

    United Kingdom: Domestic achievements: …returned from abroad and charged John Stratford, archbishop of Canterbury, the man who had been in charge in his absence, with working against him. He also engaged in a widespread purge of royal ministers. Stratford whipped up opposition to the king, and in Parliament in 1341 statutes were passed that…

  • Stratford-on-Avon (district, England, United Kingdom)

    Stratford-on-Avon, district, administrative county of Warwickshire, central England. It is in the southern part of the county and occupies almost half of the county. The town of Stratford-upon-Avon is the administrative centre. Most of the district lies within the historic county of Warwickshire,

  • Stratford-on-Patea (New Zealand)

    Stratford, town (“district”), Taranaki and Manawatu-Wanganui local government regions, west-central North Island, New Zealand. It is located on the Patea River just east of Mount Taranaki (Egmont). Land was set aside in 1877 for the town, which was constituted five years later. Gazetted a borough

  • Stratford-upon-Avon (England, United Kingdom)

    Stratford-upon-Avon, town (parish), Stratford-on-Avon district, administrative and historic county of Warwickshire, central England, and the birthplace of William Shakespeare. For centuries a country market town, it became a major British tourist centre because of its associations with Shakespeare.

  • Strathardle, John Murray, Earl of Strathtay and (Scottish noble)

    John Murray, 2nd marquess and 1st duke of Atholl, a leading Scottish supporter of William and Mary and of the Hanoverian succession. Son of the 1st marquess of Atholl, he favoured the accession of William and Mary in 1689 but was unable, during his father’s absence, to prevent the majority of his

  • Strathclyde (historical kingdom, Scotland, United Kingdom)

    Strathclyde, in British history, native Briton kingdom that, from about the 6th century, had extended over the basin of the River Clyde and adjacent western coastal districts, the former county of Ayr. Its capital was Dumbarton, “fortress of the Britons,” then known as Alclut. The name Strathclyde

  • Strathclyde, University of (university, Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom)

    Glasgow: The contemporary city: The University of Strathclyde was founded in 1796 as Anderson’s Institution and obtained university status in 1964. Glasgow Caledonian University, founded in 1875, gained university status in 1993. Glasgow’s other postsecondary institutions include the Glasgow School of Art (founded in 1845 as the Glasgow Government School…

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