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  • Su Zizhan (Chinese author)

    Su Shi, one of China’s greatest poets and essayists, who was also an accomplished calligrapher and a public official. A member of a literary family, the young Su Shi performed brilliantly in his official examinations and was rewarded with the first of the many official positions he occupied during

  • SU(2) symmetry (mathematical group)

    subatomic particle: Finding the messenger particles: …and are described by the SU(2) symmetry that underlies electroweak theory along with U(1). The basic representation of this mathematical group is a pair, or doublet, and, according to electroweak theory, the quarks and leptons are each grouped into pairs of increasing mass: (u, d), (c, s), (t, b) and…

  • SU(3) symmetry (mathematical group)

    subatomic particle: SU(3) symmetry: With the introduction of strangeness, physicists had several properties with which they could label the various subatomic particles. In particular, values of mass, electric charge, spin, isospin, and strangeness gave physicists a means of classifying the strongly interacting particles—or hadrons—and of establishing a…

  • SU(5) symmetry (mathematical group)

    subatomic particle: Toward a grand unified theory: …on the mathematical symmetry group SU(5).

  • Su-27 (Soviet aircraft)

    Sukhoi Su-27, Russian air-superiority fighter plane, introduced into the air forces of the Soviet Union beginning in 1985 and now one of the premier fighters of Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Indonesia, India, China, and Vietnam. Versions of the plane are built under license in

  • SU-7 Fitter (Soviet aircraft)

    attack aircraft: …West by the NATO-assigned name Fitter), a single-seat, single-engine aircraft that entered service in the late 1950s and was progressively improved after that time. Soviet development efforts culminated in the late 1970s and ’80s with the MiG-27 Flogger-D and the Sukhoi Su-25 Frogfoot. Late in the Cold War standoff, the…

  • Su-ao (Taiwan)

    Su-ao, coastal town and port in I-lan hsien (county), northeastern Taiwan. It is situated 13 miles (21 km) southeast of I-lan city, in the southern part of the I-lan plain. Originally a small fishing port with one of the best natural harbours in Taiwan, Su-ao was developed into an international

  • Su-chou (China)

    Suzhou, city, southern Jiangsu sheng (province), eastern China. It is situated on the southern section of the Grand Canal on a generally flat, low-lying plain between the renowned Lake Tai to the west and the vast Shanghai metropolis to the east. Surrounded by canals on all four sides and

  • Su-chou embroidery

    Suzhou embroidery, silk, satin, and other textiles decorated using soft, coloured silk threads and produced at or near the city of Suzhou, in Jiangsu province, China. The Suzhou school is one of the four most famous schools of embroidery in China (the others being centred in Hunan, Guangdong, and

  • Su-Lin (panda)

    giant panda: Conservation and classification: Su-Lin, the first of the giant pandas to be exhibited in the West, reached the United States as an infant in 1936 and was a popular attraction at the Brookfield Zoo, near Chicago, until its death in 1938. No European observed a live giant panda…

  • Su-pei-kuan-kai-tsung Ch’ü (canal, China)

    Subei Canal, canal in Jiangsu province, eastern China, designed to provide a direct outlet to the sea for the waters of the Huai River, which discharged near the mouth of the Guan River. In the late 12th century ad the Huang He (Yellow River) changed its course to discharge south of the Shandong

  • Sua (people)

    Bambuti: …four populations of Ituri Pygmies—the Sua, Aka, Efe, and Mbuti—each of which has formed a loose economic and cultural interdependency with an agriculturalist group. They are nomadic hunters and gatherers living in small bands that vary in composition and size throughout the year but are generally formed into patrilineal groups…

  • Suakin (Sudan)

    Sawākin, town, northeastern Sudan. It lies on the Red Sea coast 36 miles (58 km) south of Port Sudan. The town originated in the 12th century as a rival port to ?Aydhāb (Aidhab) to the north, where dues were levied on trade. It grew in importance after ?Aydhāb’s destruction (about 1428) to become

  • Suakoko (Liberia)

    Suakoko, town, central Liberia, western Africa. It is the site of the government’s Central Agricultural Experimental Station (1946). Cuttington University College (Episcopalian), which is 3 miles (5 km) northeast, was Liberia’s first college to offer a degree in agriculture; its museum houses a

  • Suakokota (Liberia)

    Suakoko, town, central Liberia, western Africa. It is the site of the government’s Central Agricultural Experimental Station (1946). Cuttington University College (Episcopalian), which is 3 miles (5 km) northeast, was Liberia’s first college to offer a degree in agriculture; its museum houses a

  • Suanxue qimeng (work by Zhu Shijie)

    Zhu Shijie: …rests primarily on two publications, Suanxue qimeng (1299; “Introduction to Mathematical Science”) and Siyuan yujian (1303; “Precious Mirror of Four Elements”). The former is an introductory mathematics textbook, proceeding from elementary arithmetic to algebraic calculations. Through its layout and progression it clearly testifies to the author’s didactic concern. Following the…

  • Suardi, Bartolommeo (Italian painter)

    Bramantino, Italian painter and architect of the Milanese school and a disciple of Donato Bramante. An independent master, his expressive style was marked by an element of the bizarre. Bramantino’s early work dates from about 1490. Representative of this period is the strange but interesting

  • Suárez Goméz, Roberto (Bolivian criminal)

    Roberto Suárez Goméz, Bolivian drug trafficker (born 1932, Trinidad, Bol.—died July 20, 2000, Santa Cruz, Bol.), nicknamed the “king of cocaine,” was one of the world’s most notorious drug kingpins. Born into a wealthy and socially prominent family, Suárez seemed to have little motive for e

  • Suárez González, Adolfo (prime minister of Spain)

    Adolfo Suárez González, Spanish politician who, as prime minister of Spain (1976–81), worked closely with King Juan Carlos to dismantle the authoritarian regime (1939–75) that Francisco Franco had controlled and to transform Spain into a multiparty constitutional monarchy. Suárez’s father was a

  • Suárez González, Adolfo, 1st duke of Suárez, grandee of Spain (prime minister of Spain)

    Adolfo Suárez González, Spanish politician who, as prime minister of Spain (1976–81), worked closely with King Juan Carlos to dismantle the authoritarian regime (1939–75) that Francisco Franco had controlled and to transform Spain into a multiparty constitutional monarchy. Suárez’s father was a

  • Suárez Mason, Carlos Guillermo (Argentine general)

    Carlos Guillermo Suárez Mason, Argentine general (born Jan. 2, 1924, Buenos Aires, Arg.—died June 21, 2005, Buenos Aires), ordered the execution of thousands of political opponents during the “Dirty War” of the 1970s. As part of the military junta that seized control of Argentina in 1976, Suárez M

  • Suárez, Francisco (Spanish theologian and philosopher)

    Francisco Suárez, Spanish theologian and philosopher, a founder of international law, often considered the most prominent Scholastic philosopher after St. Thomas Aquinas, and the major theologian of the Roman Catholic order, the Society of Jesus (Jesuits). The son of a wealthy lawyer, Suárez began

  • Suárez, Luis (Colombian militant)

    Mono Jojoy, (Víctor Julio Suárez Rojas; Jorge Brice?o), Colombian guerrilla leader (born Feb. 5, 1953, Cabrera, Colom.—died Sept. 22, 2010, Meta departamento, Colom.), served as the ruthless, formidable military commander of the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC). Mono Jojoy joined FARC

  • Suasoriae (work by Seneca the Elder)

    Albinovanus Pedo: …a fragment, preserved in the Suasoriae of Seneca the Elder, that describes in a highly melodramatic and rhetorical style the voyage of Germanicus (ad 16) through the Ems River to the Northern Ocean (i.e., the North Sea).

  • Suassuna, Ariano (Brazilian writer)

    Ariano Suassuna, Brazilian dramatist and fiction writer, the prime mover in the Movimento Armorial (“Armorial Movement”) in northeastern Brazil, an intellectual and folkloric group devoted to the discovery and re-creation of the historic roots of Luso-Brazilian culture in that region. A professor

  • Suatá River (river, South America)

    Orinoco River: Physiography of the Orinoco: include the Guárico, Manapire, Suatá (Zuata), Pao, and Caris rivers, which enter on the left bank, and the Cuchivero and Caura rivers, which join the main stream on the right. So much sediment is carried by these rivers that islands often form at the mouths. The Caroní River, one…

  • Suazo Cordóva, Roberto (president of Honduras)

    Honduras: The 20th century: The new Honduran president, Roberto Suazo Córdova of the Liberal Party, was a noted anticommunist who favoured strong relations with the United States. Hopes ran high for internal improvements, but these were dashed as Honduras became embroiled in the growing regional conflicts. Protests grew over the presence of Nicaraguan…

  • sub (naval vessel)

    Submarine, any naval vessel that is capable of propelling itself beneath the water as well as on the water’s surface. This is a unique capability among warships, and submarines are quite different in design and appearance from surface ships. Submarines first became a major factor in naval warfare

  • Sub, El (Mexican leader)

    Subcomandante Marcos, Mexican professor who was the leader of the Zapatista National Liberation Army (Ejército Zapatista de Liberación Nacional; EZLN, also called the Zapatistas), which launched a rebellion in 1994 in the state of Chiapas and later functioned as a political movement defending the

  • Sub-Akhmīmic (dialect)

    Coptic language: Asyū?ic, or Sub-Akhmīmic, spoken around Asyū?, flourished in the 4th century. In it are preserved a text of the Gospel According to John and of the Acts of the Apostles, as well as a number of Gnostic documents. Akhmīmic was spoken in and around the…

  • sub-Apennine culture (anthropology)

    ancient Italic people: Origins: …Bronze,” and, most frequently, “Proto-Villanovan,” the social and economic changes are clear. There was an increase in population and in overall wealth, a tendency to have larger, permanent settlements, an expansion of metallurgical knowledge, and a strengthening of agricultural technology. Diagnostic archaeological criteria include the use of cremation (with…

  • Sub-Atlantic Climatic Interval

    Holocene Epoch: Holocene climatic trends and chronology: The Sub-Atlantic stage (2200–0 bp) is the last major physical division of the geologic record. Historically its beginning coincides with the rise of the Roman Empire in Europe, the flowering of the classical dynasties of China, the Ptolemies in Egypt, the Olmec of central Mexico and…

  • Sub-Atlantic Stage

    Holocene Epoch: Holocene climatic trends and chronology: The Sub-Atlantic stage (2200–0 bp) is the last major physical division of the geologic record. Historically its beginning coincides with the rise of the Roman Empire in Europe, the flowering of the classical dynasties of China, the Ptolemies in Egypt, the Olmec of central Mexico and…

  • Sub-Boreal Forest Region (ecosystem)

    United States: The Humid East: The Sub-Boreal Forest Region is the northernmost of these bands. It is only a small and discontinuous part of the United States, representing the tattered southern fringe of the vast Canadian taiga—a scrubby forest dominated by evergreen needle-leaf species that can endure the ferocious winters and…

  • sub-Carpathians (mountains, Romania)

    Romania: Relief: …rolling terrain known as the Subcarpathians and extending from the Moldova River in the north to the Motru River in the southwest. It is from 2 to 19 miles (3 to 31 km) wide and reaches elevations ranging between 1,300 and 3,300 feet (400 and 1,000 metres). The topography and…

  • Sub-Himalayas (mountains, Asia)

    Siwalik Range, sub-Himalayan range of the northern Indian subcontinent. It extends west-northwestward for more than 1,000 miles (1,600 km) from the Tista River in Sikkim state, northeastern India, through Nepal, across northwestern India, and into northern Pakistan. Though only 10 miles (16 km)

  • Sub-Mariner (comic-book character)

    Sub-Mariner, American comic strip superhero created by Bill Everett for Timely (later Marvel) Comics. The character’s first appearance to a general audience was in Marvel Comics no. 1 (October 1939). The Sub-Mariner was created by Everett for a promotional comic called Motion Picture Funnies

  • sub-Saharan Africa (region, Africa)

    Esther Duflo: …of why smallholder farmers in sub-Saharan Africa often failed to adopt modern technologies, such as fertilizer, that were relatively simple to use and potentially greatly beneficial. Focusing on farmers in western Kenya, they demonstrated experimentally that the low adoption rates could not be attributed to difficulties that farmers encountered in…

  • subacute combined degeneration (pathology)

    nervous system disease: Subacute combined degeneration: Subacute combined degeneration, which results from a vitamin B12 deficiency, causes demyelination of the corticospinal and the dorsal columns. Much of the damage is to the large dorsal-root ganglion neurons; the peripheral nerve fibres also demyelinate, so that peripheral neuropathy also occurs. Symptoms include tingling,…

  • subacute glomerulonephritis (pathology)

    Bright disease: Subacute glomerulonephritis does not necessarily follow acute attacks; if it does develop, however, it has usually been preceded by an acute episode several months or years earlier. The kidney becomes considerably enlarged, the surface is smooth and pale, and the internal tissue is darker than…

  • subacute meningitis (pathology)

    lumbar puncture: Viral meningitis can be differentiated from bacterial meningitis by the type of white blood cells identified in the CSF. In addition, culturing a sample of the fluid to determine whether bacteria are present is an effective way to distinguish between different causes of meningitis. Fluctuations…

  • subacute necrotizing encephalopathy (pathology)

    nervous system disease: Deficiency states: Subacute necrotizing encephalopathy, also called Leigh disease, is a lethal disorder of infancy marked by psychomotor delay, myoclonic jerks, paralyses of eye movements, and respiratory disorders. The precise biochemical defect is unknown, but thiamine metabolism dysfunction may be involved. Seizures in early childhood are the…

  • subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (pathology)

    measles: Treatment and complications: …central nervous system disease called subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE), in which there is a gradual onset of progressive behavioral and intellectual deterioration. Motor incoordination and impairment of speech and sight subsequently develop. The final stages of stupor, dementia, blindness, and death occur within six to nine months. There is no…

  • subacute thyroiditis (pathology)

    Granulomatous thyroiditis, inflammatory disease of the thyroid gland, of unknown but presumably viral origin. It may persist from several weeks to a few months but subsides spontaneously. The disease most frequently occurs in women. The thyroid gland becomes enlarged, and most patients complain of

  • sūbadār (Mughal viceroy)

    Nawab, deputy ruler, or viceroy, under the Mughal rule of India. The title was later adopted by the independent rulers of Bengal, Oudh (Ayodhya), and Arcot. In England the name was applied to men who made fortunes working for the British East India Company and returned home to purchase seats in

  • subadult pelage

    mammal: Skin and hair: …adult pelage or by the subadult pelage, which in some species is not markedly distinct from that of the adult. Once this pelage has been acquired, molting continues to recur at intervals, often annually or semiannually and sometimes more frequently. The pattern of molt typically is orderly, but it varies…

  • subaerial erosion (geology)

    submarine canyon: …proposed, but prevailing theory favours subaerial erosion as the starting point for a good number of undersea canyons. Such erosion is thought to have begun with the lowering of sea level during the glaciations of the Pleistocene Epoch (about 2,600,000 to 11,700 years ago). It is perceived, however, that subaerial…

  • subalkaline rock (geology)

    igneous rock: Classification of volcanic and hypabyssal rocks: The subalkaline rocks have two divisions based mainly on the iron content, with the iron-rich group called the tholeiitic series and the iron-poor group called calc-alkalic. The former group is most commonly found along the oceanic ridges and on the ocean floor; the latter group is…

  • subalpine forest (botany)

    coniferous forest: They are known as subalpine and montane forests and are dominated by combinations of pine, spruce, and fir.

  • subaltern history (historiography)

    postcolonialism: From decolonization to postcolonialism: …with the editorial collective of Subaltern Studies, all exemplify that complex inheritance. It derives in part from the fact that there is no such thing as “the” Enlightenment but rather multiple Enlightenments shaped by different historical and political contexts; so too, the bundle of concepts and ideals to which “the”…

  • subalternate (logic)

    history of logic: Categorical forms: …last relations were later called subalternation, and the particular propositions (affirmative or negative) were said to be subalternate to the corresponding universal propositions.

  • subalternate mood (logic)

    history of logic: Syllogisms: …Middle Ages they were called “subalternate” moods. Disregarding them, there are 4 valid moods in each of the first two figures, 6 in the third figure, and 5 in the fourth. Aristotle recognized all 19 of them.

  • Subantarctic region (biogeography)

    biogeographic region: Subantarctic region: Southern Chile, Patagonia, and New Zealand comprise the Subantarctic region (Figure 1). It has a distinctive forest flora, of which Nothofagus (southern beech) is perhaps the most characteristic element.

  • Subantarctic Surface Water (oceanography)

    Antarctica: The surrounding seas: …mass with intermediate characteristics called Subantarctic Surface Water. Mixing occurs in a shallow but broad zone of approximately 10° latitude lying south of the Subtropical Convergence (at about 40° S) and north of the Antarctic Convergence (between about 50° and 60° S). The Subtropical Convergence generally defines the northern limits…

  • subanthraxylon (maceral)

    coal: Macerals: …make up cell walls) and collinite (clear vitrinite that occupies the spaces between cell walls).

  • subaphanitic rock (geology)

    igneous rock: Crystallinity: The subaphanitic, or hyaline, rocks are referred to as glassy, or vitric, in terms of granularity.

  • subapical region (hypha)

    fungus: Growth: …inch) in length, (2) the subapical region, extending about 40 micrometres (0.002 inch) back of the apical zone, which is rich in cytoplasmic components, such as nuclei, Golgi apparatus, ribosomes, mitochondria, the endoplasmic reticulum, and vesicles, but is devoid of vacuoles, and (3) the zone of vacuolation, which is characterized…

  • subaqueous delta plain

    delta: …plain, and the third the subaqueous delta, which lies seaward of the shoreline and forms below sea level.

  • subaqueous tunnel (engineering)

    tunnels and underground excavations: Subaqueous tunnels: Tunneling under rivers was considered impossible until the protective shield was developed in England by Marc Brunel, a French émigré engineer. The first use of the shield, by Brunel and his son Isambard, was in 1825 on the Wapping-Rotherhithe Tunnel through clay under…

  • subarachnoid hemorrhage (pathology)

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage, bleeding into the space between the two innermost protective coverings surrounding the brain, the pia mater and the arachnoid mater. A subarachnoid hemorrhage most often occurs as the result of significant head trauma and is usually seen in the setting of skull fractures or

  • subarachnoid space (anatomy)

    human nervous system: Cerebral ventricles: …permit cerebrospinal fluid to enter subarachnoid spaces surrounding both the brain and the spinal cord.

  • Subarctic Culture Area (anthropology)

    Native American: The Subarctic: This region lies south of the Arctic and encompasses most of present-day Alaska and most of Canada, excluding the Maritime Provinces (New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island), which are part of the Northeast culture area. The topography is relatively flat, the climate…

  • Subarctic Current (current, Pacific Ocean)

    Aleutian Current, surface oceanic current, an eastward-flowing mixture of the Kuroshio (Japan Current) and the Oya Current, located between the Aleutian Islands and latitude 42° N. Approaching the North American coast, the current divides to become the Alaska and California currents. Another branch

  • Subarctic Indian (people)

    Native American: The Subarctic Indians and the Arctic peoples: The European exploration of the Subarctic was for many decades limited to the coasts of the Atlantic and Hudson Bay, an inland sea connected to the Atlantic and the Arctic oceans. The initial European exploration of the bay occurred…

  • Subarctic region

    Arctic: Terrain: To the south in the subarctic, the permafrost thins and eventually becomes discontinuous, although locally it may still be 200 to 400 feet thick; along its southern boundary, permafrost survives under peat and in muskeg. In areas of continuous permafrost the active layer may be many feet thick in sandy…

  • Subarian (ancient Middle Eastern people)

    history of Mesopotamia: Mesopotamian protohistory: …peoples (Akkadians or pre-Akkadians) and Subarians (identical with, or near relatives of, the Hurrians, who appear in northern Mesopotamia around the end of the 3rd millennium bce). Their presence is known, but no definite statements about their past or possible routes of immigration are possible.

  • subarkose (geology)

    Subarkose, variety of sandstone in which 5–25 percent of the sand grains are composed of feldspar. See

  • subarkosic arenite (geology)

    sedimentary rock: Classification of sandstones: In subarkosic arenite (or subarkose), feldspar sand grains likewise exceed rock fragments but range in abundance from 5 to 15 percent. Lithic arenites have rock fragments that exceed feldspar grains; the abundance of rock fragments is greater than 25 percent. Sublithic arenites likewise contain more rock…

  • Subarnarekha River (river, India)

    Subarnarekha River, river in northeastern India, rising in southern Bihar state. The Subarnarekha (meaning “Streak of Gold”) flows east through a copper-mining region and leaves the Chota Nagpur plateau by the Hundrugbagh waterfall. Continuing eastward, it flows across West Bengal state to enter

  • Subaru Telescope (telescope, Mauna Kea, Hawaii, United States)

    Subaru Telescope, a Japanese 8.2-metre (27-foot) optical-infrared telescope located on the dormant volcano Mauna Kea (4,163 metres [13,658 feet]) on the island of Hawaii. An adaptive optics system consisting of 261 actuators can change the shape of the mirror so that it is not affected by

  • subassembly (production process)

    aerospace industry: Building of subassemblies: Assembly of aerospace vehicles at the prime contractor or systems integrator begins with the accumulation of subassemblies. An example of a typical subassembly for a transport aircraft is the rear fuselage section, which is itself composed of several segments. (These segments are often built…

  • subatomic particle (physics)

    Subatomic particle, any of various self-contained units of matter or energy that are the fundamental constituents of all matter. Subatomic particles include electrons, the negatively charged, almost massless particles that nevertheless account for most of the size of the atom, and they include the

  • Subay?ilah (Tunisia)

    Sufetula, ancient Roman city 19 miles (31 km) east-northeast of modern Al-Qa?rayn, Tunisia. Most likely originating as a fort during the Roman campaigns against the Numidian rebel Tacfarinas (ad 17–24), it became a municipium under the emperor Vespasian (69–79) and a colonia under Marcus Aurelius

  • Subay? Desert (desert, Saudi Arabia)

    Arabia: Najd: …highlands and Mecca lie the Subay? sand dunes (named after the tribe of Banū al-Subay?), which constitute the largest sand desert within the shield.

  • Subban, P. K. (Canadian ice hockey player)

    Nashville Predators: …now starring newly acquired defenseman P.K. Subban, the Predators went on the team’s most successful postseason run since its founding, running off three consecutive series upsets to advance to the Stanley Cup finals for the first time in franchise history, where the team lost a six-game series to the Pittsburgh…

  • subbase (pavement)

    roads and highways: Pavement: The subbase is a protective layer and temporary working platform sometimes placed between the base course and the natural formation.

  • Subbiluliuma I (Hittite king)

    Suppiluliumas I, Hittite king (reigned c. 1380–c. 1346 bc), who dominated the history of the ancient Middle East for the greater part of four decades and raised the Hittite kingdom to Imperial power. The son and successor of Tudhaliyas III, Suppiluliumas began his reign by rebuilding the old

  • subbituminous coal (coal classification)

    Subbituminous coal, generally dark brown to black coal, intermediate in rank between lignite and bituminous coal according to the coal classification used in the United States and Canada. In many countries subbituminous coal is considered to be a brown coal. Subbituminous coal contains 42 to 52

  • Subcarpathian Mountains (mountains, Romania)

    Romania: Relief: …rolling terrain known as the Subcarpathians and extending from the Moldova River in the north to the Motru River in the southwest. It is from 2 to 19 miles (3 to 31 km) wide and reaches elevations ranging between 1,300 and 3,300 feet (400 and 1,000 metres). The topography and…

  • Subcarpathian Ruthenia (historical region, Eastern Europe)

    Ukraine: Transcarpathia in Czechoslovakia: …under the official name of Subcarpathian Ruthenia (see Czechoslovak history). Its promised autonomy, however, was not implemented until 1938, and the region was administered largely by officials sent from Prague. Nevertheless, in democratic Czechoslovakia, Transcarpathia enjoyed the freest development of any Ukrainian territory in the interwar period.

  • subcarrier (electronics)

    telemetry: Transmission.: First, the signal modulates a subcarrier (a radio-frequency wave the frequency of which is below that of the final carrier), and then the modulated subcarrier in turn modulates the output carrier. Frequency modulation is used in many of these systems to impress the telemetry information on the subcarrier. If frequency-division…

  • subclavian artery (anatomy)

    human cardiovascular system: The aorta and its principal branches: …common carotid, and the left subclavian. These three branches supply the head, neck, and arms with oxygenated blood.

  • subclavian vein (anatomy)

    human cardiovascular system: Superior vena cava and its tributaries: …collarbone, each unites with the subclavian vein of that side to form the innominate veins.

  • subclavian-pulmonary artery anastomosis (medicine)

    Alfred Blalock: …devised a procedure known as subclavian-pulmonary artery anastomosis, by which the congenital heart defect that produced the “blue baby” syndrome could be corrected and the patient enabled to lead a nearly normal life. The first such operation was performed by Blalock in 1944.

  • subclinical hypothyroidism (pathology)

    hypothyroidism: Diagnosis and treatment of hypothyroidism: This is known as subclinical hypothyroidism, and these patients have few or no symptoms and signs of hypothyroidism.

  • subclinical infection

    infectious disease: …the process is called a subclinical infection. Thus, a person may be infected but not have an infectious disease. This principle is illustrated by the use of vaccines for the prevention of infectious diseases. For example, a virus such as that which causes measles may be attenuated (weakened) and used…

  • subconscious (psychology)

    Unconscious, the complex of mental activities within an individual that proceed without his awareness. Sigmund Freud, the founder of psychoanalysis, stated that such unconscious processes may affect a person’s behaviour even though he cannot report on them. Freud and his followers felt that d

  • subcontractor (industry)

    construction: Construction: …by a group of specialty subcontractors who are under contract to the general contractor. Each subcontractor provides and installs one or more of the building systems—e.g., the structural or electrical system. The subcontractors in turn buy the system components from the manufacturers. During the construction process the design team continues…

  • subcontrary (logic)

    history of logic: Categorical forms: …although they were later called subcontraries. Subcontraries cannot be false together, although, as Aristotle remarked, they may be true together. The same holds for indefinite affirmatives and negatives, construed as equivalent to the corresponding particular forms. Note that if a universal proposition (affirmative or negative) is true, its contradictory is…

  • subcoracoscapularis muscle (anatomy)

    muscle: Tetrapod musculature: …is a muscle known as subcoracoscapularis in amphibians, reptiles, and birds and as subscapularis in mammals. It runs from the deep surface of the shoulder girdle to the humerus. In amphibians the dorsalis scapulae arise from the anterior edge of the scapula. The same muscle is known as the deltoideus…

  • subcritical mass (physics)

    atomic bomb: The properties and effects of atomic bombs: …and is thus termed a subcritical mass; this is because, on average, the neutrons released by a fission are likely to leave the assembly without striking another nucleus and causing it to fission. If more uranium-235 is added to the assemblage, the chances that one of the released neutrons will…

  • subculture (sociology)

    criminology: Sociological theories: The concept of a criminal subculture—an alternative set of moral values and expectations to which people can turn if they cannot find acceptable routes to the objectives held out for them by the broader society—represents an integration of the differential-association and anomie theories. Developed from studies of gangs of delinquents…

  • Subculture of Violence: Towards an Integrated Theory in Criminology, The (work by Wolfgang and Feracutti)

    Marvin Wolfgang: In The Subculture of Violence: Towards an Integrated Theory in Criminology (1967), Wolfgang and his coauthor, Franco Feracutti, argued that this behaviour was the product of violent subcultures in which each person in a conflict typically believes that the other will become violent, a finding that…

  • subcutaneous bursa (anatomy)

    bursa: Subcutaneous bursas ordinarily are ill-defined clefts at the junction of subcutaneous tissue and deep fasciae (sheets of fibrous tissue); these bursas acquire a distinct wall only when they become abnormal, and they are sometimes classified as adventitious. Synovial bursas are thin-walled sacs that are interposed…

  • subcutaneous emphysema (pathology)

    Subcutaneous emphysema, disorder in which bubbles of air become trapped under the skin. The condition can occur after surgery or traumatic accidents and can also develop locally in cases of gas gangrene. One of the frequent causes of subcutaneous emphysema is rupture of the lung tissue. Air

  • subcutaneous layer (anatomy)
  • subcutaneous receptor (anatomy)

    touch reception: … are common: tactile hairs and subcutaneous receptors.

  • subcutaneous tissue (anatomy)
  • subdeacon

    holy order: deacon, and subdeacon and the minor orders of porter (doorkeeper), lector, exorcist, and acolyte.

  • subdeltoid bursitis (pathology)

    joint disease: Bursitis: …form of bursitis affects the subdeltoid bursa, which lies above the shoulder joint. Bursitis in this circumstance is not the primary abnormality but results from degeneration and calcification of the adjacent rotator tendon. Direct injury is not usually the cause of calcium deposits and inflammation in the tendon; indeed, heavy…

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