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  • Study of Dramatic Art, Society for (Korean arts association)

    Korean performing arts: Chos?n and modern periods: …year its organizers formed the Society for the Study of Dramatic Art, which studied and staged translations of modern European plays. It was active until 1939, when it was suppressed by the Japanese colonial government. Nonetheless, by 1940 about 100 amateur groups were using realistic “new drama” (singgug) as a…

  • Study of Good, A (work by Nishida)

    Nishida Kitarō: Academic career: …work, Zen no kenkyū (1911; A Study of Good, 1960). At about this time parts of the book were published in Japanese philosophical journals, and his name as an original philosopher attracted attention in the Japanese philosophical world.

  • Study of History, A (work by Toynbee)

    philosophy of history: Later systems: …was given to Toynbee’s massive A Study of History (1934–61) immediately after World War II. Toynbee, like Spengler, undertook a comparative study of civilizations, thereby repudiating attempts to treat the past as if it exhibited a single linear progression: at the same time, he diverged from Spengler in suggesting that…

  • Study of Industrial Fluctuation, A (work by Robertson)

    Sir Dennis Holme Robertson: Robertson’s first book, A Study of Industrial Fluctuation (1915), emphasized real rather than monetary forces, especially the interaction of invention and investment, in the trade cycle. However, in Money (1922), he turned his attention to monetary forces. Like Keynes, he maintained that government policy should attempt to stabilize…

  • Study of Instinct, The (work by Tinbergen)

    Nikolaas Tinbergen: …his most influential work is The Study of Instinct (1951), which explores the work of the European ethological school up to that time and attempts a synthesis with American ethology. In the 1970s Tinbergen devoted his time to the study of autism in children.

  • Study of International Relations (work by Wright)

    Quincy Wright: Wright’s Study of International Relations (1955) presented arguments for a separate discipline of international relations. He was a supporter of the League of Nations in the 1920s and ’30s, and he later opposed U.S. involvement in Southeast Asia.

  • Study of Man, The (work by Linton)

    Ralph Linton: The Study of Man (1936) is frequently regarded as his most important theoretical work. It is an influential synthesis of theories from anthropology, psychology, and sociology. In The Cultural Background of Personality (1945), he advanced the idea of “status personalities,” common elements that form the…

  • Study of National Strengthening, Society for the (Chinese reform party)

    China: The Hundred Days of Reform of 1898: …a political group called the Society for the Study of National Strengthening. Though this association was soon closed down, many study societies were created in Hunan, Guangdong, Fujian, Sichuan, and other provinces. In April 1898 the National Protection Society was established in Beijing under the premise of protecting state, nation,…

  • Study of Negro Life and History, Association for the (American organization)

    Carter G. Woodson: In 1915 he founded the Association for the Study of Negro Life and History to encourage scholars to engage in the intensive study of the black past. Prior to this work, the field had been largely neglected or distorted in the hands of historians who accepted the traditionally biased picture…

  • Study of Organ Inferiority and Its Psychical Compensation (work by Adler)

    Alfred Adler: …über Minderwertigkeit von Organen (1907; Study of Organ Inferiority and Its Psychical Compensation), in which he suggested that persons try to compensate psychologically for a physical disability and its attendant feeling of inferiority. Unsatisfactory compensation results in neurosis. Adler increasingly downplayed Freud’s basic contention that sexual conflicts in early childhood…

  • Study of Poetic Language, Society for the (literary group)

    Viktor Shklovsky: Petersburg, Shklovsky helped found OPOYAZ, the Society for the Study of Poetic Language, in 1914. He was also connected with the Serapion Brothers, a collection of writers that began meeting in Petrograd (St. Petersburg) in 1921. Both groups felt that literature’s importance lay primarily not in its social content…

  • Study of Poetry, The (essay by Arnold)

    Matthew Arnold: Arnold as critic: …in the 1888 volume, “The Study of Poetry,” was originally published as the general introduction to T.H. Ward’s anthology, The English Poets (1880). It contains many of the ideas for which Arnold is best remembered. In an age of crumbling creeds, poetry will have to replace religion. More and…

  • Study of Responsive Law, Center for (American organization)

    Unsafe at Any Speed: In 1968 he founded the Center for Study of Responsive Law, and its staff quickly became known as “Nader’s Raiders” as they focused their investigations on issues relating to consumer safety and health. He used the settlement money from GM to fund his investigative work. Nader also founded other consumer…

  • Study of Socialism, Society for the (Chinese political group)

    anarchism: Anarchism in China: …Paris in 1906, and the Society for the Study of Socialism, founded in Tokyo in 1907—adopted explicitly anarchist programs.

  • Study of the History, Life and Culture of Black People, Institute for the (American institution)

    Margaret Walker: …1949, where she founded the Institute for the Study of the History, Life and Culture of Black People in 1968. She completed her first novel, Jubilee (1966), as her doctoral dissertation for the University of Iowa (Ph.D., 1965). Based on the life of Walker’s maternal great-grandmother, Jubilee chronicles the progress…

  • Study of Tinguian Folklore, A (work by Cole)

    Fay-Cooper Cole: His first important monograph, A Study of Tinguian Folklore (1914; Ph.D. dissertation), compared the old culture reflected in Tinguian myths with the culture of present-day Tinguians and demonstrated the changes that had taken place. Cole subsequently became assistant curator of Malayan ethnology and physical anthropology at the Field Museum.

  • Study of Undergraduate Adjustment, A (work by Angell)

    Robert Cooley Angell: …undergraduate life of American universities; A Study of Undergraduate Adjustment (1930); The Family Encounters the Depression (1936); The Integration of American Society (1941); The Moral Integration of American Cities (1951); Free Society and Moral Crisis (1958); A Study of Values of Soviet and of American Elites (1963);

  • Study of Values of Soviet and of American Elites, A (work by Angell)

    Robert Cooley Angell: …Society and Moral Crisis (1958); A Study of Values of Soviet and of American Elites (1963); Peace on the March (1969); and The Quest for World Order (1979).

  • Study of War, A (work by Wright)

    Quincy Wright: In 1942 Wright published A Study of War in two volumes, in which he examined the institution of war, historically, legally, and culturally, and concluded that war could best be eliminated through a world organization that had power adequate to its responsibilities. Wright’s Study of International Relations (1955) presented…

  • Stuff of Thought: Language As a Window into Human Nature, The (work by Pinker)

    Steven Pinker: …human perception of reality in The Stuff of Thought: Language As a Window into Human Nature (2007). Drawing on a range of psychological and historical data, he contended that the modern era was the most peaceful in human history in The Better Angels of Our Nature: Why Violence Has Declined…

  • stuffing (fibre manufacturing)

    man-made fibre: Stuffing: Fibres spun from very large bundles of fibre, called tow, are generally crimped in-line by feeding two tows into a stuffer box, where the tows fold and compress against each other to form a plug of yarn. The plug may be heated by steam…

  • Stuhldreher, Harry (American athlete)

    Four Horsemen: …gridiron football team of 1924: Harry Stuhldreher (quarterback), Don Miller and Jim Crowley (halfbacks), and Elmer Layden (fullback). Supported by the Seven Mules (the nickname given to the offensive line that cleared the way for the four backs) and coached by Knute Rockne, they gained enduring football fame when the…

  • Stuhlinger, Ernst (German-born American rocket scientist)

    Ernst Stuhlinger, German-born American rocket scientist (born Dec. 19, 1913, Niederrimbach, Ger.—died May 25, 2008, Huntsville, Ala.), was a member of the German team of scientists (led by Wernher von Braun) who developed the V-2 rockets used by the Nazis against the British during World War II and

  • Stuhlweissenburg (Hungary)

    Székesfehérvár, city with county status and seat of Fejér megye (county), west-central Hungary. One of the oldest cities in Hungary, it is located on the northeastern fringe of the Bakony Mountains, southwest of Budapest. A Roman settlement, Herculea, superseded an earlier Celtic village on the

  • Stuhlweissenburg, Battle of (Hungarian history)

    Saint Lawrence of Brindisi: During the Battle of Stuhlweissenburg, Hung. (Oct. 9–14, 1601), Lawrence accompanied Emperor Rudolf II’s forces to victory against the Turkish army of Sultan Mehmed III; this victory was attributed in great part to the indomitable spirit of the saint, who had communicated his ardour and confidence to…

  • Stuhmsdorf, Armistice of (Polish history [1635])

    Jacob Pontusson, count de la Gardie: …the Swedish commissioners at the Truce of Stuhmsdorf with Poland (1635) by which Sweden withdrew from Royal (Polish) Prussia and sacrificed the tolls it had levied in Prussian harbours since 1627.

  • Stuhr Museum of the Prairie Pioneer (museum, Grand Island, Nebraska, United States)

    Grand Island: The Stuhr Museum of the Prairie Pioneer is situated at the edge of the city and has a reconstructed railroad town of the 1880s on its 200-acre (80-hectare) grounds. Grand Island is a centre of crane migration along the Platte, and each spring the Wings over…

  • Stuka (German aircraft)

    Stuka, a low-wing, single-engine monoplane—especially the Junkers JU 87 dive-bomber—used by the German Luftwaffe from 1937 to 1945, with especially telling effect during the first half of World War II. The Stuka was designed to employ the dive-bombing technique developed earlier by the U.S.

  • Stukeley, William (English physician and antiquarian)

    William Stukeley, English antiquary and physician whose studies of the monumental Neolithic Period–Bronze Age stone circles at Stonehenge and Avebury, Wiltshire, led him to elaborate extravagant theories relating them to the Druids (ancient Celtic priest-magicians). These views were widely and

  • Stukelj, Leon (Slovenian gymnast)

    Leon Stukelj, Slovenian gymnast who represented Yugoslavia in three Olympic Games and won six medals—two gold in 1924, one gold and two bronze in 1928, and one silver in 1936—as well as 14 world championship medals. Having trained as a lawyer, Stukelj retired from gymnastics in 1936 to take up his

  • stumme Prophet, Der (work by Roth)

    Joseph Roth: Der stumme Prophet (1966; The Silent Prophet), the story of a failed revolutionary, was written in 1929.

  • stump (sports)

    cricket: Origin: …made this preferable to the stump, which name was later applied to the hurdle uprights. Early manuscripts differ about the size of the wicket, which acquired a third stump in the 1770s, but by 1706 the pitch—the area between the wickets—was 22 yards long.

  • Stump City (New York, United States)

    Gloversville, city, Fulton county, east-central New York, U.S. It is adjacent to Johnstown, on Cayadutta Creek, in the Mohawk River valley, 44 miles (71 km) northwest of Albany. Settled in the 1760s, it was first known as Stump City. Tanning and glove making (for which it was renamed in 1832) began

  • stump work (embroidery)

    Raised work, form of embroidery practiced in England in the 17th century, characterized by biblical and mythological scenes of padded plants, animals, birds, and the like in high relief. Panels, which were used as pictures or decorative coverings for mirror frames, caskets, and so on, were

  • stump-tailed macaque (primate)

    macaque: Species: Stump-tailed macaques (M. arctoides) are strong, shaggy-haired forest dwellers with pink or red faces and very short tails. Another short-tailed species is the Père David’s macaque (M. thibetana), which lives in mountain forests of southern China; it is sometimes called the Tibetan macaque but is…

  • stump-tailed porcupine (rodent)

    porcupine: New World porcupines (family Erethizontidae): The stump-tailed porcupine, Echinoprocta rufescens, is one of the smallest at 37 cm plus a short tail. New World porcupines primarily eat fruit at night and rest during the day in hollow trees or crouch on branches or in tangles of woody vines. Their digits bear…

  • Stumpelbotten (postal service)

    postal system: Growth of the post as a government monopoly: …undertakings—the majority, like the Swiss Stumpelbotten, purely local in scope. Some, like the Paar family in Austria, developed postal organizations on a national scale. By far the most famous and extensive of such systems was that built up by the Thurn and Taxis family, who originally came from Bergamo near…

  • Stumpf, Bill (American designer)

    Bill Stumpf, (William Stumpf), American designer (born March 1, 1936, St. Louis, Mo.—died Aug. 30, 2006, Rochester, Minn.), was best known for making pioneering strides in ergonomic seating and gained renown together with industrial designer Don Chadwick for the introduction in 1994 of the Aeron o

  • Stumpf, Carl (German philosopher and psychologist)

    Carl Stumpf, German philosopher and theoretical psychologist noted for his research on the psychology of music and tone. Stumpf was influenced at the University of Würzburg by the philosopher Franz Brentano, founder of act psychology, or intentionalism. Appointed lecturer (Privatdozent) at the

  • Stumpf, Johannes (Swiss theologian)

    Johannes Stumpf, Swiss chronicler and theologian, one of the most important personalities of the Swiss Reformation. Stumpf entered the order of the Knights of St. John in Freiburg im Breisgau in 1521 and a year later was appointed prior at Bubikon, Zürich. He there declared himself for the

  • Stumpf, William (American designer)

    Bill Stumpf, (William Stumpf), American designer (born March 1, 1936, St. Louis, Mo.—died Aug. 30, 2006, Rochester, Minn.), was best known for making pioneering strides in ergonomic seating and gained renown together with industrial designer Don Chadwick for the introduction in 1994 of the Aeron o

  • stun gun (weapon)

    Taser: …also be used as a stun gun by pressing it directly against the target’s body, thereby administering the electric shock.

  • Stunde Null (German history)

    German literature: The post-1945 period: Stunde Null: In the part of Germany that became West Germany in 1949, the immediate aftermath of World War II was known as the “Stunde Null,” or “zero hour.” Writers felt that the need to make a clean sweep after the defeat of Nazism had…

  • Stunden-Buch, Das (poetry by Rilke)

    Rainer Maria Rilke: Maturity.: …written between 1899 and 1903, Das Stunden-Buch (1905). Here the poetic “I” presents himself to the reader in the guise of a young monk who circles his god with swarms of prayers, a god conceived as the incarnation of “life,” as the numinous quality of the innerworldly diversity of “things.”…

  • Stung Treng (Cambodia)

    St?ng Trêng, town, northeastern Cambodia. St?ng Trêng lies at the confluence of the San, K?ng, and Mekong rivers. It is linked to Phnom Penh, the national capital, and to Laos by a national highway. The area around St?ng Trêng is inhabited by the mountain Mon-Khmer, valley Khmer, and Lao-Tai

  • stunning (food processing)

    meat processing: Stunning: As the slaughter process begins, livestock are restrained in a chute that limits physical movement of the animal. Once restrained, the animal is stunned to ensure a humane end with no pain. Stunning also results in decreased stress of the animal and superior meat…

  • stunning (fishing technique)

    commercial fishing: Hand tools: The method called stunning may involve poisoning with toxic plants and special chemicals or mechanical stunning by explosions under water. The most modern practice in this field is to stun the fish by means of an electrical shock.

  • stunt (plant disease)

    Stunt, in agriculture, common symptom of plant disease, resulting in reduced size and loss of vigour. Stunting may be caused by viral, bacterial, fungal, or nematode (eelworm) infections and by noninfectious (abiotic) means including an excess or lack of water, imbalance of soil nutrients, excess

  • stunt flying (aviation)

    Stunt flying, the performance of aerial feats requiring great skill or daring. Stunt flying as a generic term may include barnstorming (see below), crazy flying (the performance of comedic aerial routines), or any spectacular or unusual flying feat performed for film or television cameras or for

  • stupa (Buddhism)

    Stupa, Buddhist commemorative monument usually housing sacred relics associated with the Buddha or other saintly persons. The hemispherical form of the stupa appears to have derived from pre-Buddhist burial mounds in India. As most characteristically seen at Sanchi in the Great Stupa (2nd–1st

  • stupa No. 1 (Buddhist monument, Sanchi, India)

    Great Stupa, the most noteworthy of the structures at the historic site of Sanchi in Madhya Pradesh state, India. It is one of the oldest Buddhist monuments in the country and the largest stupa at the site. The Great Stupa (also called stupa no. 1) was originally built in the 3rd century bce by the

  • Stupak, Bart (American politician)

    United States: Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (Obamacare): Bart Stupak, whose fears that the plan would loosen limits on abortion funding were allayed by Obama’s promise of an executive order), Pelosi engineered passage of the Senate bill in a 219–212 vote (with all Republicans and 34 Democrats in opposition) on Sunday night March…

  • Stupino (Russia)

    Stupino, city centre of a raion (sector), Moscow oblast (region), Russia. It lies southeast of Moscow on the Oka River, which separates it from Kashira. Stupino was incorporated in 1938 and has numerous industries, including metalworking, the production of concrete and electricity, and cotton

  • ?túr, L’udovít (Slovak scholar)

    Slovakia: Literature and drama: …Slovak Lutheran writers, headed by L’udovít ?túr, to abandon Czech in favour of Slovak. This time the codification was based on the Central Slovak dialect. Later poets, using a refined form of literary Slovak, continued to produce nationalistic and Romantic works, such as Marína (1846), by Andrej Sládkovi? (Andrej Braxatoris),…

  • Sturbridge (Massachusetts, United States)

    Sturbridge, town (township), Worcester county, south-central Massachusetts, U.S. It lies along the Quinebaug River, 22 miles (35 km) southwest of Worcester city. The town includes the villages of Fiskdale and Sturbridge. Settled about 1729, it was incorporated in 1738 and named for Sturbridge,

  • Sturdee, Sir Frederick Charles Doveton (British admiral)

    Battle of the Falkland Islands: British Admiral Sturdee sent his five cruisers after the smaller German ships (two were sunk later and one escaped) and faced Spee with his two battle cruisers.

  • Sturdza, Dimitrie Alexandru (prime minister of Romania)

    Dimitrie Alexandru Sturdza, Romanian statesman who four times served as prime minister of Romania and played a prominent role in national affairs from preunification days until just after the peasant uprising of 1907. The scion of a great boyar family, Sturdza participated through 1857–58 in the

  • Sture (Swedish family)

    Gustav I Vasa: Early life.: …marriage with the family of Sture, which had supplied Sweden with three regents. Gustav fought in the army of Sten Sture the Younger against Christian II of Denmark in 1517–18 and was one of the hostages sent by Sten to Christian in 1518 as part of the terms of an…

  • Sture, Sten Gustafsson, den ?ldre (Swedish regent)

    Sten Sture, the Elder, regent of Sweden (1470–97, 1501–03) who resisted Danish domination and built up a strong central administration. Sten, a member of a powerful noble family, led forces that ended an attempt by the Danish king Christian I to gain control over Sweden in 1471, inflicting a

  • Sture, Sten Svantesson, den Yngre (regent of Sweden)

    Sten Sture, the Younger, regent of Sweden from 1513 to 1520. He repeatedly defeated both Danish forces and his domestic opponents, who favoured a union with Denmark, before falling in battle against the Danish king Christian II. During the regency (1503–12) of Sten’s father, Svante (Nilsson) Sture,

  • Sture, Sten, the Elder (Swedish regent)

    Sten Sture, the Elder, regent of Sweden (1470–97, 1501–03) who resisted Danish domination and built up a strong central administration. Sten, a member of a powerful noble family, led forces that ended an attempt by the Danish king Christian I to gain control over Sweden in 1471, inflicting a

  • Sture, Sten, the Younger (regent of Sweden)

    Sten Sture, the Younger, regent of Sweden from 1513 to 1520. He repeatedly defeated both Danish forces and his domestic opponents, who favoured a union with Denmark, before falling in battle against the Danish king Christian II. During the regency (1503–12) of Sten’s father, Svante (Nilsson) Sture,

  • Sture, Svante Nilsson (regent of Sweden)

    Svante Sture, regent of Sweden (1503–12), successor to Sten Sture the Elder. The son of Nils Bosson Sture (d. 1494) and cousin of King Charles VIII, Svante Sture is mentioned as a senator in 1482. He was one of the magnates who facilitated King John of Denmark’s conquest of Sweden by his opposition

  • Sturge, Joseph (British philanthropist)

    Joseph Sturge, English philanthropist, Quaker pacifist, and political reformer who was most important as a leader of the antislavery movement. A prosperous grain dealer, Sturge visited the West Indies (1836–37) to learn the effects of the statute of August 28, 1833, that abolished slavery de jure

  • Sturge-Weber syndrome (pathology)

    nervous system disease: Neurocutaneous syndromes: Sturge-Weber syndrome is characterized by a large red (“port-wine”) overgrowth of blood vessels of the skin over the upper face and by a growth of the underlying brain. The latter may cause seizures, spastic weakness, and visual-field deficits.

  • sturgeon (fish)

    Sturgeon, (family Acipenseridae), any of about 29 species of fishes of the family Acipenseridae (subclass Chondrostei), native to temperate waters of the Northern Hemisphere. Most species live in the ocean and ascend rivers (possibly once in several years) to spawn in spring or summer; a few others

  • Sturgeon (submarine class)

    submarine: Attack submarines: The Sturgeon and Los Angeles submarines, designed at the height of the Cold War, originally carried not only conventional torpedoes for antisubmarine warfare but also rocket-launched nuclear depth bombs, known as SUBROCs. The Seawolf submarines, also Cold War designs (though commissioned after the collapse of the…

  • Sturgeon Bay (Wisconsin, United States)

    Sturgeon Bay, city, seat (1861) of Door county, northeastern Wisconsin, U.S. Situated about 45 miles (70 km) northeast of Green Bay, it is a lake port at the head of Sturgeon Bay, an inlet of Green Bay on the northwestern side of the Door Peninsula. The federal government maintains a ship canal,

  • Sturgeon Falls (Ontario, Canada)

    West Nipissing, municipality, east-central Ontario, Canada. It was formed in 1999 when the town of Sturgeon Falls and other neighbouring communities were amalgamated under the name West Nipissing. The municipality is located on the Sturgeon River, just north of its mouth on Lake Nipissing, 22 miles

  • sturgeon poacher (fish)

    poacher: Notable species include the sturgeon poacher (Podothecus acipenserinus), a large, common, northern Pacific poacher, and the hook-nose, pogge, or armed bullhead (Agonus cataphractus), a small fish common in northern Europe and one of the few poachers found outside the Pacific. The various species are of little commercial value.

  • Sturgeon, Nicola (Scottish politician)

    Nicola Sturgeon, first minister of Scotland and leader of the Scottish National Party (2014– ), Scotland’s fifth leader—and first woman leader—since the establishment of the Scottish Parliament and government in 1999. Sturgeon’s political aspirations emerged at an early age. She joined (1986) the

  • Sturgeon, Theodore (American author)

    Theodore Sturgeon, American science-fiction writer who emphasized romantic and sexual themes in his stories. After dropping out of high school, Sturgeon worked at a variety of jobs. He sold his first short story in 1937 and began to publish in science-fiction magazines under several pseudonyms. He

  • Sturgeon, William (British electrical engineer)

    William Sturgeon, English electrical engineer who devised the first electromagnet capable of supporting more than its own weight. This device led to the invention of the telegraph, the electric motor, and numerous other devices basic to modern technology. Sturgeon, self-educated in electrical

  • Sturges, John (American director)

    John Sturges, American director best known for taut war movies and westerns. His films include such classics as Bad Day at Black Rock (1955), The Magnificent Seven (1960), and The Great Escape (1963). Sturges attended Marin Junior College (now College of Marin) on a football scholarship. In 1932 he

  • Sturges, John Eliot (American director)

    John Sturges, American director best known for taut war movies and westerns. His films include such classics as Bad Day at Black Rock (1955), The Magnificent Seven (1960), and The Great Escape (1963). Sturges attended Marin Junior College (now College of Marin) on a football scholarship. In 1932 he

  • Sturges, Preston (American director)

    Preston Sturges, American motion-picture director, screenwriter, and playwright best known for a series of hugely popular satirical comedies that he made in the early 1940s. Sturges made his mark at a time when talk in large part had supplanted images as the driving force in filmmaking. Because

  • Sturgis (South Dakota, United States)

    Sturgis, city, seat (1889) of Meade county, western South Dakota, U.S. It lies about 25 miles (40 km) northwest of Rapid City on Bear Butte Creek, at the northeastern edge of Black Hills National Forest. It was founded in 1878 on a site just west of Fort Meade and was named for Lieutenant Jack

  • Sturgis, John Hubbard (American architect)

    Western architecture: United States: John H. Sturgis and Charles Brigham, architects of the Museum of Fine Arts on Copley Square (1876; closed 1909) and the church of the Advent (1878), both in Boston, attempted to give to this tough, uneasy Gothic style something of monumental grandeur in their competition…

  • Sturgis, Russell (American architect)

    Western architecture: United States: …Yale Divinity School (1869), and Russell Sturgis, a partner of Wight, who designed several of the halls at Yale University between 1869 and 1885.

  • Sturgkh, Karl, Count von (prime minister of Austria)

    Karl, count von Stürgkh, Austrian prime minister (1911–16) whose authoritarian regime was ended by his assassination. An ultraconservative and clericalist member of the Reichsrat (legislature), Stürgkh strongly opposed the Austrian suffrage reforms of 1907. He was minister of education from 1908

  • Sturlunga saga (Icelandic saga)

    saga: Native historical accounts: …secular histories, known collectively as Sturlunga saga, the most important of which is the íslendinga saga (“The Icelanders’ Saga”) of Sturla Tórearson, who describes in memorable detail the bitter personal and political feuds that marked the final episode in the history of the Icelandic commonwealth (c. 1200–64).

  • Sturm und Drang (German literary movement)

    Sturm und Drang, (German: “Storm and Stress”), German literary movement of the late 18th century that exalted nature, feeling, and human individualism and sought to overthrow the Enlightenment cult of Rationalism. Goethe and Schiller began their careers as prominent members of the movement. The

  • Sturm’s theorem (mathematics)

    Charles-Fran?ois Sturm: …mathematician whose work resulted in Sturm’s theorem, an important contribution to the theory of equations.

  • Sturm, Charles-Fran?ois (French-Swiss mathematician)

    Charles-Fran?ois Sturm, French mathematician whose work resulted in Sturm’s theorem, an important contribution to the theory of equations. As tutor of the de Broglie family in Paris (1823–24), Sturm met many of the leading French scientists and mathematicians. In 1826, with the Swiss engineer

  • Sturm, Der (German periodical)

    Der Sturm, (German: “The Assault”), a periodical and later a gallery—both established by Herwarth Walden in the early 20th century in Berlin—devoted to the newest trends in art. The first issue of Der Sturm, published in 1910 as a weekly for literature and criticism, contained drawings by Oskar

  • Sturm, Jacqueline (New Zealand author)

    New Zealand literature: Modern Maori literature: In 1966 Jacqueline Sturm, wife of the poet James K. Baxter, became the first Maori writer to appear in a major anthology of New Zealand short stories. By that time, Hone Tuwhare, the first Maori poet to make a strong impression in English, had published his first…

  • Sturm, Jacques-Charles-Fran?ois (French-Swiss mathematician)

    Charles-Fran?ois Sturm, French mathematician whose work resulted in Sturm’s theorem, an important contribution to the theory of equations. As tutor of the de Broglie family in Paris (1823–24), Sturm met many of the leading French scientists and mathematicians. In 1826, with the Swiss engineer

  • Sturm, Johannes (German educator)

    Johannes Sturm, German educator whose Latin Gymnasium at Strassburg became a model for secondary schools in Protestant countries during the Reformation. Educated at the school of the Brethren of the Common Life in Liège and at the Catholic University of Leuven (Louvain), where he also taught, Sturm

  • Sturm-Liouville problem (mathematics)

    Sturm-Liouville problem, in mathematics, a certain class of partial differential equations (PDEs) subject to extra constraints, known as boundary values, on the solutions. Such equations are common in both classical physics (e.g., thermal conduction) and quantum mechanics (e.g., Schr?dinger

  • Sturm-Liouville theory (mathematics)

    Sturm-Liouville problem, in mathematics, a certain class of partial differential equations (PDEs) subject to extra constraints, known as boundary values, on the solutions. Such equations are common in both classical physics (e.g., thermal conduction) and quantum mechanics (e.g., Schr?dinger

  • Sturmabteilung (Nazi organization)

    SA, in the German Nazi Party, a paramilitary organization whose methods of violent intimidation played a key role in Adolf Hitler’s rise to power. The SA was founded in Munich by Hitler in 1921 out of various roughneck elements that had attached themselves to the fledgling Nazi movement. It drew

  • Sturmer, Boris Vladimirovich (prime minister of Russia)

    Boris Vladimirovich Sturmer, Russian public official, who served as prime minister, minister of the interior, and minister of foreign affairs during World War I. Before his appointment to the premiership, Sturmer served as master of ceremonies at court, was a department head in the Ministry of the

  • Stürmer, Der (German newspaper)

    Julius Streicher: …of the anti-Semitic weekly newspaper Der Stürmer, Streicher achieved a position of great wealth and influence in Nazi Germany. Der Stürmer’s crude anti-Jewish invective provided a focus for Hitler’s persecutory racial policies; the newspaper initiated the general campaign that led to the passage of the Nürnberg laws in 1935.

  • Sturmey-Archer gear (mechanics)

    bicycle: The modern bicycle: By 1913 the Sturmey-Archer Company was making 100,000 three-speed hub gears per year. French cyclists experimented with a variety of multiple-speed mechanisms, and by the 1920s derailleur gears that moved the chain from one sprocket to another had become established in France.

  • Sturmflut (work by Spielhagen)

    Friedrich von Spielhagen: (1869; Hammer and Anvil), and Sturmflut, 3 vol. (1877; The Breaking of the Storm). The last is a powerful romance, using a tempest that flooded the Baltic coast in 1872 as a symbol for the economic storm that burst on Berlin that same year.

  • Sturmgeschutz (tank)

    tank: World War II: …of vehicle originated with the Sturmgeschutz, or assault gun, introduced by the German army for infantry support but subsequently transformed into more versatile vehicles particularly suited for destroying enemy tanks. No such vehicles were produced in Britain or the United States. Throughout the war, however, the British Army retained a…

  • Sturmgewehr 44 (firearm)

    assault rifle: …known variously as the MP43, MP44, or Sturmgewehr (“Assault Rifle”) 44, was loaded by a curved box magazine holding 30 rounds and was designed for most-effective fire at about 300 yards (270 metres). Only some 425,000 to 440,000 of these rifles were built—too few and too late for the German…

  • Sturmtruppe (German infantry)

    tactics: The power of the defense: …War I infantry, the German Sturmtruppe suffered greatly from a lack of mobile radio linking them with their own artillery as well as rear headquarters, but, unlike the rest, they were able to overcome this problem to some extent by operating in a decentralized manner, filtering between enemy strongpoints and…

  • Sturmtruppen (Nazi organization)

    SA, in the German Nazi Party, a paramilitary organization whose methods of violent intimidation played a key role in Adolf Hitler’s rise to power. The SA was founded in Munich by Hitler in 1921 out of various roughneck elements that had attached themselves to the fledgling Nazi movement. It drew

  • Sturnella (bird)

    Meadowlark, any member of the genus Sturnella, belonging to the family Icteridae (order Passeriformes). Meadowlarks are sharp-billed plump birds, 20 to 28 cm (8 to 11 inches) long. The two species in North America look alike: streaked brown above, with yellow breast crossed by a black V and a short

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