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  • surface coating (chemistry)

    Surface coating, any mixture of film-forming materials plus pigments, solvents, and other additives, which, when applied to a surface and cured or dried, yields a thin film that is functional and often decorative. Surface coatings include paints, drying oils and varnishes, synthetic clear coatings,

  • surface course (pavement)

    roads and highways: Pavement: The surface course of a flexible pavement protects the underlying base course from traffic and water while also providing adequate tire friction, generating minimal noise in urban areas, and giving suitable light reflectance for night-time driving. Such surfaces are provided either by a bituminous film coated…

  • surface current (hydrology)

    Atlantic Ocean: Surface currents: The surface currents of the Atlantic Ocean primarily correspond to the system of prevailing winds with such modifications as are imposed on the movement of the water by land boundaries. Other factors that influence the currents are regional excesses of evaporation or precipitation,…

  • surface defect (crystallography)

    crystal defect: Surface defects may arise at the boundary between two grains, or small crystals, within a larger crystal. The rows of atoms in two different grains may run in slightly different directions, leading to a mismatch across the grain boundary. The actual external surface of a…

  • surface drainage (horticulture)

    horticulture: Water management: Surface drainage refers to the removal of surface water by development of the slope of the land utilizing systems of drains to carry away the surplus water. In subsurface drainage open ditches and tile fields intercept groundwater and carry it off. The water enters the…

  • surface effect (electronics)

    Skin effect, in electricity, the tendency of alternating high-frequency currents to crowd toward the surface of a conducting material. This phenomenon restricts the current to a small part of the total cross-sectional area and so has the effect of increasing the resistance of the conductor.

  • surface energy (physics)

    liquid: Surface tension: …solid (often referred to as surface energy), though it is not directly measurable, because of the rigidity of the solid; it may be inferred, however, under certain assumptions, from the angle of contact between the liquid and the solid (i.e., the angle at which the liquid’s surface meets the solid).…

  • surface hardening (metallurgy)

    Surface hardening, treatment of steel by heat or mechanical means to increase the hardness of the outer surface while the core remains relatively soft. The combination of a hard surface and a soft interior is greatly valued in modern engineering because it can withstand very high stress and

  • surface integral (mathematics)

    Surface integral, In calculus, the integral of a function of several variables calculated over a surface. For functions of a single variable, definite integrals are calculated over intervals on the x-axis and result in areas. For functions of two variables, the simplest double integrals are

  • surface ionization (astrophysics)

    mass spectrometry: Thermal ionization: Atoms with low ionization potentials can be ionized by contact with the heated surface of a metal, generally a filament, having a high work function (the energy required to remove an electron from its surface) in a process called thermal, or surface, ionization.…

  • surface irrigation (agriculture)

    horticulture: Water management: In surface irrigation water is distributed over the surface of soil. Sprinkler irrigation is application of water under pressure as simulated rain. Subirrigation is the distribution of water to soil below the surface; it provides moisture to crops by upward capillary action. Trickle irrigation involves the…

  • surface mining

    Surface mining, method of extracting minerals near the surface of the Earth. The three most common types of surface mining are open-pit mining, strip mining, and quarrying. See also mining and coal

  • surface printing (printmaking)

    printmaking: Surface-printing processes: Surface printing comprises those techniques in which the image is printed from the flat surface of the metal, stone, or other material. The major surface method is lithography, a planographic process. Although many experts place silk screen and stencilling in a separate category, they can…

  • surface propagation (communications)

    telecommunications media: Surface propagation: For low radio frequencies, terrestrial antennas radiate electromagnetic waves that travel along the surface of the Earth as if in a waveguide. The attenuation of surface waves increases with distance, ground resistance, and transmitted frequency. Attenuation is lower over seawater, which has high…

  • surface reconstruction (physics)

    scanning tunneling microscope: Applications: …positions in a process called surface reconstruction. The reconstruction of the silicon surface designated (111) has been studied in minute detail. Such a surface reconstructs into an intricate and complex pattern known as the Takayanagi 7 × 7 structure. The position, the chemical reactivity, and the electronic configuration of each…

  • surface runoff (hydrology)

    Runoff, in hydrology, quantity of water discharged in surface streams. Runoff includes not only the waters that travel over the land surface and through channels to reach a stream but also interflow, the water that infiltrates the soil surface and travels by means of gravity toward a stream

  • surface structure (linguistics)

    transformational grammar: …“deep structure” and a “surface structure” to show the relationship of such sentences. Thus, “I know a man who flies planes” can be considered the surface form of a deep structure approximately like “I know a man. The man flies airplanes.” The notion of deep structure can be especially…

  • surface temperature (Earth science)

    ice in lakes and rivers: The seasonal cycle: …difference between air temperature and surface temperature, the extent and duration of ice covers more or less coincide with the extent and duration of average air temperatures below the freezing point (with a lag in the autumn due to the cooling of the water from its summer heating and a…

  • surface tension (physics)

    Surface tension, property of a liquid surface displayed by its acting as if it were a stretched elastic membrane. This phenomenon can be observed in the nearly spherical shape of small drops of liquids and of soap bubbles. Because of this property, certain insects can stand on the surface of water.

  • surface treating (technology)

    industrial glass: Chemical properties: …glass is to make the surface as silica-rich as possible. This can be accomplished by two methods: fire polishing, a procedure that removes alkali ions by volatilization; or surface treatment with a mixture of sulfur dioxide and steam, which extracts alkali by leaching and converting to washable alkali sulfate. Other…

  • surface treatment (paving)
  • surface water (oceanic water mass)

    seawater: Density of seawater and pressure: …cooled at its surface, the surface water sinks, and convective overturn proceeds as the density of the surface water increases with the decreasing temperature. By the time the surface water reaches 4 °C (39.2 °F), the temperature of maximum density for fresh water, the density-driven convective overturn has reached the…

  • surface water (hydrology)

    mineral deposit: Flowing surface water: When mineral grains of different density are moved by flowing water, the less dense grains will be most rapidly moved, and a separation of high-density and low-density grains can be effected. Mineral deposits formed as a result of gravity separation based on density…

  • surface wave (seismology)

    seismic wave: …whereas the other two, called surface waves, travel along its surface. Seismographs record the amplitude and frequency of seismic waves and yield information about the Earth and its subsurface structure. Artificially generated seismic waves recorded during seismic surveys are used to collect data in oil and gas prospecting and engineering.

  • surface wave (water)

    lake: Surface waves: Wind blowing over a calm lake surface first produces an effect that may appear as a widely varying and fluctuating ruffling of the surface. The first wave motion to develop is relatively regular, consisting of small, uniformly developed waves called capillary waves. These…

  • surface wave propagation (communications)

    telecommunications media: Surface propagation: For low radio frequencies, terrestrial antennas radiate electromagnetic waves that travel along the surface of the Earth as if in a waveguide. The attenuation of surface waves increases with distance, ground resistance, and transmitted frequency. Attenuation is lower over seawater, which has high…

  • Surface, Charles and Joseph (fictional characters)

    Charles and Joseph Surface, fictional characters, the contrasting brothers whose entanglements provide one of the two plots of The School for Scandal by Richard Brinsley

  • surface-active agent (chemical compound)

    Surfactant, substance such as a detergent that, when added to a liquid, reduces its surface tension, thereby increasing its spreading and wetting properties. In the dyeing of textiles, surfactants help the dye penetrate the fabric evenly. They are used to disperse aqueous suspensions of insoluble

  • surface-energy budget (energy budget)

    climate: Surface-energy budgets: The rate of temperature change in any region is directly proportional to the region’s energy budget and inversely proportional to its heat capacity. While the radiation budget may dominate the average energy budget of many surfaces, nonradiative energy transfer and storage also are…

  • surface-feeding duck (bird)

    Dabbling duck, any of about 38 species of Anas and about 5 species in other genera, constituting the tribe Anatini, subfamily Anatinae, family Anatidae (order Anseriformes). They feed mainly on water plants, which they obtain by tipping-up in shallows—uncommonly by diving (with opened wings); they

  • Surface-loci (work by Euclid)

    Euclid: Other writings: Pappus also mentioned the Surface-loci (in two books), whose subject can only be inferred from the title.

  • surface-soil wash (geology)

    sheet erosion: …are moved downslope, commonly by sheetflooding. Broad sheets of rapidly flowing water filled with sediment present a potentially high erosive force. Generally produced by cloudbursts, sheetfloods are of brief duration, and they commonly move only short distances. On relatively rough surfaces, sheetflooding may give way to rill wash, in which…

  • surface-to-air missile (military weapon)

    Surface-to-air missile (SAM), radar or infrared guided missile fired from a ground position to intercept and destroy enemy aircraft or missiles. Surface-to-air missiles (SAMs) were developed to protect ground positions from hostile air attacks, specifically high-altitude bombers flying beyond the

  • surface-to-air system (military weapon)

    tactical weapons system: Surface-to-air systems: Land-based antiaircraft systems include guided missiles for farther ranges and automatic guns for close-in fire against aircraft and missiles. Missiles are frequently mounted in clusters on a single tank or truck chassis (as with many of the Soviet SA series), towed on trailers…

  • surface-to-surface system (military technology)

    tactical weapons system: Surface-to-surface systems: Antitank weapons usually employ a guided missile carrying a shaped-charge warhead that is designed to blast through armour. With wire-guided missiles such as the U.S. TOW or the Franco-German HOT, a wire unreels behind the missile and the operator signals course corrections to…

  • surface-wave magnitude scale (seismology)

    Richter scale: Modified Richter scales: …traveling within Earth) and the surface-wave magnitude scale (MS, which calculates the magnitude of Love and Rayleigh waves traveling along Earth’s surface). Although both scales continued to make use of seismographs and peak wave amplitudes, they became relatively reliable ways to calculate the energy of all but the largest earthquakes.…

  • surfacer (metal-cutting machine)

    Planer, metal-cutting machine in which the workpiece is firmly attached to a horizontal table that moves back and forth under a single-point cutting tool. The tool-holding device is mounted on a crossrail so that the tool can be fed (moved) across the table in small, discrete, sideward movements

  • Surfacing (novel by Atwood)

    Margaret Atwood: …surreal The Edible Woman (1969); Surfacing (1972; film 1981), an exploration of the relationship between nature and culture that centres on a woman’s return to her childhood home in the northern wilderness of Quebec; Lady Oracle (1976); Cat’s Eye (1988); The Robber Bride (1993; television film 2007); and Alias Grace…

  • Surfacing (album by McLachlan)

    Sarah McLachlan: These qualities were evident in Surfacing (1997), an extremely personal album that was written after months of soul searching. The candidness of such songs as “Sweet Surrender” and “Building a Mystery” earned McLachlan Grammy Awards for best female pop vocal performance and best pop instrumental. She also received Juno (Canadian…

  • surfactant (chemical compound)

    Surfactant, substance such as a detergent that, when added to a liquid, reduces its surface tension, thereby increasing its spreading and wetting properties. In the dyeing of textiles, surfactants help the dye penetrate the fabric evenly. They are used to disperse aqueous suspensions of insoluble

  • surfbird (bird)

    Surfbird, (Aphriza virgata), American shorebird that has a black triangle on its otherwise white tail. Surfbirds are about 25 centimetres (10 inches) long. With the knots, they constitute the subfamily Calidritinae (family Scolopacidae). Surfbirds breed in rock fields at high elevations in the

  • surfboard

    surfing: …especially by means of a surfboard.

  • Surfer Girl (album by the Beach Boys)

    the Beach Boys: Their next album, Surfer Girl, was a landmark for the unheard-of studio autonomy he secured from Capitol as writer, arranger, and producer. Redolent of the Four Freshmen but actually inspired by “When You Wish Upon a Star” from Walt Disney’s film Pinocchio (1940), the title track combined a…

  • Surfer Rosa (album by Pixies)

    Pixies: …and released their full-length debut, Surfer Rosa, in 1988. The album was an instant critical favourite and received considerable airplay on college radio and in Europe. While rougher than the Pixies’ later work, Surfer Rosa established the band’s signature sound: an aggressive blast of searing guitars and Thompson’s screeching vocals,…

  • Surfers Paradise (resort, Queensland, Australia)

    Gold Coast: …including Northcliffe, Broadbeach, Mermaid Beach, Surfers Paradise, Nobby’s, Miami, Burleigh Heads, Palm Beach, Currumbin, Tallebudgera, Tugun-Bilinga, and Kirra. Southport is the administrative centre. There was an extensive building boom after restrictions were lifted in 1952; the area was created a city in 1959. Among the area’s attractions are a bird…

  • surfing (water sport)

    Surfing, sport of riding breaking waves toward the shore, especially by means of a surfboard. Surfing’s roots lie in premodern Hawaii and Polynesia, where the sport was practiced by both men and women from all social strata from royalty to commoners. Early European explorers and travelers praised

  • surfperch (fish)

    Surfperch, any of 23 species of fishes of the family Embiotocidae (order Perciformes). Surfperches are found in the North Pacific Ocean; three or four species are native to Japanese waters, but all others are confined to the North American coast, mostly off California. One species, the tule perch

  • surge (glacier flow)

    glacier: Glacier surges: Most glaciers follow a regular and nonspectacular pattern of advance and retreat in response to a varying climate. A very different behaviour pattern has been reported for glaciers in certain, but not all, areas. Such glaciers may, after a period of normal flow, or…

  • surge (weather)

    Surge, in meteorology, an atmospheric process that operates on oceans and inland waters whereby a change in atmospheric pressure or a high-velocity wind works in conjunction with normal gravitational tides to produce dramatic changes in oceanic circulation, and, oftentimes, flooding in coastal

  • surge (motion)

    ship: Ship motions in response to the sea: …axis), heave (vertical motion), and surge (longitudinal motion superimposed on the steady propulsive motion). All six are unwanted except in the special circumstance where yaw is necessary in changing course.

  • surge chamber (engineering)

    turbine: Output and speed control: …regulation with long pipelines, a surge chamber is often connected to the pipeline as close to the turbine as possible. This enables part of the water in the line to pass into the surge chamber when the wicket gates are rapidly closed or opened. Medium-sized reaction turbines may also be…

  • surge of the monsoon (meteorology)

    surge: …monsoon currents is called a burst, or surge, of the monsoon.

  • surge, the (Iraq War)

    Iraq War: The surge: Prior to the release of the Iraq Study Group report, there had been considerable debate within the administration over the path forward in Iraq. Although by December 2006 President Bush had indicated his inclination to increase the number of troops in Iraq, questions—in…

  • Surgeon Dentist, The (work by Fauchard)

    dentistry: Development of dentistry in Europe: …dentistry in a monumental book, The Surgeon Dentist, or Treatise on the Teeth. In it he discussed and described all facets of diagnosis and treatment of dental diseases, including orthodontics, prosthetics, periodontal diseases, and oral surgery. Fauchard effectively separated dentistry from the larger field of surgery and thus established dentistry…

  • surgeon general of the United States (United States government official)

    Surgeon general of the United States, supervising medical officer of the U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The U.S. surgeon general oversees (but does not directly supervise) the members of the Public Health Service Commissioned

  • Surgeon General’s Library (library, Washington, District of Columbia, United States)

    John Shaw Billings: …General’s Library and ultimately the National Library of Medicine, the world’s largest medical reference centre. His attempt to construct a logical classification system for the library resulted in his founding of the Index Medicus (1879), a monthly guide to current medical literature, and publication of the first edition of the…

  • surgeon’s knot

    knot: A surgeon’s knot is an elaborated form of the square knot; it is composed of two overhand knots turned in opposite ways but with an additional twist taken after the first overhand is tied. This allows the parts of the rope to be held in place…

  • Surgeon, House of the (building, Pompeii, Italy)

    Pompeii: Description of the remains: The House of the Surgeon is the best-known example of the early atrium house built during this period.

  • surgeonfish (fish)

    Surgeonfish, any of about 75 species of thin, deep-bodied, tropical marine fishes of the family Acanthuridae (order Perciformes). Surgeonfishes are small-scaled, with a single dorsal fin and one or more distinctive, sharp spines that are located on either side of the tail base and can produce deep

  • surgery (medicine)

    Surgery, branch of medicine that is concerned with the treatment of injuries, diseases, and other disorders by manual and instrumental means. Surgery involves the management of acute injuries and illnesses as differentiated from chronic, slowly progressing diseases, except when patients with the

  • Surgery: Its Principles and Practice (work by Keen)

    William Williams Keen: …Medical Association (1900) and edited Surgery: Its Principles and Practice, 8 vol. (1906–13).

  • surgical diagnosis

    Exploratory surgery, manual and instrumental means of investigating an area of the body suspected of disease when a specific diagnosis is not possible through noninvasive or simple biopsy techniques. If the lesion is in the abdomen, exploratory surgery involves a laparotomy, or incision into the

  • surgical expense insurance

    insurance: Types of policies: Surgical expense insurance covers the surgeon’s charge for given operations or medical procedures, usually up to a maximum for each type of operation. Regular medical insurance contracts indemnify the insured for expenses such as physicians’ home or office visits, medicines, and other medical expenses. Major…

  • surgical extirpation

    therapeutics: Surgical extirpation: Extirpation is the complete removal or eradication of an organ or tissue and is a term usually used in cancer treatment or in the treatment of otherwise diseased or infected organs. The aim is to completely remove all cancerous tissue, which usually involves…

  • surgical staple

    therapeutics: Wound treatment: Staples permit faster closure of the skin but are less precise than sutures. When the edges can be brought together easily and without tension, tape is very useful. Although it is comfortable, easy to apply, and avoids the marks left by sutures, tape may come…

  • surgical tourism (medicine)

    Medical tourism, international travel for the purpose of receiving medical care. Many patients engage in medical tourism because the procedures they seek can be performed in other countries at relatively low cost and without the delay and inconvenience of being placed on a waiting list. In

  • surging glacier

    glacier: Glacier surges: These unusual glaciers are called surging glaciers.

  • Surguja (India)

    Ambikapur, city, northern Chhattisgarh state, east-central India. It is situated in an upland region at an elevation of about 2,000 feet (610 metres). The city, then known as Surguja, was the capital of the former Surguja princely state. Connected by road with Dharmjaygarh, Patna, and Sonhat, it is

  • Surgut (Russia)

    Surgut, city and port, Khanty-Mansi autonomous okrug (district), Tyumen oblast (region), Russia, on the Ob River. Incorporated in 1965, Surgut is one of the main administrative and supply centres of the Western Siberian oil fields. Surgut has an enormous thermal-power station. The city is linked by

  • suri (mammal)

    alpaca: …alpaca, the huacaya and the suri, were developed in pre-Columbian times. The fleece of the suri is fine and silky and grows long enough to touch the ground if the animal is not sheared. The fleece of the huacaya is shorter and coarser by comparison. (See specialty hair fibre.) The…

  • Sūri (India)

    Siuri, town, central West Bengal state, northeastern India. It lies just south of the Mor River. Siuri is an important road and agricultural-trade centre. Its chief industries include rice milling, cotton and silk weaving, and furniture manufacture. The water-control-system barrage for the Mor

  • suri fibre (animal-hair fibre)

    alpaca: The fleece of the suri is fine and silky and grows long enough to touch the ground if the animal is not sheared. The fleece of the huacaya is shorter and coarser by comparison. (See specialty hair fibre.) The alpaca’s fleece is remarkably lightweight, strong, lustrous,…

  • Suri, Haribhadra (Indian author)

    Haribhadra, noncanonical author of treatises on the Indian religion Jainism, known for his authoritative works in Sanskrit and Prakrit on Jain doctrine and ethics. Scholars are still uncertain of the extent to which he should be differentiated from a 6th-century Jain author of the same name.

  • Suri, Hemacandra (Jaina author)

    Hemachandra, teacher of the Shvetambara (“White-Robed”) sect of Jainism who gained privileges for his religion from Siddharaja Jayasimha, one of the greatest kings of Gujarat. Eloquent and erudite, Hemachandra also succeeded in converting the next king, Kumarapala, thus firmly entrenching Jainism

  • suri-mono (Japanese print)

    woodcut: …making of miniature prints, called suri-mono, to commemorate special occasions. They usually carried a poem and were made on special paper decorated with gold or silver dust. In the 18th century, ukiyo-e culminated in the landscape prints of Hokusai and Hiroshige. Many ukiyo-e woodcuts found their way to the West…

  • suri-urushi (Japanese lacquerwork)

    rō-iro: The next step is the suri-urushi process, applying raw lacquer with cotton and wiping it with crumpled rice paper. When the article has dried well, a little rapeseed oil is applied with cotton and polished lightly; burnt deerhorn powder or titanium is applied to remove the lacquer that had been…

  • Suribachi, Mount (mountain, Iwo Jima, Japan)

    Iwo Jima: …Hill, in the north, and Mount Suribachi, an extinct volcano in the south.

  • Suricata suricatta (mammal)

    Meerkat, (Suricata suricatta), burrowing member of the mongoose family (Herpestidae), found in southwestern Africa, that is unmistakably recognizable in its upright “sentinel” posture as it watches for predators. The meerkat is slender and has a pointed little face, tiny ears, and black eye

  • suricate (mammal)

    Meerkat, (Suricata suricatta), burrowing member of the mongoose family (Herpestidae), found in southwestern Africa, that is unmistakably recognizable in its upright “sentinel” posture as it watches for predators. The meerkat is slender and has a pointed little face, tiny ears, and black eye

  • Suriel (archangel)

    Raphael, in the Bible, one of the archangels. In the apocryphal Old Testament (Hebrew Bible) Book of Tobit, he is the one who, in human disguise and under the name of Azarias (“Yahweh helps”), accompanied Tobias in his adventurous journey and conquered the demon Asmodeus. He is said (Tobit 12:15)

  • Surigao (Philippines)

    Surigao, city, northeastern tip of Mindanao Island, Philippines. Surigao was one of the earliest places of Spanish settlement in the Philippines; the Royal House was the residence of the Spanish governor. Surigao, a port and trading centre, lies just southeast of Bilaa Point on the Surigao Strait.

  • Surikov, Vasily Ivanovich (Russian painter)

    Vasily Ivanovich Surikov, Russian historical painter, one of the few members of the Peredvizhniki (“Wanderers”) whose work has withstood the test of time. Surikov, who was of Cossack descent, was born in Siberia in a community that had retained much of its traditional way of life (dating from the

  • surimi (food)

    fish processing: Surimi: Surimi was developed in Japan several centuries ago when it was discovered that washing minced fish flesh, followed by heating, resulted in a natural gelling of the flesh. When the surimi was combined with other ingredients, mixed or kneaded, and steamed, various fish gel…

  • surimono (Japanese print)

    woodcut: …making of miniature prints, called suri-mono, to commemorate special occasions. They usually carried a poem and were made on special paper decorated with gold or silver dust. In the 18th century, ukiyo-e culminated in the landscape prints of Hokusai and Hiroshige. Many ukiyo-e woodcuts found their way to the West…

  • Surin (Thailand)

    Surin, town, east-central Thailand. The town is located on the railway between Nakhon Ratchasima and Ubon Ratchathani and is a trade and production centre for rice, lacquerware, and silk. It has an agricultural college and attracts tourists with its annual Elephant Round-Up. The town lies about 35

  • Surin (Nestorian teacher)

    School of Nisibis: …outstanding figure after ?enānā was Surin, who held office for some time in the second quarter of the 7th century. His literary work must have created considerable attention, and its vitality sustained the school in its subsequent history of decline, especially in the areas of historiography and monastico-historical inquiry. The…

  • Surinach, Carlos (American composer)

    Carlos Surinach, Spanish-born American composer, known chiefly for his vibrant ballet scores influenced by traditional flamenco rhythms and melodies. Surinach was the son of a Spanish stockbroker and an Austrian-Polish pianist. He took piano lessons from his mother until he was 13, and at age 14 he

  • Surinam cherry

    invasive species: A global problem: Cherry guava (Psidium cattleianum), Surinam cherry (Eugenia uniflora), Arabian coffee (Coffea arabica), lantana (Lantana camara), and the ice cream bean (Inga edulis) are all invasive species that were brought as food or ornamental plants and escaped cultivation.

  • Surinam toad (amphibian)

    Surinam toad, (Pipa pipa), aquatic South American toad (family Pipidae) in which the eggs are incubated on the back of the female. The Surinam toad is about 10 to 17 cm (4 to 7 inches) long. It has a flat, squarish body, small eyes, and a flat head with loose flaps of skin on the snout and jaws.

  • Suriname

    Suriname, country located on the northern coast of South America. Suriname is one of the smallest countries in South America, yet its population is one of the most ethnically diverse in the region. Its economy is dependent on its extensive supply of natural resources, most notably bauxite, of which

  • Suriname National Party (political party, Suriname)

    Suriname: Political movements: …universal suffrage, set up the Suriname National Party (Nationale Partij Suriname; NPS). The Progressive Suriname People’s Party (Progressieve Suriname Volkspartij; PSV) organized the working-class Creoles. Eventually, the South Asians and Indonesians were grouped respectively within the United Reform Party (later called the Progressive Reform Party [Vooruitstrvende Hervormde Partij; VHP]) and…

  • Suriname River (river, Suriname)

    Suriname River, river, central and eastern Suriname, rising in the highlands at the junction of the Wilhelmina and Eilerts de Haan ranges. It flows northeastward about 300 miles (480 km) to empty into the Atlantic Ocean just north of Paramaribo, the national capital. The river is obstructed by

  • Suriname, flag of

    national flag consisting of unequal horizontal stripes of green, white, red, white, and green, with a central yellow star. The flag has a width-to-length ratio of 2 to 3.The only Dutch colony on the mainland of the New World to survive into the 20th century, Suriname (formerly known as Dutch

  • Suriname, history of

    Suriname: History: Native groups have inhabited Suriname for millennia. Among the larger of these historically were the Arawak and the Carib peoples. The Surinen (from whom the country’s name derives) were also some of the area’s earliest known inhabitants. By the 16th century, however,…

  • Surinamese Liberation Army (guerrilla organization, Suriname)

    Suriname: Suriname since independence: Raids by the Surinamese Liberation Army, a guerrilla group better known as the Jungle Commando (JC) and consisting mainly of Maroons, disrupted bauxite mining and led to the killing of many Maroon civilians by the National Army; thousands of Maroons subsequently fled to French Guiana. The deteriorating economic…

  • Surinen (people)

    Suriname: Early history: The Surinen (from whom the country’s name derives) were also some of the area’s earliest known inhabitants. By the 16th century, however, the Surinen either had been driven out by other Indian groups or had migrated to other parts of the Guianas (the region including Suriname,…

  • Sūrīyah

    Syria, country located on the east coast of the Mediterranean Sea in southwestern Asia. Its area includes territory in the Golan Heights that has been occupied by Israel since 1967. The present area does not coincide with ancient Syria, which was the strip of fertile land lying between the eastern

  • Suriyawong, Somdet Chao Phraya Si (Thai government minister)

    Somdet Chao Phraya Si Suriyawong, leading minister under King Mongkut and regent during the minority of King Chulalongkorn, who exercised tremendous influence during a crucial period when the Siamese kings were modernizing the country and trying to maintain its independence. Members of the Bunnag

  • Surjaningrat, Raden Mas Suwardi (Indonesian educator)

    Ki Hadjar Dewantoro, founder of the Taman Siswa (literally “Garden of Students”) school system, an influential and widespread network of schools that encouraged modernization but also promoted indigenous Indonesian culture. Dewantoro was born into a noble family of Yogyakarta and attended a

  • Surjansky, Anton Jan (Slovak editor)

    biblical literature: Slavic versions: …version by Stefan ?lato? and Anton Jan Surjansky was issued at Trnava in 1946.

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