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  • Struve, Gustav von (German revolutionary)

    Gustav von Struve, German revolutionary and political agitator, who, with his wife, Amélie Disar, took an active part in the Baden insurrection of 1848–49. The son of a Russian chargé d’affaires at Karlsruhe, he practiced law in Mannheim and founded and edited Deutscher Zuschauer, a radical journal

  • Struve, Otto (American astronomer)

    Otto Struve, Russian-American astronomer known for his contributions to stellar spectroscopy, notably the discovery of the widespread distribution of hydrogen and other elements in space. Struve was the last member of a dynasty of astronomers and a great-grandson of the noted astronomer Friedrich

  • Struve, Pyotr Berngardovich (Russian writer)

    Pyotr Berngardovich Struve, liberal Russian economist and political scientist. While studying economic theory and history at the University of St. Petersburg, Struve became a Marxist. The Marxist analysis of Russian capitalism that he presented in 1894 in his Kriticheskiye zametki k voprocy ob

  • Struve, Vasily Yakovlevich (Russian astronomer)

    Friedrich Georg Wilhelm von Struve, one of the greatest 19th-century astronomers and the first in a line of four generations of distinguished astronomers, who founded the modern study of binary stars. To avoid conscription by the Napoleonic armies, Struve left Germany in 1808 and went first to

  • Struven, Jean Witte (American tabloid personality)

    Jean Harris, (Jean Witte Struven), American tabloid personality (born April 27, 1923, Chicago, Ill.—died Dec. 23, 2012, New Haven, Conn.), shocked the country when in 1980 she shot and killed her longtime lover, physician Herman Tarnower (then 70), the best-selling author of The Complete Scarsdale

  • Struwwel, Peter (German physician and writer)

    Heinrich Hoffmann, German physician and writer who is best known for his creation of Struwwelpeter (“Slovenly Peter”), a boy whose wild appearance is matched by his naughty behaviour. Peter appeared in Lustige Geschichten und drollige Bilder mit füntzehn sch?n kolorten Tafeln für Kinder von 3–6

  • Struwwelpeter (German literary figure)

    children's literature: Heritage and fairy tales: Struwwelpeter (“Shock-headed Peter”), by the premature surrealist Heinrich Hoffmann, aroused cries of glee in children across the continent. Wilhelm Busch created the slapstick buffoonery of Max and Moritz, the ancestors of the Katzenjammer Kids and indeed of many aspects of the comic strip.

  • Struwwelpeter, Der (work by Hoffmann)

    Der Struwwelpeter, illustrated collection of cautionary tales for young children, published in German as Lustige Geschichten und drollige Bilder mit fünfzehn sch?n kolorierten Tafeln für Kinder von 3–6 Jahren (1845; “Cheerful Stories and Funny Pictures with 15 Beautiful Colour Plates for Children

  • Stry (Ukraine)

    Stryy, city, western Ukraine, on the Stryy River. It is an old town, dating in the chronicles from 1396, but it first became significant as a railway junction. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries Stryy was an important centre for the Ukrainian women’s and cooperative movements. Its industries

  • strychnine (chemical compound)

    Strychnine, a poisonous alkaloid that is obtained from seeds of the nux vomica tree (S. nux-vomica) and related plants of the genus Strychnos. It was discovered by the French chemists Joseph-Bienaimé Caventou and Pierre-Joseph Pelletier in 1818 in Saint-Ignatius’-beans (S. ignatii), a woody vine

  • Strychnos (plant genus)

    Strychnos, genus of 190 species of tropical woody plants, many of them trees, in the family Loganiaceae. The flowers are small and usually white or creamy white in colour. Several are important sources of drugs or poisons: strychnine, from the seeds of Strychnos nux-vomica and other species; and

  • Strychnos electri (fossil plant)

    Loganiaceae: The extinct species Strychnos electri, fossilized flowers of which were dated to the mid-Tertiary Period (between 15 million and 30 million years ago), represents the oldest known asterid (flowering plant lineage); its discovery in 2016 provided novel insight into the evolution of angiosperms.

  • Strychnos ignatii (plant)

    Gentianales: Loganiaceae: …produced by Strychnos ignatii, the Saint Ignatius’s bean of the Philippines, have been used to treat cholera. Strychnos spinosa (Natal orange) of southern Africa produces a yellow berry with edible pulp. Some species of Spigelia are known to be highly poisonous.

  • Strychnos nux-vomica (plant)

    strychnine: The nux vomica tree of India is the chief commercial source. Strychnine has a molecular formula of C21H22N2O2. It is practically insoluble in water and is soluble only with difficulty in alcohol and other common organic solvents. It has an exceptionally bitter taste.

  • Strychnos spinosa (plant)

    Gentianales: Loganiaceae: Strychnos spinosa (Natal orange) of southern Africa produces a yellow berry with edible pulp. Some species of Spigelia are known to be highly poisonous.

  • Strychnos toxifera (plant)

    Strychnos: …curare, from the bark of S. toxifera and other species. A few species are valued locally for their sweet fruits, including Natal orange (S. spinosa) and S. unguacha.

  • Strychnos unguacha (plant)

    Strychnos: spinosa) and S. unguacha.

  • Strydom, Johannes Gerhardus (prime minister of South Africa)

    Johannes Gerhardus Strijdom, prime minister of the Union of South Africa (1954–58) noted for his uncompromising Afrikaner sympathies. As head of the government, he translated this attitude into a vigorous program of apartheid, or separation of the races. After graduating from Victoria College,

  • Stryge, Le (photograph by Nègre)

    Charles Nègre: …a photograph commonly known as Le Stryge (“The Vampire”). The image, which has since become an icon of 19th-century photography, captured his friend Le Secq posing next to a massive gargoyle high above Paris, atop Notre-Dame Cathedral.

  • Stryi (Ukraine)

    Stryy, city, western Ukraine, on the Stryy River. It is an old town, dating in the chronicles from 1396, but it first became significant as a railway junction. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries Stryy was an important centre for the Ukrainian women’s and cooperative movements. Its industries

  • Stryjkowski, Julian (Polish writer)

    Julian Stryjkowski, (JULIAN STARK), Polish writer acclaimed for novels that described Jewish life in Poland, particularly a trilogy that chronicled the decay of Orthodox villages due to outside pressures (b. April 27, 1905--d. Aug. 8,

  • Stryker (armoured vehicle)

    armoured vehicle: Wheeled armoured vehicles: The result was the Stryker Infantry Carrier Vehicle (ICV), first fielded in 2003. The Stryker is largely modeled after the Canadian LAV III, which began service with the Canadian Army in 1999 and in turn is based on the Swiss Piranha III. The Stryker weighs 18 tons, has a…

  • Stryker Infantry Combat Vehicle (armoured vehicle)

    armoured vehicle: Wheeled armoured vehicles: The result was the Stryker Infantry Carrier Vehicle (ICV), first fielded in 2003. The Stryker is largely modeled after the Canadian LAV III, which began service with the Canadian Army in 1999 and in turn is based on the Swiss Piranha III. The Stryker weighs 18 tons, has a…

  • Stryker, Roy (American government official and photographer)

    Elliott Erwitt: …Erwitt met photographers Edward Steichen, Roy Stryker, and Robert Capa. Stryker got him a job documenting Pittsburgh, which resulted in Erwitt’s first significant photo essay (Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 1950).

  • Strymon melinus (insect)

    hairstreak: …larva of the North American gray hairstreak (Strymon melinus), which bores into fruit and seeds.

  • Strymon River (river, Europe)

    Struma River, river in western Bulgaria and northeastern Greece, rising in the Vitosha Massif of the Rhodope Mountains in Bulgaria, southwest of Sofia. It follows a course of 258 miles (415 km) south-southeast via Pernik to the Aegean Sea, which it enters 30 miles (50 km) west-southwest of Kavála.

  • Stryy (Ukraine)

    Stryy, city, western Ukraine, on the Stryy River. It is an old town, dating in the chronicles from 1396, but it first became significant as a railway junction. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries Stryy was an important centre for the Ukrainian women’s and cooperative movements. Its industries

  • Strzelecki, Paul (Polish explorer)

    Snowy Mountains: Explored in 1840 by Paul Strzelecki, the mountains were originally called Muniong (Munyang), a name now applied to their northeastern extremity.

  • STS

    Space shuttle, partially reusable rocket-launched vehicle designed to go into orbit around Earth, to transport people and cargo to and from orbiting spacecraft, and to glide to a runway landing on its return to Earth’s surface that was developed by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space

  • STS-101 (space shuttle mission)

    Susan Helms: On Helms’s fourth spaceflight, STS-101 (May 19–29, 2000) on the space shuttle Atlantis, the crew made repairs to the International Space Station (ISS) to prepare it for its first crew. She returned to the ISS on the space shuttle Discovery’s STS-102 mission (launched March 8, 2001). Helms, astronaut James…

  • STS-102 (space shuttle mission)

    Susan Helms: …on the space shuttle Discovery’s STS-102 mission (launched March 8, 2001). Helms, astronaut James Voss, and cosmonaut Yury Usachyov were the ISS’s second resident crew. (Helms, Voss, and Usachyov had also flown together on STS-101.) On March 11 Helms and Voss performed a space walk that made room for a…

  • STS-103 (space shuttle mission)

    Mark Kelly and Scott Kelly: …space shuttle Discovery on the STS-103 mission (December 19–27, 1999), which replaced the gyroscopes and computer on the Hubble Space Telescope. Mark’s first spaceflight was as pilot of the space shuttle Endeavour on the STS-108 mission (December 5–17, 2001), which carried three astronauts and supplies to the International Space Station

  • STS-105 (space shuttle mission)

    Susan Helms: …on the space shuttle Discovery’s STS-105 mission. On her five flights, she had spent a total of nearly 211 days in space.

  • STS-107 (space shuttle mission)

    Columbia disaster: …off for its 28th mission, STS-107, on January 16, 2003. STS-107 was a flight dedicated to various experiments that required a microgravity environment. The crew comprised commander Rick Husband; pilot William McCool; mission specialists Michael Anderson, David Brown, Kalpana Chawla, and Laurel Clark; and payload specialist Ilan Ramon, the first…

  • STS-108 (space shuttle mission)

    Mark Kelly and Scott Kelly: …space shuttle Endeavour on the STS-108 mission (December 5–17, 2001), which carried three astronauts and supplies to the International Space Station (ISS). Mark flew again to the ISS in July 2006 on the 13-day STS-121 mission as pilot of the space shuttle Discovery, which carried a German astronaut to the…

  • STS-110 (space shuttle mission)

    Ellen Ochoa: …in April 2002 on the STS-110 mission of the shuttle Atlantis. The first truss, which formed the ISS’s frame, was added; Ochoa and astronaut Daniel Bursch used the station’s robotic arm to lift the truss out of Atlantis’s payload bay and attach it to the station. On her four spaceflights,…

  • STS-111 (space shuttle mission)

    Peggy Whitson: …space shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-111. On board the ISS, she conducted more than 20 experiments in microgravity and human life sciences and also operated and installed commercial payloads and hardware systems. She was designated as the first NASA ISS science officer and also performed a space walk to install…

  • STS-113 (space shuttle mission)

    Peggy Whitson: …she returned to Earth aboard STS-113, landing on December 7.

  • STS-116 (space shuttle mission)

    Christer Fuglesang: …on his first space mission, STS-116, aboard the space shuttle Discovery on December 9, 2006. The mission (named “Celsius” by ESA in honour of Anders Celsius, the 18th-century Swedish astronomer) took the astronauts to the International Space Station (ISS) for an assembly and crew-rotation assignment. During the 13-day mission, Fuglesang

  • STS-117 (space shuttle mission)

    Sunita Williams: …California with the crew of STS-117 on June 22, 2007.

  • STS-118 (space shuttle mission)

    Mark Kelly and Scott Kelly: On the STS-118 mission (August 8–21, 2007) of the space shuttle Endeavour, commanded by Scott, a truss was added to the ISS. On the STS-124 mission (May 31–June 14, 2008) of the space shuttle Discovery, commanded by Mark, the Japanese experiment module Kibo was joined to the…

  • STS-121 (space shuttle mission)

    Mark Kelly and Scott Kelly: …July 2006 on the 13-day STS-121 mission as pilot of the space shuttle Discovery, which carried a German astronaut to the ISS, increasing its crew from two to three. Mark and Scott made subsequent flights to the ISS as mission commanders. On the STS-118 mission (August 8–21, 2007) of the…

  • STS-124 (space shuttle mission)

    Mark Kelly and Scott Kelly: On the STS-124 mission (May 31–June 14, 2008) of the space shuttle Discovery, commanded by Mark, the Japanese experiment module Kibo was joined to the ISS.

  • STS-127 (space shuttle mission)

    Robert Thirsk: …of the space shuttle mission STS-127, marking the first time two Canadians had been in space together. He was on the ISS for nearly 188 days before returning to Earth on December 1, 2009. Between his two spaceflights, he had spent nearly 205 days in space, more than all other…

  • STS-128 (space shuttle mission)

    Christer Fuglesang: His second spaceflight, STS-128, aboard the space shuttle Discovery, was launched to the ISS on Aug. 29, 2009. The mission lasted nearly 14 days, and Fuglesang performed two space walks. During one of these Fuglesang and mission specialist John Olivas replaced an ammonia tank weighing about 800 kg…

  • STS-134 (space shuttle mission)

    Mark Kelly and Scott Kelly: …space shuttle Endeavour’s last mission, STS-134, which was to attach the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer, an experiment designed to study antimatter, dark matter, and cosmic rays, to the ISS, and the Kelly twins would then have become the first siblings in space at the same time. However, delays in launching an…

  • STS-27 (space shuttle mission)

    Jerry Ross: …deployment of three communications satellites), STS-27 (1988, deployment of a military reconnaissance satellite), STS-37 (1991, launch of the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory), STS-55 (1993, payload of the German Spacelab D-2), STS-74 (1995, the second docking of a space shuttle with the Russian space station

  • STS-31 (space shuttle mission)

    Charles Bolden: …his second spaceflight, he piloted STS-31 (April 24–29, 1990), on which the space shuttle Discovery deployed the Hubble Space Telescope.

  • STS-35 (space shuttle mission)

    Vance Brand: Brand’s fourth space mission (STS-35; December 2–10, 1990) carried the ASTRO-1 observatory, which consisted of three ultraviolet telescopes and one X-ray telescope.

  • STS-37 (space shuttle mission)

    Jerry Ross: …of a military reconnaissance satellite), STS-37 (1991, launch of the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory), STS-55 (1993, payload of the German Spacelab D-2), STS-74 (1995, the second docking of a space shuttle with the Russian space station Mir), STS-88 (1998, the first assembly mission

  • STS-41-B (space shuttle mission)

    Vance Brand: …the Challenger space shuttle (STS-41-B; February 3–11, 1984). Although this trip was plagued by several malfunctions and two communications satellites were misdirected, Bruce McCandless’s performance of the first space walk without a lifeline and the successful return of the shuttle to its home base were regarded as major accomplishments.…

  • STS-41-C (space shuttle mission)

    Robert Crippen: STS-41-C (Challenger, April 6–13, 1984) was the first mission in which a satellite, the malfunctioning Solar Maximum Mission, was repaired in Earth orbit. He then commanded STS-41-G (Challenger, October 5–13, 1984), which was the first spaceflight with a seven-person crew and during which astronaut Kathryn…

  • STS-41-G (space shuttle mission)

    Robert Crippen: He then commanded STS-41-G (Challenger, October 5–13, 1984), which was the first spaceflight with a seven-person crew and during which astronaut Kathryn Sullivan became the first American woman to walk in space.

  • STS-41B (space shuttle mission)

    Ronald McNair: …first spaceflight was on the STS-41B mission of the space shuttle Challenger (February 3–11, 1984). During that flight astronaut Bruce McCandless became the first person to perform a space walk without being tethered to a spacecraft. McNair operated the shuttle’s robotic arm to move a platform on which an astronaut…

  • STS-42 (space shuttle mission)

    Roberta Bondar: STS-42 mission, launching into space on January 22, 1992, and returning to Earth on January 30. During the eight-day mission, she and her six fellow astronauts conducted several life science and materials science experiments on Spacelab, focusing on the adaptability of the human nervous system…

  • STS-45 (space shuttle mission)

    Charles Bolden: On STS-45 (March 24–April 2, 1992), the space shuttle Atlantis carried the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science, a laboratory on a pallet housed in the space shuttle’s cargo bay that contained 12 experiments studying Earth’s atmosphere. STS-60 (February 3–11, 1994) was the first U.S. spaceflight…

  • STS-47 (space shuttle mission)

    Mae Jemison: In September 1992, STS-47 Spacelab J became the first successful joint U.S.-Japan space mission.

  • STS-5 (space shuttle mission)

    Vance Brand: …the fifth space shuttle flight (STS-5; November 11–16, 1982), on which the shuttle Columbia first launched two satellites into orbit. On his third space mission, Brand was commander of the Challenger space shuttle (STS-41-B; February 3–11, 1984). Although this trip was plagued by several malfunctions and two communications satellites were…

  • STS-51G (space shuttle mission)

    Sultan ibn Salman Al Saud: …a payload specialist for the STS-51G space shuttle mission. He embarked on an abbreviated training schedule, and on June 17, 1985, Sultan flew on the space shuttle Discovery as part of a seven-member international crew. During the seven-day mission, Sultan represented the Arab Satellite Communications Organization (ARABSAT) and took part…

  • STS-51L (space shuttle mission)

    Challenger disaster: …primary goal of shuttle mission 51-L was to launch the second Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS-B). It also carried the Spartan Halley spacecraft, a small satellite that was to be released by Challenger and picked up two days later after observing Halley’s Comet during its closest approach to the…

  • STS-54 (space shuttle mission)

    Susan Helms: …spaceflights, the first on the STS-54 mission (January 13–19, 1993) of the space shuttle Endeavour, which launched a Tracking and Data Relay Satellite. Her second spaceflight, STS-64 (September 9–20, 1994) on Discovery, carried an experiment that used lasers to measure aerosols in Earth’s

  • STS-55 (space shuttle mission)

    Jerry Ross: …the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory), STS-55 (1993, payload of the German Spacelab D-2), STS-74 (1995, the second docking of a space shuttle with the Russian space station Mir), STS-88 (1998, the first assembly mission for the International Space Station [ISS]), and

  • STS-60 (space shuttle mission)

    Charles Bolden: STS-60 (February 3–11, 1994) was the first U.S. spaceflight to have as part of its crew a Russian cosmonaut, mission specialist Sergey Krikalyov.

  • STS-61-B (space shuttle mission)

    Jerry Ross: …mission specialist on seven flights: STS-61-B (1985, deployment of three communications satellites), STS-27 (1988, deployment of a military reconnaissance satellite), STS-37 (1991, launch of the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory), STS-55 (1993, payload of the German Spacelab D-2), STS-74 (1995, the second docking of a

  • STS-61A (space shuttle mission)

    Wubbo Ockels: …as a payload specialist on STS-61A, a German D-1 Spacelab mission. With eight crew members, the mission was the largest to fly into space. The mission also was notable for being the first in which some mission operations were controlled from outside the United States, with the German Space Operations…

  • STS-61C (space shuttle mission)

    Charles Bolden: …as the pilot of the STS-61C mission (launched January 12, 1986) on the space shuttle Columbia. During the six-day flight, the seven-man crew launched a communications satellite. On his second spaceflight, he piloted STS-31 (April 24–29, 1990), on which the space shuttle Discovery deployed the Hubble Space Telescope.

  • STS-64 (space shuttle mission)

    Susan Helms: Her second spaceflight, STS-64 (September 9–20, 1994) on Discovery, carried an experiment that used lasers to measure aerosols in Earth’s atmosphere. The STS-78 mission of the space shuttle Columbia carried a pressurized Spacelab module in which the crew performed biological and

  • STS-74 (space shuttle mission)

    Jerry Ross: …of the German Spacelab D-2), STS-74 (1995, the second docking of a space shuttle with the Russian space station Mir), STS-88 (1998, the first assembly mission for the International Space Station [ISS]), and STS-110 (2002, another ISS assembly mission).

  • STS-78 (space shuttle mission)

    Pedro Duque: …alternate payload specialist for the STS-78 mission and served as a crew interface coordinator on the ground during that mission in June and July 1996. After further training at the Johnson Space Center in Houston, he qualified for assignments in space as a mission specialist. He flew into space for…

  • STS-87 (space shuttle mission)

    Leonid Kadenyuk: …space shuttle Columbia on the STS-87 mission, where he conducted experiments to observe the effect of weightlessness on plant growth and biomass. Kadenyuk was later appointed adviser to the Ukrainian president on aviation and aeronautics and in 2002 was elected to the Ukrainian parliament, where he served as vice-chairperson of…

  • STS-88 (space shuttle mission)

    Sergey Konstantinovich Krikalyov: …as a mission specialist aboard STS-88, during which the Endeavour space shuttle visited the International Space Station (ISS). The flight lasted 12 days. His fifth space mission was in 2000–01, when he served as flight engineer on Soyuz TM-31 as part of the first resident crew (Expedition 1) on the…

  • STS-9 (space shuttle mission)

    Owen Garriott: …was a mission specialist on STS-9, a 10-day flight of the space shuttle Columbia that carried Spacelab, a science laboratory built by the European Space Agency. Between the two space missions, Garriott worked for the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center in Houston, rising to the position of director of science…

  • STS-95 (space shuttle mission)

    Pedro Duque: the space shuttle Discovery on STS-95. The mission lasted nine days (October 29 to November 7) and was focused on the study of the Sun, as well as research on weightlessness. Duque was responsible for supervising and maintaining the ESA experimental modules and the scientific machinery on board.

  • STS-96 (space shuttle mission)

    Ellen Ochoa: …a member of the Discovery STS-96 crew that executed the first docking to the International Space Station (ISS). The ISS then consisted of only two modules, the Russian Zarya and the American Unity. Discovery carried supplies to the ISS to get it ready for astronauts to stay there. It also…

  • STSAT (South Korean satellite series)

    Science and Technology Satellite (STSAT), any of a series of South Korean satellites, of which STSAT-2C was the first launched into orbit by South Korea. The first satellite in the series, STSAT-1, was launched by a Kosmos rocket from Plestek, Russia, on September 25, 2003. The second satellite in

  • STSAT-1 (South Korean satellite)

    Science and Technology Satellite: …first satellite in the series, STSAT-1, was launched by a Kosmos rocket from Plestek, Russia, on September 25, 2003.

  • STSAT-2A (South Korean satellite)

    Science and Technology Satellite: …second satellite in the series, STSAT-2A, would have been the first satellite launched into orbit by South Korea. STSAT-2A was launched on August 25, 2009, by the Korea Space Launch Vehicle-1 from the Naro Space Center, near Koh?ng (Goheung) in South Ch?lla (South Jeolla) province. One of the two payload…

  • STSAT-2C (South Korean satellite)

    Science and Technology Satellite: STSAT-2C, which launched successfully on January 30, 2013, was placed in a roughly 300-by-1,500-km (200-by-900-mile) orbit. It also carried a laser ranging apparatus, as well as two experiments designed to measure plasma and radiation near Earth. The satellite was expected to have a lifetime of…

  • Stuart Highway (highway, Australia)

    Adelaide River: …Adelaide River, located where the Stuart Highway and North Australia Railway cross the stream, is a tourist base for the Rum Jungle and Daly River districts.

  • Stuart Little (children’s book by White)

    Stuart Little, children’s book by E.B. White, published in 1945. The episodic story of the title character, a two-inch-tall boy who resembles a mouse, is noted for its understated humour, graceful wit, and ironic juxtaposition of fantasy and possibility. Despite his diminutive stature—his family is

  • Stuart style (art)

    Stuart style, visual arts produced during the reign of the British house of Stuart; that is, from 1603 to 1714 (excepting the interregnum of Oliver Cromwell). Although the Stuart period included a number of specific stylistic movements, such as Jacobean, Carolean, Restoration, William and Mary, and

  • Stuart v. Laird (law case)

    Judiciary Act of 1801: Repeal and the Judiciary Act of 1802: …did reach the court in Stuart v. Laird (1803), the court, in an opinion by Justice William Paterson, affirmed the constitutionality of the repeal. Thus, what had seemed so grave a question at the time passed quickly into obscurity.

  • Stuart, Arabella (English noble)

    Arabella Stuart, English noblewoman whose status as a claimant to the throne of her first cousin King James I (James VI of Scotland) led to her tragic death. The daughter of James’s uncle Charles Stewart, Earl of Lennox, and great-granddaughter of King Henry VIII’s sister Margaret Tudor, Arabella

  • Stuart, Charles Edward Louis Philip Casimir (British prince)

    Charles Edward, the Young Pretender, last serious Stuart claimant to the British throne and leader of the unsuccessful Jacobite rebellion of 1745–46. Charles’s grandfather was the exiled Roman Catholic king James II (ruled 1685–88), and his father, James Edward, the Old Pretender, affected in exile

  • Stuart, Charles, duke of Richmond and Lennox (English noble)

    Frances Teresa Stuart, duchess of Richmond and Lennox: …by Charles Stuart, duke of Richmond and Lennox.

  • Stuart, Don A. (American author and editor)

    John W. Campbell, American science-fiction writer, considered the father of modern science fiction. Campbell, who spent his childhood reading widely and experimenting with science, began writing science fiction while in college. His first published story, “When the Atoms Failed” (1930), contained

  • Stuart, Frances Teresa, Duchess of Richmond and Lennox (English mistress)

    Frances Teresa Stuart, duchess of Richmond and Lennox, a favourite mistress of Charles II of Great Britain. The daughter of Walter Stuart (or Stewart), a physician in the household of Queen Henrietta Maria when in exile after the death of her husband, Charles I, in 1649, Frances Stuart was brought

  • Stuart, Gilbert (American painter)

    Gilbert Stuart, American painter who was one of the great portrait painters of his era and the creator of a distinctively American portrait style. Stuart grew up in Newport, Rhode Island, where he learned the rudiments of painting. In 1775 he went to London and entered the studio of the expatriate

  • Stuart, Gilbert Charles (American painter)

    Gilbert Stuart, American painter who was one of the great portrait painters of his era and the creator of a distinctively American portrait style. Stuart grew up in Newport, Rhode Island, where he learned the rudiments of painting. In 1775 he went to London and entered the studio of the expatriate

  • Stuart, Gloria Frances (American actress)

    Gloria Frances Stuart, American actress (born July 4, 1910, Santa Monica, Calif.—died Sept. 26, 2010, Los Angeles, Calif.), appeared in many Hollywood motion pictures of the 1930s and ’40s, but she was best known for her role as Old Rose in the blockbuster movie Titanic (1997), which garnered her a

  • Stuart, Henry (English noble)

    Henry Stuart, Duke of Gloucester, Protestant brother of Charles II of England. The third son of Charles I, he visited his father the night before his execution and for three years thereafter was confined by the Commonwealth regime. In 1652 Oliver Cromwell gave him permission to go abroad, and he

  • Stuart, Henry (British lord)

    Henry Stewart, Lord Darnley, cousin and second husband of Mary, Queen of Scots, father of King James I of Great Britain and Ireland (James VI of Scotland), and direct ancestor of all subsequent British sovereigns. Darnley was the son of Matthew Stewart, 4th earl of Lennox, whose pretension to the

  • Stuart, Henry (British pretender)

    Henry Stuart, cardinal duke of York, last legitimate descendant of the deposed (1688) Stuart monarch James II of Great Britain. To the Jacobites—supporters of Stuart claims to the British throne—he was known as King Henry IX of Great Britain for the last 19 years of his life. Shortly after his

  • Stuart, House of (Scottish and English royal family)

    House of Stuart, royal house of Scotland from 1371 and of England from 1603. It was interrupted in 1649 by the establishment of the Commonwealth but was restored in 1660. It ended in 1714, when the British crown passed to the house of Hanover. The first spelling of the family name was undoubtedly

  • Stuart, James (British architect)

    Western architecture: Great Britain: …Park, Worcestershire, by James (“Athenian”) Stuart and the return to England of the 30-year-old Robert Adam.

  • Stuart, James Ewell Brown (Confederate officer)

    Jeb Stuart, Confederate cavalry officer whose reports of enemy troop movements were of particular value to the Southern command during the American Civil War (1861–65). An 1854 graduate of the U.S. Military Academy, West Point, N.Y., Stuart resigned his commission to share in the defense of his

  • Stuart, James Francis Edward (claimant to English and Scottish thrones)

    James Edward, the Old Pretender, son of the deposed Roman Catholic monarch James II of England and claimant to the English and Scottish thrones. Styled James III of England and James VIII of Scotland by his supporters, he made several halfhearted efforts to gain his crown. At his birth it was

  • Stuart, Jeb (Confederate officer)

    Jeb Stuart, Confederate cavalry officer whose reports of enemy troop movements were of particular value to the Southern command during the American Civil War (1861–65). An 1854 graduate of the U.S. Military Academy, West Point, N.Y., Stuart resigned his commission to share in the defense of his

  • Stuart, John (prime minister of United Kingdom)

    John Stuart, 3rd earl of Bute, Scottish royal favourite who dominated King George III of Great Britain during the first five years of his reign. As prime minister (1762–63), he negotiated the peace ending the Seven Years’ War (1756–63) with France, but he failed to create a stable administration.

  • Stuart, John McDouall (Australian explorer)

    Finke River: Visited (1860) by John McDouall Stuart, it was named by him after his patron, William Finke.

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