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  • suora giovane, La (work by Arpino)

    Italian literature: Other writings: …boundaries (La suora giovane [1959; The Novice] and Il fratello italiano [1980; “The Italian Brother”]). Fulvio Tomizza also tackled this theme in L’amicizia (1980; “The Friendship”).

  • Sup’ung Dam (dam, China-North Korea)

    Sup’ung Dam, hydroelectric project on the Yalu River at the North Korean border with Liaoning province, northeastern China, upstream from Dandong. It was originally designed as a joint project of the Japanese-controlled Manchukuo (Manzhouguo) government, which administered the Northeast (Manchuria)

  • Sup’ung-daem (dam, China-North Korea)

    Sup’ung Dam, hydroelectric project on the Yalu River at the North Korean border with Liaoning province, northeastern China, upstream from Dandong. It was originally designed as a joint project of the Japanese-controlled Manchukuo (Manzhouguo) government, which administered the Northeast (Manchuria)

  • Supa Dupa Fly (music album by Elliott)

    Missy Elliott: Elliott’s first album, Supa Dupa Fly (1997), went platinum and was nominated for a Grammy Award, and her follow-up, Da Real World (1999), spent almost a year on the Billboard rhythm-and-blues chart. Miss E…So Addictive (2001) featured the crossover dance track “Get Ur Freak On,” and the album…

  • Supan, Alexander (Austrian geographer)

    timberline: …devised by the Austrian geographer Alexander Supan (1879) for this purpose and was used by K?ppen (1900) as the boundary between the tundra and tree climates in his first climatic classification; it connects points with an average temperature of 10° C (50° F) for the warmest month of the year.…

  • Supella longipalpa (insect)

    cockroach: The brown-banded cockroach (Supella longipalpa) resembles the German cockroach but is slightly smaller. The male has fully developed wings and is lighter in colour than the female, whose wings are short and nonfunctional. Both sexes have two light-coloured bands across the back. The adult life span…

  • super (beekeeping)

    beekeeping: The yearly work cycle: …broodnest, the keeper adds more supers, or boxes of combs. If the combs are so manipulated that the queen can continually expand her egg-laying area upward, the colony is unlikely to swarm. This can be achieved by placing empty combs or combs in which brood is about ready to emerge…

  • Super (United States research program)

    nuclear weapon: Origins of the Super: …small research program on the Super, as the thermonuclear design came to be known, was included. Several conferences were held at the laboratory in late April 1943 to acquaint the new staff members with the existing state of knowledge and the direction of the research program. The consensus was that…

  • Super 8 (film by Abrams [2011])

    J.J. Abrams: …and directed the supernatural thriller Super 8 (2011). The film was set in a small town in the late 1970s and was inspired by his own early filmmaking experiences. As well, it was seen as an homage to the work of Steven Spielberg, who served as a producer. Even as…

  • super acid (drug)

    Ketamine, general anesthetic agent related structurally to the hallucinogen phencyclidine (PCP). Ketamine was first synthesized in 1962 at Parke Davis Laboratories by American scientist Calvin Stevens, who was searching for a new anesthetic to replace PCP, which was not suitable for use in humans

  • Super Bazooka (bazooka)

    bazooka: During the Korean War the M20 “Super Bazooka” was used. This was an aluminum tube that launched a 3.5-inch (89-mm), 9-pound (4-kg) rocket carrying 2 pounds (0.9 kg) of combined RDX/TNT explosive. The chief defects of both bazookas were their cumbersome weight and length and their short effective range (about…

  • Super Blue (Trinidadian musician)

    soca: Also in the 1990s, Trinidadian Super Blue (Austin Lyons) sang the most popular road march (song for Carnival dancing in the street) three years in a row, beginning with “Get Something and Wave” in 1991. With this song, Super Blue established a new model for Carnival music that featured a…

  • Super Bowl (American football)

    Super Bowl, in U.S. professional gridiron football, the championship game of the National Football League (NFL), played by the winners of the league’s American Football Conference and National Football Conference each January or February. The game is hosted by a different city each year. The game

  • Super Bowl 50 (football [2016])

    Carolina Panthers: …to the Denver Broncos in Super Bowl 50. The following year the Panthers suffered from a “Super Bowl hangover” and won just six games, finishing with the worst record in their division. The Panthers bounced back in 2017, winning 11 games to qualify for the play-offs, which resulted in a…

  • Super Bowl 54 (football [2020])

    Kansas City Chiefs: …the Chiefs to their first Super Bowl appearance in 50 years. There they came from behind in the fourth quarter to defeat the San Francisco 49ers, 31–20.

  • Super Bowl I (football [1967])

    Green Bay Packers: …January 15, 1967, in the inaugural Super Bowl, the Packers defeated the Kansas City Chiefs 35–10. They successfully defended their Super Bowl title the following year against the Oakland Raiders, 33–14.

  • Super Bowl II (football [1968])

    Green Bay Packers: …their Super Bowl title the following year against the Oakland Raiders, 33–14.

  • Super Bowl III (football [1969])

    Johnny Unitas: …New York Jets in the 1969 Super Bowl.

  • Super Bowl IV (football [1970])

    Kansas City Chiefs: At the Super Bowl the Chiefs defeated the Minnesota Vikings in what was the final game ever played by an AFL franchise, as the two leagues merged in 1970. Kansas City made another playoff appearance in 1971 but then entered a period that saw the team post…

  • Super Bowl IX (football [1975])

    Minnesota Vikings: Bowls (1970, 1974, 1975, and 1977), losing each time.

  • Super Bowl LI (football [2017])

    Atlanta Falcons: …route to the franchise’s second Super Bowl appearance. There the Falcons gave up the largest lead in Super Bowl history (25 points) and lost in overtime to the New England Patriots. Atlanta returned to the play-offs the following season, losing in the team’s second postseason contest. A preseason Super Bowl…

  • Super Bowl LII (football [2018])

    Tom Brady: …season and advanced to the Super Bowl for the eighth time in Brady’s career. There, despite Brady breaking his own Super Bowl record with 505 passing yards, the Patriots were upset by the Eagles. In 2018 Brady passed for 4,355 yards and 29 touchdowns while leading the Patriots to a…

  • Super Bowl LIII (football [2019])

    Bill Belichick: …to reach a third consecutive Super Bowl. In what was the lowest-scoring game in Super Bowl history, the Patriots defeated the Los Angeles Rams, 13–3, and Belichick claimed his sixth title. Led by the top-ranked defense in the league, the Patriots won an 11th straight division title in 2019, but…

  • Super Bowl LIV (football [2020])

    Kansas City Chiefs: …the Chiefs to their first Super Bowl appearance in 50 years. There they came from behind in the fourth quarter to defeat the San Francisco 49ers, 31–20.

  • Super Bowl Shuffle, The (song by Chicago Bears)

    Chicago Bears: …with the release of “The Super Bowl Shuffle,” a rap song (and accompanying music video) that featured members of the team boasting of going to the Super Bowl, which was confidently released before the end of the regular season.

  • Super Bowl V (football [1971])

    Indianapolis Colts: …the Colts won their first Super Bowl, a 16–13 victory over the Dallas Cowboys.

  • Super Bowl VII (football [1973])

    Don Shula: …with a win in the Super Bowl. The team won a second Super Bowl the following season. Shula again guided the Dolphins to the Super Bowl in the 1982 and 1984 seasons, but the team lost both times. On November 14, 1993, Shula scored his 325th career victory, breaking George…

  • Super Bowl VIII (football [1974])

    Don Shula: The team won a second Super Bowl the following season. Shula again guided the Dolphins to the Super Bowl in the 1982 and 1984 seasons, but the team lost both times. On November 14, 1993, Shula scored his 325th career victory, breaking George Halas’s record. He retired after the 1995…

  • Super Bowl X (football [1976])

    Pittsburgh Steelers: …winning four Super Bowls (1975, 1976, 1979, and 1980) in six seasons behind a dominant defense known as the “Steel Curtain” and an efficient offense led by Bradshaw. The Steelers teams of the 1970s were also characterized by a fervent fan base, notable for the bright yellow “Terrible Towels”—which were…

  • Super Bowl XI (football [1977])

    Minnesota Vikings: 1974, 1975, and 1977), losing each time.

  • Super Bowl XIII (football [1979])

    Pittsburgh Steelers: four Super Bowls (1975, 1976, 1979, and 1980) in six seasons behind a dominant defense known as the “Steel Curtain” and an efficient offense led by Bradshaw. The Steelers teams of the 1970s were also characterized by a fervent fan base, notable for the bright yellow “Terrible Towels”—which were created…

  • Super Bowl XIV (football [1980])

    Pittsburgh Steelers: 1976, 1979, and 1980) in six seasons behind a dominant defense known as the “Steel Curtain” and an efficient offense led by Bradshaw. The Steelers teams of the 1970s were also characterized by a fervent fan base, notable for the bright yellow “Terrible Towels”—which were created by the…

  • Super Bowl XIX (football [1985])

    Don Shula: …Bowl in the 1982 and 1984 seasons, but the team lost both times. On November 14, 1993, Shula scored his 325th career victory, breaking George Halas’s record. He retired after the 1995 season with a record of 347–173–6 (.665), including play-off games, and he was enshrined in the Pro Football…

  • Super Bowl XL (football [2006])

    Pittsburgh Steelers: …the new century, and in 2006—with a team featuring quarterback Ben Roethlisberger, wide receiver Hines Ward, and safety Troy Polamalu—they defeated the Seattle Seahawks to gain a fifth Super Bowl title. In 2009 the Steelers, under the leadership of second-year head coach Mike Tomlin, beat the Arizona Cardinals in dramatic…

  • Super Bowl XLI (football [2007])

    Indianapolis Colts: …the Chicago Bears in the Super Bowl and putting a stop to criticism that Manning could not win the big game. In 2009 the Colts won their first 14 games of the season en route to earning the AFC’s top seed in the playoffs. Indianapolis then easily advanced to the…

  • Super Bowl XLII (football [2008])

    Tom Brady: …underdog New York Giants in Super Bowl XLII. In the first game of the 2008 NFL schedule, Brady suffered a severe knee injury that required season-ending surgery. He returned to form the next season, earning a Pro Bowl selection after guiding the Patriots to another playoff berth. Brady led the…

  • Super Bowl XLIII (football [2009])

    Pittsburgh Steelers: …to capture their record sixth Super Bowl championship. After missing the playoffs following the 2009 regular season, Pittsburgh captured its third AFC championship in a six-year span in 2011 to earn a berth in Super Bowl XLV, a loss to the Green Bay Packers.

  • Super Bowl XLIV (football [2010])

    Drew Brees: …start and the franchise’s first Super Bowl berth, a victory over the Indianapolis Colts. In the Super Bowl, Brees completed 32 passes (which tied Tom Brady’s Super Bowl record) for 288 yards and two touchdowns, and he was named the game’s Most Valuable Player.

  • Super Bowl XLIX (football [2015])

    New England Patriots: Super Bowl victories—in 2004, 2005, 2015, and 2017.

  • Super Bowl XLV (football [2011])

    Green Bay Packers: …game—to earn a berth in Super Bowl XLV against the Pittsburgh Steelers, whom the Packers defeated to capture their fourth Super Bowl championship. The Packers won their first 13 games of the 2011 season en route to finishing the year with a 15–1 record. The team was a heavy favourite…

  • Super Bowl XLVI (football [2012])

    Tom Brady: …led the Patriots to another Super Bowl loss to the Giants in February 2012. Brady continued playing at a Pro-Bowl level in 2012 and 2013, guiding the Patriots to losses in the AFC championship game in each season. Following the 2014 regular season, he helped the team get over its…

  • Super Bowl XLVII (football [2013])

    Baltimore Ravens: …Baltimore claimed the franchise’s second Super Bowl. In 2013 the team’s five-year streak of playoff appearances came to an end as the Ravens finished the season with an 8–8 record. The team returned to the postseason the following year and upset the Steelers in its first playoff game before being…

  • Super Bowl XLVIII (football [2014])

    Denver Broncos: …Seattle Seahawks in a 43–8 Super Bowl loss. The Broncos were less dominant in 2014 but still won a third straight division title with Manning under centre. The team followed that season with yet another upset loss in its first play-off game. While an aging Manning grew less effective on…

  • Super Bowl XV (football [1981])

    Oakland Raiders: …shepherded the team to another Super Bowl victory in 1981.

  • Super Bowl XVI (football [1982])

    Joe Montana: …the 49ers to their first Super Bowl victory in January 1982, earning game MVP honours in the process. His team’s play-off run was highlighted by a game-winning touchdown pass from Montana to Dwight Clark with 51 seconds remaining in the National Football Conference championship game, a play later known as…

  • Super Bowl XVII (football [1983])

    Don Shula: …the Super Bowl in the 1982 and 1984 seasons, but the team lost both times. On November 14, 1993, Shula scored his 325th career victory, breaking George Halas’s record. He retired after the 1995 season with a record of 347–173–6 (.665), including play-off games, and he was enshrined in the…

  • Super Bowl XVIII (football [1984])

    Oakland Raiders: …another Super Bowl title in 1984. The teams of the 1980s featured three future Hall of Famers—running back Marcus Allen, defensive lineman Howie Long, and cornerback Mike Haynes—and multisport sensation Bo Jackson, who excelled in both Major League Baseball and the NFL.

  • Super Bowl XX (football [1986])

    New England Patriots: They advanced to their first Super Bowl in 1986 but lost to a dominant Chicago Bears team, 46–10. Eleven years would pass before the Patriots would return to the Super Bowl, this time under the direction of coach Bill Parcells and led by quarterback Drew Bledsoe. New England lost Super…

  • Super Bowl XXI (football [1987])

    New York Giants: …won Super Bowls following the 1986 and 1990 seasons, maintaining success through the majority of Parcells’s tenure. After capturing a second Super Bowl, Parcells left the team, and afterward the Giants had a mixed record, with four winning seasons between 1991 and 2000. In 2000 they advanced to the Super…

  • Super Bowl XXII (football [1988])

    Washington Redskins: …three Super Bowl victories (1983, 1988, 1992). A testament to Gibbs’s coaching ability—and to the overall quality of his teams—is the fact that each of the Redskins Super Bowl-winning teams was led by a different quarterback: Joe Theismann, Doug Williams, and Mark Rypien. Running back John Riggins, wide receiver Art…

  • Super Bowl XXIII (football [1989])

    Joe Montana: In 1989 Montana led a dramatic late-game drive against the Cincinnati Bengals to win a third Super Bowl. Despite losing Walsh to retirement in the off-season, the 49ers repeated as champions the following year while posting the largest margin of victory in Super Bowl history (45…

  • Super Bowl XXIV (football [1990])

    Joe Montana: …Montana took home his third Super Bowl MVP trophy. In addition to his postseason accolades, Montana was named NFL MVP in 1989 and 1990.

  • Super Bowl XXIX (football [1995])

    Los Angeles Chargers: …route to the franchise’s first Super Bowl berth. There the Chargers lost soundly to the San Francisco 49ers, 49–26.

  • Super Bowl XXV (football [1991])

    Buffalo Bills: …Bills advanced to their first Super Bowl in 1991, which they lost to the New York Giants after a last-second field goal attempt by Buffalo’s Scott Norwood missed wide right. The next year Buffalo returned to the Super Bowl, where it was defeated by the Washington Redskins. In the 1992…

  • Super Bowl XXVI (football [1992])

    Buffalo Bills: The next year Buffalo returned to the Super Bowl, where it was defeated by the Washington Redskins. In the 1992 postseason’s Wild Card round, the Bills—playing without an injured Kelly—trailed the Houston Oilers by a score of 35–3 early in the third quarter. Backup quarterback Frank…

  • Super Bowl XXVII (football [1993])

    Buffalo Bills: …games to advance to a third Super Bowl. There, however, they were soundly defeated by the Dallas Cowboys 52–17. Buffalo made it to a record fourth consecutive Super Bowl in 1994, but its rematch against the Cowboys ended in another disappointing loss in the big game. The Bills made two…

  • Super Bowl XXVIII (football [1994])

    Buffalo Bills: …to a record fourth consecutive Super Bowl in 1994, but its rematch against the Cowboys ended in another disappointing loss in the big game. The Bills made two more postseason appearances in the mid-1990s but failed to advance past the second round of the playoffs each time, and the key…

  • Super Bowl XXX (football [1996])

    Troy Aikman: …the Pittsburgh Steelers for another Super Bowl championship. In 1996 he also appeared in his sixth consecutive Pro Bowl. The following year he threw for more than 3,000 passing yards—the fourth time he had accomplished the feat during his career—but the Cowboys failed to make the play-offs. Various injuries, notably…

  • Super Bowl XXXI (football [1997])

    Green Bay Packers: The team’s third Super Bowl appearance, in 1997, was a success: they defeated the New England Patriots 35–21. However, they did not repeat their win the following year against the Denver Broncos. After that loss Holmgren left the Packers for a job with the Seattle Seahawks, but…

  • Super Bowl XXXII (football [1998])

    Denver Broncos: …the AFC’s representative in the Super Bowl. This time the well-balanced Broncos squad upset the Green Bay Packers to capture the franchise’s first title. Denver won a team-record 14 games the next season, which it followed with a second Super Bowl victory (over the Atlanta Falcons). Elway then retired, and…

  • Super Bowl XXXIII (football [1999])

    Denver Broncos: …it followed with a second Super Bowl victory (over the Atlanta Falcons). Elway then retired, and Denver finished last in their division the following season. The team went to the postseason in four of the six years between 2000 and 2005 but advanced past the first round only once and…

  • Super Bowl XXXIV (football [2000])

    Los Angeles Rams: …and advanced to the second Super Bowl in franchise history. There the team won a thrilling victory over the Tennessee Titans, 23–16, to capture its first Super Bowl title. The Rams continued to be one of the highest-scoring teams in the league through the first years of the 21st century…

  • Super Bowl XXXIX (football [2005])

    New England Patriots: …more Super Bowl victories—in 2004, 2005, 2015, and 2017.

  • Super Bowl XXXV (football [2001])

    Baltimore Ravens: …the New York Giants in Super Bowl XXXV the following January, and Lewis was named Most Valuable Player of the game. In addition to Lewis, the Super Bowl-winning Ravens squad featured standouts such as offensive lineman Jonathan Ogden, tight end Shannon Sharpe, and cornerback Rod Woodson. Over the remainder of…

  • Super Bowl XXXVII (football [2003])

    Jon Gruden: In Super Bowl XXXVII, the Buccaneers faced the Raiders, and Gruden guided Tampa Bay to a commanding 48–21 victory. He experienced his first losing seasons as head coach the following two years, but Tampa Bay rebounded in 2005 to win a division title. The Buccaneers lost…

  • Super Bowl XXXVIII (football [2004])

    Carolina Panthers: …road) to qualify for the Super Bowl in their second postseason appearance. In the Super Bowl, the Panthers lost a tight contest to the New England Patriots that was decided by a Patriots’ field goal in the closing seconds of the game. Carolina remained one of the more consistently successful…

  • super circuit weight training

    exercise: Strength and endurance: Super circuit weight training refers to a program in which running or other aerobic exercises are performed between sets; this training produces aerobic as well as strength benefits.

  • Super Cockpit (United States Air Force program)

    virtual reality: Education and training: …Furness directed the air force’s Super Cockpit program. The essential idea of this project was that the capacity of human pilots to handle spatial information depended on these data being “portrayed in a way that takes advantage of the human’s natural perceptual mechanisms.” Applying the HMD to this goal, Furness…

  • super committee (United States government)

    United States: Raising the debt ceiling, capping spending, and the efforts of the super committee: …also created a congressional “super committee” tasked with recommending by the end of November 2011 the measures by which an additional $1.2 to $1.5 trillion would be cut from the deficit over a 10-year period. If the committee had agreed on a set of proposals and had those proposals…

  • Super étoile de Dakar (Senegalese music group)

    Youssou N'Dour: …left the group to form étoile de Dakar. Although it shared some stylistic features with its parent band, étoile de Dakar proudly promoted a more strongly Africanized version of the emergent mbalax music. Most of the group’s songs were sung in Wolof, using an ornamented vocal style—sometimes sustained and soaring,…

  • Super Fly (film by Parks, Jr. [1972])

    blaxploitation movies: ’s highly successful Super Fly (1972)—came under scrutiny for depicting Priest as a cool, sophisticated, stylish man who was popular with women, lived in plush comfort, drove the latest-model car, and wore his cocaine spoon as a fashion accessory. Ebony writer B.J. Mason was not the only critic…

  • Super Girl (Chinese television show)

    Li Yuchun: …a student, she entered the Super Girl televised singing contest, a nationwide females-only competition similar to the show American Idol in the United States. She was one of some 150,000 aspirants initially. Although she did not have the best voice or dancing skills among the top contestants, Li captivated and…

  • Super Glue (adhesive)

    cyanoacrylate: …under such trade names as Super Glue and Krazy Glue, bond almost instantly to a variety of surfaces, including metal, plastic, and glass. Because they adhere strongly to skin, they are also employed by surgeons for closing incisions and by morticians for sealing eyes and lips.

  • Super Heavy-–Starship system (launch vehicle)

    SpaceX: …and the Falcon Heavy: the Super Heavy–Starship system (originally called the BFR [Big Falcon Rocket]). The Super Heavy first stage would be capable of lifting 100,000 kg (220,000 pounds) to low Earth orbit. The payload would be the Starship, a spacecraft designed for several purposes, including providing fast transportation between…

  • super heavyweight (boxing weight class)

    Evander Holyfield: …professional fighter to win the heavyweight championship four separate times and thereby surpass the record of Muhammad Ali, who won it three times.

  • Super Jock (work by Lujack)

    Larry Lujack: …and ’70s, in his autobiography, Super Jock (1975). Lujack had the ratings to back up his braggadocio. Sweeping in from Seattle (with a brief, unhappy stop in Boston) in 1967, he bounced between Chicago’s dueling rock stations, WLS and WCFL, which made him the object of high-priced bidding wars until…

  • Super Mario Bros. (electronic game)

    Super Mario Bros., console game created by the Japanese electronic game manufacturer Nintendo Company, Ltd., in 1985 for the Nintendo Entertainment System (NES). The game, which was based on the arcade game Mario Bros., helped launch one of gaming’s most popular franchises. It stars Mario and

  • super Moon (astronomy)

    Supermoon, a full moon that occurs when the Moon is at perigee (the closest point to Earth in its orbit). The Moon is typically about 12 percent (or about 43,000 km [27,000 miles]) closer to Earth at perigee than at apogee, and thus a full moon at perigee would be about 25 percent brighter than one

  • Super Outbreak of 1974 (tornado disaster, North America)

    Super Outbreak of 1974, series of tornadoes that caused severe damage to the Midwestern, southern, and eastern United States and Ontario, Canada, on April 3–4, 1974. One of the largest outbreaks of tornadoes ever recorded, it consisted of 148 tornadoes and resulted in more than $1 billion in damage

  • Super Outbreak of 2011 (tornado disaster, United States)

    Super Outbreak of 2011, series of tornadoes on April 26–28, 2011, that affected parts of the southern, eastern, and central United States and produced particularly severe damage in the state of Alabama. It was the largest outbreak of tornadoes ever recorded; preliminary estimates suggested that

  • super PAC (American politics)

    political action committee: …the campaigns of other candidates; Super PACs, which were established in 2010 following the U.S. Supreme Court’s Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission decision (and the subsequent SpeechNow.org v. Federal Election Commission ruling) and which allow both corporations and unions to make independent expenditures from their general treasuries; and nonconnected…

  • Super Pit (gold mine, Kalgoorlie-Boulder, Australia)

    Kalgoorlie-Boulder: …is now known as the Kalgoorlie Super Pit, one of the world’s largest open-cut mines.

  • super political action committee (American politics)

    political action committee: …the campaigns of other candidates; Super PACs, which were established in 2010 following the U.S. Supreme Court’s Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission decision (and the subsequent SpeechNow.org v. Federal Election Commission ruling) and which allow both corporations and unions to make independent expenditures from their general treasuries; and nonconnected…

  • Super Proton Synchrotron (device)

    CERN: …the particle accelerator; and the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS; 1976), which featured a 7-km (4.35-mile) circumference ring able to accelerate protons to a peak energy of 500 GeV. Experiments at the PS in 1973 demonstrated for the first time that neutrinos could interact with matter without changing into muons; this…

  • Super Sabre (aircraft)

    F-100, U.S. Air Force jet fighter aircraft, the first operational fighter to exceed the speed of sound in level flight. It was operational from 1953 to 1973. It was made by North American Aviation, Inc., and it became the principal tactical fighter of the U.S. Tactical Air Command and was adopted

  • Super Shan (American disc jockey)

    Scott Shannon: An avid fan and student of Top 40 radio since childhood, Michael Moore fashioned his on-air name, Scott Shannon, as a tribute to two of his favourite announcers, Scott Muni and Tom Shannon. Beginning at a station in Mobile, Alabama, in 1969, he became the…

  • Super Simplex (optical device)

    motion-picture technology: Projection technology and theatre design: …and even the 1930 model Super Simplex is still in wide use. The essential mechanism is still the four-slot Maltese cross introduced in the 1890s. The Maltese cross provides the intermittent Geneva movement that stops each frame of the continuously moving film in front of the picture aperture, where it…

  • Super Truck Series (auto racing championship)

    NASCAR: …in 1995 and called the Craftsman Truck Series 1996–2008), in which race cars with bodies that mimic pickup trucks are used. NASCAR also sanctions a number of regional series in the United States. NASCAR’s headquarters are in Daytona Beach.

  • Super Tuesday (American politics)

    presidency of the United States of America: The primary and caucus season: …that became known as “Super Tuesday.” Such “front-loading” of primaries and caucuses continued during the 1990s, prompting Iowa and New Hampshire to schedule their contests even earlier, in January, and causing the Democratic Party to adopt rules to protect the privileged status of the two states. By 2008 some…

  • Super Typhoon Haiyan (storm, northern Pacific Ocean [2013])

    Super Typhoon Haiyan, massive and highly destructive storm in the North Pacific Ocean that affected Palau, the Philippines, Vietnam, and China during early November 2013. The tropical cyclone produced high winds, coastal storm surges, heavy rains, and flooding in the land areas over which it

  • Super Typhoon Haiyan Scourges Southeastern Asia

    Perhaps the most powerful cyclone to strike land raged across the North Pacific Ocean in early November 2013. The Tropical cyclone, dubbed Super Typhoon Haiyan (Yolanda in the Philippines), produced high winds, coastal storm surges, heavy rains, and flooding in Palau, the Philippines, Vietnam, and

  • Super Typhoon Vera (storm, Pacific Ocean [1959])

    Ise Bay typhoon of 1959, one of the most destructive typhoons (tropical cyclones) in Japanese history. The storm struck the Ise Bay region on the southern coast of Japan’s main island, Honshu, on Sept. 26, 1959, and wreaked havoc in the city of Nagoya. The storm killed more than 5,000 people, left

  • Super-Cannes (novel by Ballard)

    J.G. Ballard: …violence in the plots of Super-Cannes (2000), Millennium People (2003), and Kingdom Come (2006), effectively exposing the foibles of his middle-class characters by documenting their reactions to the violence against a stark backdrop of shopping malls and office parks.

  • super-Earth (extrasolar planet)

    CoRoT: …planets have been called “super-Earths.” Its density is similar to that of Earth, and thus it is a rocky planet like Earth, the first such planet to be confirmed.

  • super-Eddington (astronomy)

    Eddington mass limit: …cases, such behaviour is called super-Eddington and has been attributed to such processes as convection, so that the internal fluid motions transport some energy and thus the portion of the object’s luminosity that can be attributed to radiation is smaller than that of the Eddington mass limit.

  • super-G (ski race)

    Alpine skiing: …comprising downhill skiing and the supergiant slalom, or super-G, and the latter including the slalom and giant slalom. The speed events are contested in single runs down long, steep, fast courses featuring few and widely spaced turns. The technical events challenge the skier’s ability to maneuver over courses marked by…

  • Super-Gymnast (United States military plan)

    World War II: Allied strategy and controversies, 1940–42: …France; and another, code-named “Super-Gymnast,” for combining a British landing behind the German forces in Libya (already planned under the code name “Gymnast”) with a U.S. landing near Casablanca on the Atlantic coast of Morocco. The same conference furthermore created the machinery of the Combined Chiefs of Staff, where…

  • Super-Kamiokande (neutrino detector)

    Koshiba Masatoshi: …larger, more sensitive detector named Super-Kamiokande, which became operational in 1996, Koshiba found strong evidence for what scientists had already suspected—that neutrinos, of which three types are known, change from one type into another in flight.

  • super-realism (art)

    Photo-realism, American art movement that began in the 1960s, taking photography as its inspiration. Photo-realist painters created highly illusionistic images that referred not to nature but to the reproduced image. Artists such as Richard Estes, Ralph Goings, Audrey Flack, Robert Bechtle, and

  • super-resolved fluorescence microscopy

    Eric Betzig: Prize for Chemistry for using fluorescent molecules to bypass the inherent resolution limit in optical microscopy. He shared the prize with American chemist W.E. Moerner and Romanian-born German chemist Stefan Hell.

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