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  • Stuart, La Belle (English mistress)

    Frances Teresa Stuart, duchess of Richmond and Lennox, a favourite mistress of Charles II of Great Britain. The daughter of Walter Stuart (or Stewart), a physician in the household of Queen Henrietta Maria when in exile after the death of her husband, Charles I, in 1649, Frances Stuart was brought

  • Stuart, Maria Henriette (regent of The Netherlands)

    Mary Of Orange, eldest daughter of the English king Charles I and wife of the Dutch stadholder William II of Orange. The marriage to Prince William took place in London on May 2, 1641, and in 1642 she crossed over to Holland. In 1647 her husband succeeded his father as stadholder, but three years

  • Stuart, Maria Henriette (regent of The Netherlands)

    Mary Of Orange, eldest daughter of the English king Charles I and wife of the Dutch stadholder William II of Orange. The marriage to Prince William took place in London on May 2, 1641, and in 1642 she crossed over to Holland. In 1647 her husband succeeded his father as stadholder, but three years

  • Stuart, Mary (queen of Scotland)

    Mary, queen of Scotland (1542–67) and queen consort of France (1559–60). Her unwise marital and political actions provoked rebellion among the Scottish nobles, forcing her to flee to England, where she was eventually beheaded as a Roman Catholic threat to the English throne. Mary Stuart was the

  • Stuart, Mary Henrietta (regent of The Netherlands)

    Mary Of Orange, eldest daughter of the English king Charles I and wife of the Dutch stadholder William II of Orange. The marriage to Prince William took place in London on May 2, 1641, and in 1642 she crossed over to Holland. In 1647 her husband succeeded his father as stadholder, but three years

  • Stuart, Mel (American film director and producer)

    Mel Stuart, (Stuart Solomon), American film director and producer (born Sept. 2, 1928, New York, N.Y.—died Aug. 9, 2012, Los Angeles, Calif.), won acclaim for numerous documentaries, notably the Emmy Award-winning The Making of the President 1960 (1963) and the Oscar-nominated Four Days in November

  • stub-tailed spadebill (bird)

    spadebill: …white-throated, or stub-tailed, spadebill (Platyrinchus mystaceus), scarcely 10 centimetres (4 inches) long, is the most widespread species; it inhabits forest undergrowth from southern Mexico to Argentina in southern South America.

  • Stubbenkammer (promontory, Germany)

    Rügen: …feet (120 metres) at the Stubbenkammer promontory. The highest point is the Piekberg (528 feet [161 metres]) in Jasmund.

  • Stubbins, Hugh Asher, Jr. (American architect)

    Hugh Asher Stubbins, Jr., American architect (born Jan. 11, 1912, Birmingham, Ala.—died July 5, 2006, Cambridge, Mass.), was a prolific and versatile architect who designed compelling buildings in a range of styles and locales, including Congress Hall (1957) in Berlin, the Citicorp Center (1978) i

  • stubble mulch tillage (agriculture)

    agricultural technology: Mulch tillage: Mulch tillage has been mentioned already; in this system, crop residues are left on the surface, and subsurface tillage leaves them relatively undisturbed. In dryland areas, a maximum amount of mulch is left on the surface; in more humid regions, however, some of…

  • Stubblefield, Clyde (American musician)

    Clyde Stubblefield, American drummer who was renowned for a 20-second hard-driving embellished drum solo in the 1970 James Brown single “Funky Drummer” that has been called the most sampled drum break in music. The hundreds of songs that made use of that break include “Bring the Noise” (1987) and

  • Stubbles, Levi (American singer)

    Levi Stubbs, (Levi Stubbles), American singer (born June 6, 1936, Detroit, Mich.—died Oct. 17, 2008, Detroit), was the lead vocalist for the Four Tops, one of Motown’s most popular acts in the 1960s; his gruff, passionate vocals were set against gentler background harmonies and propelled the group

  • Stubbs, George (British painter)

    George Stubbs, outstanding English animal painter and anatomical draftsman. The son of a prosperous tanner, Stubbs was briefly apprenticed to a painter but was basically self-taught. His interest in anatomy, revealed at an early age, became one of the driving passions of his life. His earliest

  • Stubbs, Harry Clement (American author)

    Hal Clement, (Harry Clement Stubbs), American teacher and writer (born May 30, 1922, Somerville, Mass.—died Oct. 29, 2003, Boston, Mass.), taught high-school science and incorporated his knowledge of science in his writing, producing “hard” science-fiction works in which situations adhered c

  • Stubbs, Levi (American singer)

    Levi Stubbs, (Levi Stubbles), American singer (born June 6, 1936, Detroit, Mich.—died Oct. 17, 2008, Detroit), was the lead vocalist for the Four Tops, one of Motown’s most popular acts in the 1960s; his gruff, passionate vocals were set against gentler background harmonies and propelled the group

  • Stubbs, Philip (English pamphleteer)

    Philip Stubbs, vigorous Puritan pamphleteer and propagandist for a purer life and straiter devotion whose Anatomie of Abuses (1583), his most popular work, consisted of a devastating attack on English habits in dress, food, drink, games, and especially sex. At first Stubbs was inclined to condemn

  • Stubbs, William (British historian)

    William Stubbs, influential English historian who founded the systematic study of English medieval constitutional history. Stubbs was regius professor of history at the University of Oxford (1866–84), bishop of Chester (1884–88), and bishop of Oxford (1888–1901). His reputation in his day rested

  • Stuber (film by Dowse [2019])

    Mira Sorvino: …movies, including the action comedy Stuber (2019).

  • stuccowork (architecture)

    Stuccowork, in architecture, fine exterior or interior plasterwork used as three-dimensional ornamentation, as a smooth paintable surface, or as a wet ground for fresco painting. In modern parlance, the term is most often applied exclusively, especially in the United States, to the rougher plaster

  • Stuck, Franz von (German artist)

    Wassily Kandinsky: Munich period: …Academy in the class of Franz von Stuck. Kandinsky emerged from the academy with a diploma in 1900 and, during the next few years, achieved moderate success as a competent professional artist in touch with modern trends. Starting from a base in 19th-century realism, he was influenced by Impressionism, by…

  • Stuck, Hudson (American mountaineer)

    Denali: ” On June 7, 1913, Hudson Stuck and Harry Karstens led a party to the South Peak, the true summit. A climbing party was first airlifted onto the mountain’s flanks in 1932; beginning in the 1950s, that became the standard way to attempt a summit climb, as it reduced the…

  • Stückelberg de Breidenbach, Ernest C.G. (Swiss physicist)

    relativistic mechanics: Relativistic space-time: …out by the Swiss physicist Ernest C.G. Stückelberg de Breidenbach and by the American physicist Richard Feynman that a meaning can be attached to world lines moving backward in time—i.e., for those for which ordinary time t decreases as proper time τ increases. Since, as shall be shown later, the…

  • Stückofen (metallurgy)

    iron processing: History: …into the 3-metre- (10-foot-) high Stückofen, which produced blooms so large they had to be removed through a front opening in the furnace.

  • Stucky, Steven (American composer)

    Steven Stucky, (Steven Edward Stucky), American composer (born Nov. 7, 1949, Hutchinson, Kan.—died Feb. 14, 2016, Ithaca, N.Y.), wrote engaging and well-crafted music that was admired for its craftsmanship and command of colour; much of his creative output was commissioned by major orchestras. His

  • Stucky, Steven Edward (American composer)

    Steven Stucky, (Steven Edward Stucky), American composer (born Nov. 7, 1949, Hutchinson, Kan.—died Feb. 14, 2016, Ithaca, N.Y.), wrote engaging and well-crafted music that was admired for its craftsmanship and command of colour; much of his creative output was commissioned by major orchestras. His

  • stud (construction)

    carpentry: …framing the vertical members (studs) extend the full height of the building from foundation plate to rafter plate. The timber used in the framing is put to various uses. The studs usually measure 1.5 × 3.5 inches (4 × 9 cm; known as a “2 × 4”) and are…

  • Stud Book Fran?aise (French studbook)

    horse racing: Bloodlines and studbooks: In France the Stud Book Fran?aise (beginning in 1838) originally included two classifications: Orientale (Arab, Turk, and Barb) and Anglais (mixtures according to the English pattern), but these were later reduced to one class, chevaux de pur sang Anglais (“horses of pure English blood”). The American Stud Book…

  • Stud Poker (card game)

    poker: Stud poker: Each player receives one card facedown—his hole card—and one card faceup. The deal is then interrupted for a betting interval. There follow three rounds of dealing, each deal distributing one card faceup to each active player, with a betting interval after…

  • Stud, The (novel by Collins)

    Jackie Collins: Collins’s next effort, The Stud (1969; film 1978), chronicles the exploits of a licentious London nightclub manager and his nominally married female employer. She picked up their torrid saga in The Bitch (1979; film 1979). The film versions of The Stud and The Bitch were vehicles for her…

  • stud-link chain

    chain: …the coil chain is the stud-link chain, each of whose links has a bar or stud across its inside width. These studs add weight, keep the chain from fouling or kinking, and help prevent deformation; stud-link chains are preferred for use as anchor and cable chains on ships. (See Figure…

  • studbook

    Studbook, official record of the pedigree of purebred animals, particularly horses and dogs, usually published by a national breed association or similar regulating organization. Most studbooks are patterned after the British General Stud Book for Thoroughbred horses, first published in 1791 by

  • studded tire

    tire: Snow tires: …regular tires; tire chains or studded tires are best for ice surfaces. Studded tires usually have about 100 studs tipped with tungsten carbide which contact the road as the tire rotates. Because of the damage they are said to cause road surfaces, they are prohibited in certain localities.

  • Studebaker family (American vehicle manufacturers)

    Studebaker family, U.S. automobile manufacturers whose firm became the world’s largest producer of horse-drawn vehicles and a leader in automobile manufacturing. In 1852 Clement Studebaker (1831–1901) started a blacksmith and wagon shop in South Bend, Ind., with his brother Henry (1826–1895). Later

  • Studebaker, Clement (American manufacturer)

    Clement Studebaker, American manufacturer who founded a family firm that became the world’s largest producer of horse-drawn vehicles and a leader in automobile manufacturing. Studebaker started a blacksmith and wagon shop in South Bend in 1852 with his brother Henry. When John Mohler Studebaker

  • Studebaker–Packard Corporation (American firm)

    automotive industry: The industry in the United States: A merger of Studebaker and Packard in 1954 was less successful. The new company stopped production in the United States in 1964 and in Canada two years later.

  • Studenica (monastery, Serbia)

    Kraljevo: The famous monastery of Studenica, designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1986, is about 15 miles (24 km) southwest of Kraljevo, under the shadow of Golija Mountain, amid beautiful scenery; one of the oldest and best-known Serbian medieval monasteries, it comprises three churches dating from the 12th to…

  • student aid

    Student aid, form of assistance designed to help students pay for their education. In general, such awards are known as scholarships, fellowships, or loans; in European usage, a small scholarship is an exhibition, and a bursary is a sum granted to a needy student. Many awards are in the nature of

  • student group (sociology)

    anarchism: Contemporary anarchism: …new radicalism took root among students and the left in general in the United States, Europe, and Japan, embracing a general criticism of “elitist” power structures and the materialist values of modern industrial societies—both capitalist and communist. For these radicals, who rejected the traditional parties of the left as strongly…

  • Student National Coordinating Committee (American organization)

    Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), American political organization that played a central role in the civil rights movement in the 1960s. Begun as an interracial group advocating nonviolence, it adopted greater militancy late in the decade, reflecting nationwide trends in black

  • Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (American organization)

    Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), American political organization that played a central role in the civil rights movement in the 1960s. Begun as an interracial group advocating nonviolence, it adopted greater militancy late in the decade, reflecting nationwide trends in black

  • Student Nurses, The (film by Rothman)

    Roger Corman: Its first film, The Student Nurses (1970), was shot in three weeks for $150,000 and grossed more than $1 million. Other New World releases included horror, blaxploitation, and women-in-prison films. The profits from these low-budget features allowed Corman to act as the American distributor for a number of…

  • Student of Prague, The (film by Galeen)

    history of the motion picture: Germany: …Der Student von Prag (The Student of Prague, 1926), which combines the Faust legend with a doppelg?nger, or double, motif. In addition to winning international prestige for German films, Expressionism produced two directors who would become major figures in world cinema, Fritz Lang and F.W. Murnau.

  • Student Prince, The (operetta by Romberg)

    Sigmund Romberg: They include the operetta The Student Prince (1924; based on the German play Alt Heidelberg by Wilhelm Meyer-F?rster), with the songs “Deep in My Heart” and “Drinking Song”; The Desert Song (1926), remembered for the title song and “One Alone”; and The New Moon (1928), with “Lover, Come Back…

  • Student Volunteer Movement (Protestant group)

    Christian fundamentalism: Origins: …was eventually institutionalized as the Student Volunteer Movement.

  • Student von Prag, Der (film by Galeen)

    history of the motion picture: Germany: …Der Student von Prag (The Student of Prague, 1926), which combines the Faust legend with a doppelg?nger, or double, motif. In addition to winning international prestige for German films, Expressionism produced two directors who would become major figures in world cinema, Fritz Lang and F.W. Murnau.

  • Student with a Pipe (work by Picasso)

    Pablo Picasso: Collage: …much of his work (Student with a Pipe [1913]) and lead to the suggestion that one thing becomes transformed into another. Absinthe Glass (1914; six versions), for example, is in part sculpture (cast bronze), in part collage (a real silver sugar strainer is welded onto the top), and in…

  • Student’s t distribution (statistics)

    Student's t-test: The t distribution is a family of curves in which the number of degrees of freedom (the number of independent observations in the sample minus one) specifies a particular curve. As the sample size (and thus the degrees of freedom) increases, the t distribution approaches the bell…

  • Student’s t-statistic (statistics)

    Student's t-test: The test statistic t is then calculated. If the observed t-statistic is more extreme than the critical value determined by the appropriate reference distribution, the null hypothesis is rejected. The appropriate reference distribution for the t-statistic is the t distribution. The critical value depends on the significance…

  • Student’s t-test (statistics)

    Student’s t-test, in statistics, a method of testing hypotheses about the mean of a small sample drawn from a normally distributed population when the population standard deviation is unknown. In 1908 William Sealy Gosset, an Englishman publishing under the pseudonym Student, developed the t-test

  • Students for a Democratic Society (American organization)

    Students for a Democratic Society (SDS), American student organization that flourished in the mid-to-late 1960s and was known for its activism against the Vietnam War. SDS, founded in 1959, had its origins in the student branch of the League for Industrial Democracy, a social democratic educational

  • Students’ International Union (nongovernmental organization)

    Institute of World Affairs (IWA), nongovernmental organization (NGO) that develops educational and training programs in conflict analysis, conflict management, and postconflict peace building. It is headquartered in Vienna, Va. The IWA was founded in 1924 in Geneva by a group of English and

  • Studenty (novel by Trifonov)

    Yuri Valentinovich Trifonov: His first novel, Studenty (1950; “Students”), won the Stalin Prize in 1951. Trifonov went as a journalist to Central Asia, where he reported on the building of the Karakum Canal, the subject of his novel Utoleniye zhazhdy (1963; “Thirst Quenching”). Much of his work during the 1960s appeared…

  • studia generale (education)

    university: Early universities: …the medieval schools known as studia generalia; they were generally recognized places of study open to students from all parts of Europe. The earliest studia arose out of efforts to educate clerks and monks beyond the level of the cathedral and monastic schools. The inclusion of scholars from foreign countries…

  • studia humanitatis (philosophy of education)

    humanities: The term studia humanitatis (“studies of humanity”) was used by 15th-century Italian humanists to denote secular literary and scholarly activities (in grammar, rhetoric, poetry, history, moral philosophy, and ancient Greek and Latin studies) that the humanists thought to be essentially humane and Classical studies rather than divine…

  • Studie über Joannes a Cruce: Kreuzeswissenschaft (work by Stein)

    Edith Stein: …Joannes a Cruce: Kreuzeswissenschaft (1950; The Science of the Cross), a phenomenological study of St. John of the Cross.

  • Studie über Minderwertigkeit von Organen (work by Adler)

    Alfred Adler: …über Minderwertigkeit von Organen (1907; Study of Organ Inferiority and Its Psychical Compensation), in which he suggested that persons try to compensate psychologically for a physical disability and its attendant feeling of inferiority. Unsatisfactory compensation results in neurosis. Adler increasingly downplayed Freud’s basic contention that sexual conflicts in early childhood…

  • Studier over slagger (work by Vogt)

    Johan Herman Lie Vogt: His first important work, Studier over slagger (1884; “Studies on Slags”), began a series of studies on molten slags, in which he examined the crystallization of furnace slags and pointed out the close resemblance in mineral composition and texture between slags and certain igneous rocks. His principal work on…

  • Studies and Exercises in Formal Logic (work by Keynes)

    John Neville Keynes: His first major work, Studies and Exercises in Formal Logic (1884), was popular for its clarity of expression and avoidance of mathematical symbolism. Keynes’s classic work on economic methodology, The Scope and Method of Political Economy (1891), categorized the existing approaches to economics as either inductive or deductive. With…

  • Studies in Ancient History (work by McLennan)

    John Ferguson McLennan: …evolution, outlined in his book Primitive Marriage: An Enquiry into the Origin of the Form of Capture in Marriage Ceremonies (1865, reissued as Studies in Ancient History, 2nd series, 1896, and again as Primitive Marriage, 1970).

  • Studies in Classic American Literature (literary criticism by Lawrence)

    Studies in Classic American Literature, collection of literary criticism by English writer D.H. Lawrence, published in 1923. In this series of essays about great American authors, Lawrence characterized American culture as unsteady and set adrift from the stable moorings of European culture.

  • Studies in Pharisaism and the Gospels (work by Abrahams)

    Israel Abrahams: Studies in Pharisaism and the Gospels, 2 vol. (1917–24), includes a series of essays based on an examination of the New Testament treatment of Judaism. Among his works on Jewish writings is Chapters on Jewish Literature (1899), a survey of the period from the fall…

  • Studies in the Economics of Overhead Costs (work by Clark)

    John Maurice Clark: In Studies in the Economics of Overhead Costs (1923), Clark developed his theory of the acceleration principle—that investment demand can fluctuate severely if consumer demand fluctuations exhaust existing productive capacity. His subsequent study of variations in consumer demand as a source of fluctuations in total demand…

  • Studies in the History of the Time of Troubles in the Muscovite State During the 16th and 17th Centuries (work by Platonov)

    Sergey Fyodorovich Platonov: …this subject was the monumental Studies in the History of the Time of Troubles in the Muscovite State During the 16th and 17th Centuries (1899). Platonov founded a new school of historiography in Russia based on careful and exhaustive archival research and analysis. His History of Russia (1909) and Lectures…

  • Studies in the Psalms (work by Mowinckel)

    Sigmund Mowinckel: …the Psalms,” later popularized as The Psalms in Israel’s Worship, 1962), one of the major works of biblical commentary of the 20th century. Depicting the psalms in their concrete cultural milieu, he emphasized the cultic nature of their origin and development.

  • Studies in the Psychology of Sex (work by Ellis)

    Havelock Ellis: …his major work, the seven-volume Studies in the Psychology of Sex (1897–1928). Publication of the first volume resulted in a trial during which the judge hearing the case called claims for the book’s scientific value “a pretence, adopted for the purpose of selling a filthy publication.” Other volumes of the…

  • Studies in the Quantity of Money (work by Friedman)

    Milton Friedman: Contributions to economic theory: …case in his introduction to Studies in the Quantity of Money (1956), a collection of articles that had been contributed by participants in the Money and Banking Workshop. That work was followed by an article, “The Relative Stability of Monetary Velocity and the Investment Multiplier in the United States, 1897–1958”…

  • Studies in the Theory of Human Society (work by Giddings)

    Franklin H. Giddings: …The Principles of Sociology (1896); Studies in the Theory of Human Society (1922), considered the best statement of his matured ideas; and The Scientific Study of Human Society (1924).

  • Studies of Religious History (work by Renan)

    Ernest Renan: Early works: …essays, études d’histoire religieuse (1857; Studies of Religious History) and Essais de morale et de critique (1859; “Moral and Critical Essays”), first written for the Revue des Deux Mondes and the Journal des Débats. The études inculcated into a middle-class public the insight and sensitivity of the historical, humanistic approach…

  • Studies of the Eighteenth Century in Italy (work by Lee)

    Vernon Lee: This work, Studies of the Eighteenth Century in Italy, brought to life for English readers the hitherto unexplored world of poet-librettist Pietro Metastasio and dramatists Carlo Goldoni and Carlo Gozzi. Her collections of essays Belcaro (1881), a work on aesthetics, and Euphorion (1884), which includes essays on…

  • Studies of the Upper Congo, Committee for (Belgian organization)

    Association Internationale du Congo, association under whose auspices the Congo region (coextensive with present-day Democratic Republic of the Congo) was explored and brought under the ownership of the Belgian king Leopold II and a group of European investors. The Committee for Studies of the

  • Studies on Army Ants in Panama (article by Schneirla)

    Theodore Christian Schneirla: His “Studies on Army Ants in Panama,” published the next year, provided new insight into their behaviour. He discovered that these ants operate on a 36-day cycle consisting of a 16-day nomadic pattern followed by a 20-day stationary phase. In 1934 he reported that ants follow…

  • Studio 54 (nightclub, New York City, New York United States)

    Halston: …became associated with discotheques, especially Studio 54, where the designer was a frequent guest.

  • Studio 60 on the Sunset Strip (American television series)

    Aaron Sorkin: Sorkin’s next television project was Studio 60 on the Sunset Strip (2006–07), which depicted the offscreen goings-on of a TV sketch-comedy program. However, the show survived only one season. Sorkin then returned to his theatrical roots with the Broadway production The Farnsworth Invention (2007), about the historical emergence of television,…

  • Studio at Batignolles, A (painting by Fantin-Latour)

    édouard Manet: Mature life and works: …an homage in paint, Fantin-Latour’s A Studio at Batignolles, which served as a kind of manifesto on his behalf. This large canvas shows Manet painting, surrounded by those who were his defenders at the time: Zola, the painters Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Claude Monet, and Frédéric Bazille, and the sculptor Zacharie Astruc.…

  • Studio di Fonologia Musicale (music school, Milan, Italy)

    Bruno Maderna: …Luciano Berio, Maderna founded the Studio di Fonologia Musicale at Milan Radio in Italy in 1954; the studio became a major laboratory for electronic music in Europe. With Berio he also founded a review devoted to electronic and avant-garde music, Incontri Musicali (“Musical Encounters”). Maderna later taught composition in Milan,…

  • Studio Gang Architects (American company)

    Jeanne Gang: …she opened her own firm, Studio Gang Architects, in Chicago.

  • Studio Ghibli (Japanese film studio)

    Studio Ghibli, acclaimed Japanese animation film studio that was founded in 1985 by animators and directors Miyazaki Hayao and Takahata Isao and producer Suzuki Toshio. Studio Ghibli is known for the high quality of its filmmaking and its artistry. Its feature films won both critical and popular

  • Studio One (American television program)

    Television in the United States: Anthology series: …Kraft Television Theatre (NBC/ABC, 1947–58), Studio One (CBS, 1948–58), U.S. Steel Hour (ABC/CBS, 1953–63), and Playhouse 90 (CBS, 1956–61).

  • Studio One (Jamaican recording studio)

    Studio One: Jamaican “Academy”: Coxsone Dodd, who had encountered rhythm and blues as a migrant cane cutter in the southern United States and returned home to become one of Jamaica’s first sound-system (mobile disco) operators, founded Studio One in 1963. His crude and tiny one-track studio and pressing plant…

  • Studio One: Jamaican Academy

    Coxsone Dodd, who had encountered rhythm and blues as a migrant cane cutter in the southern United States and returned home to become one of Jamaica’s first sound-system (mobile disco) operators, founded Studio One in 1963. His crude and tiny one-track studio and pressing plant produced hits for

  • studio painting (art)

    Easel painting, painting executed on a portable support such as a panel or canvas, instead of on a wall. It is likely that easel paintings were known to the ancient Egyptians, and the 1st-century-ad Roman scholar Pliny the Elder refers to a large panel placed on an easel; it was not until the 13th

  • studio system (American cinema)

    motion picture: Motion-picture directing: …the great age of the studio system (1927–48), strong directors vied with the factory conditions in which films were made. Those directors with powerful personalities (such as Frank Capra, Howard Hawks, John Ford, and Ernst Lubitsch) were given great freedom, but they still had to work with actors and actresses…

  • Studio, The (painting by Courbet)

    realism: Painting: After his huge canvas The Studio (1854–55) was rejected by the Exposition Universelle of 1855, the artist displayed it and other works under the label “Realism, G. Courbet” in a specially constructed pavilion. Courbet was strongly opposed to idealization in his art, and he urged other artists to instead…

  • Studio, The (novel by Dunne)

    John Gregory Dunne: The Studio (1969) is a telling portrait of the motion-picture industry as seen through the eyes of the movie studio executives. Blurring the lines between documentary and fiction, Vegas: A Memoir of a Dark Season (1974) describes the narrator’s nervous breakdown in a story about…

  • studiolo (art)

    art market: The 15th century: …of rooms, known as a studiolo. The most celebrated example was created by Isabella d’Este, wife of Francesco Gonzaga III, at the ducal palace in Mantua (see also House of Este; Gonzaga dynasty). Decorated with paintings by Andrea Mantegna and other court artists, d’Este’s

  • Studion (historical monastery, Istanbul, Turkey)

    calligraphy: Earliest minuscule, 8th to 10th century: …lives of the abbots of Stoudion of that time, and the first dated manuscript written in true minuscule) point to its development from a certain type of documentary hand used in the 8th century and to the likelihood that the monastery of the Stoudion in Constantinople had a leading part…

  • studite (religion)

    Christianity: Missions and monasticism: …Byzantium was centred upon the Studites, who came to be a faction against the court. A remoter and otherworldly asceticism developed with the foundation of monasteries on Mount Athos (Greece) from 963 onward. A distinctive feature of Athonite monasticism was that nothing female was to be allowed on the peninsula.

  • studium (intellectual authority)

    Italy: Cultural developments: The incipient Dominican studium in Naples produced Thomas Aquinas, arguably the greatest thinker of the age. Frederick, however, did not continue the rich Norman tradition of mosaic art and architecture, best represented by the Palatine Chapel in Palermo and the cathedrals of Cefalù and Monreale. Instead, Frederick was…

  • studium curiae (university, Rome, Italy)

    University of Rome: …for a time alongside the studium curiae (“place of study of the [papal] court”), founded 1244–45. Under Pope Leo X (1513–21), the two institutions were fused into one University of Rome, housed in a building called Sapienza (“Wisdom”), which for centuries gave its name to the university.

  • studium generalia (education)

    university: Early universities: …the medieval schools known as studia generalia; they were generally recognized places of study open to students from all parts of Europe. The earliest studia arose out of efforts to educate clerks and monks beyond the level of the cathedral and monastic schools. The inclusion of scholars from foreign countries…

  • studium urbis (university, Rome, Italy)

    University of Rome: …the university, known as the studium urbis (“place of study of the city”), operated for a time alongside the studium curiae (“place of study of the [papal] court”), founded 1244–45. Under Pope Leo X (1513–21), the two institutions were fused into one University of Rome, housed in a building called…

  • Studley Royal Water Garden (park, North Yorkshire, England)

    Harrogate: Studley Royal Water Garden, just southwest of Ripon and containing the ruins of Fountains Abbey, was designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1986. Area borough, 505 square miles (1,308 square km). Pop. (2001) town (including Knaresborough), 85,128; borough, 151,336; (2011) town, 73,576; borough, 157,869.

  • Studs Lonigan (literary trilogy by Farrell)

    Studs Lonigan, trilogy of novels by James T. Farrell about life among lower-middle-class Irish Roman Catholics in Chicago during the first third of the 20th century. The trilogy consists of Young Lonigan: A Boyhood in Chicago Streets (1932), The Young Manhood of Studs Lonigan (1934), and Judgment

  • Studs’s Place (American television program)

    Studs Terkel: Studs’s Place, Terkel’s nationally broadcast television show, ran from 1949 to 1952. The program comprised songs and stories and used a fictional bar as its backdrop. Its cancellation was due to Terkel’s leftist leanings, which got him blacklisted in the early 1950s. He returned to…

  • Study after Velázquez’s Portrait of Pope Innocent X (work by Bacon)

    Francis Bacon: …he converted Diego Velázquez’s famous Portrait of Pope Innocent X into a nightmarish icon of hysterical terror.

  • Study for an End of the World (work by Tinguely)

    Jean Tinguely: …two self-destroying machines, entitled “Study for an End of the World,” performed more successfully, detonating themselves with considerable amounts of explosives. In the 1960s and ’70s he went on to create less aggressive and more playful kinetic constructions that combined aspects of the machine with those of found objects,…

  • Study of Chinese Architecture, Society for the (Chinese architectural society)

    Chinese architecture: The influence of foreign styles: In 1930 they founded Zhongguo Yingzao Xueshe (“The Society for the Study of Chinese Architecture”). The following year Liang Sicheng joined the group; he would be the dominant figure in the movement for the next 30 years. The fruits of these architects’ work can be seen in new universities…

  • Study of Chinese Literati Painting, The (work by Chen and Seigai)

    Chen Shizeng: Together they published The Study of Chinese Literati Painting in 1922, which examined the history of Chinese scholar-painters (“literati”) who incorporated their knowledge of poetry and other arts into their painting. The book included two seminal essays: Seigai’s “The Revival of Literati Painting” (translated in Chinese by Chen…

  • Study of Democratic Institutions, Center for the (American educational institution)

    Center for the Study of Democratic Institutions, nonprofit educational institution established at Santa Barbara, Calif., in 1959 and based in Los Angeles from 1988. The educator Robert M. Hutchins (q.v.) organized the centre and headed it and its parent corporation, the Fund for the Republic

  • Study of Divining Rods, or Two Books of Numbering by Means of Rods (work by Napier)

    John Napier: Contribution to mathematics: …per Virgulas Libri Duo (Study of Divining Rods, or Two Books of Numbering by Means of Rods, 1667); in this he described ingenious methods of multiplying and dividing of small rods known as Napier’s bones, a device that was the forerunner of the slide rule. He also made important…

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