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  • surjection (mathematics)

    Surjection, in mathematics, a mapping (or function) between two sets such that the range (output) of the mapping consists of every element of the second set. A mapping that is both an injection (a one-to-one correspondence for all elements from the first set to elements in the second set) and a

  • Surji-Arjungaon, Treaty of (Indian history)

    Treaty of Surji-Arjungaon, (Dec. 30, 1803), settlement between the Maratha chief Daulat Rao Sindhia and the British, the result of Lord Lake’s campaign in upper India in the first phase of the Second Maratha War (1803–05). Lake captured Aligarh and defeated Sindhia’s French-trained army at Delhi

  • Surkhan Darya (river, Central Asia)

    Uzbekistan: Drainage: …tributary to the Amu Darya—the Surkhan and Sherabad, followed by the Zeravshan and Kashka—contribute little flow, for the last two trickle into nothing in the desert. The Syr Darya, the second largest river in Uzbekistan, forms there by the confluence of the Naryn and Qoradaryo rivers.

  • Surkhan River (river, Central Asia)

    Uzbekistan: Drainage: …tributary to the Amu Darya—the Surkhan and Sherabad, followed by the Zeravshan and Kashka—contribute little flow, for the last two trickle into nothing in the desert. The Syr Darya, the second largest river in Uzbekistan, forms there by the confluence of the Naryn and Qoradaryo rivers.

  • Surkhandaria (oblast, Uzbekistan)

    Surkhandarya, most southerly oblast (province) of Uzbekistan. It embraces the basins of the Sherabad and Surkhan rivers, right-bank tributaries of the Amu River, which forms the frontier with Afghanistan in the south. In the east are the Babatag Mountains, and in the north and west are the lofty

  • Surkhandarya (oblast, Uzbekistan)

    Surkhandarya, most southerly oblast (province) of Uzbekistan. It embraces the basins of the Sherabad and Surkhan rivers, right-bank tributaries of the Amu River, which forms the frontier with Afghanistan in the south. In the east are the Babatag Mountains, and in the north and west are the lofty

  • Surkotada (archaeological site, India)

    India: Other important sites: Near the Rann of Kachchh, Surkotada is a small settlement with an oblong fortification wall of stone. Also in Kachchh is Dholavira, which appears to be among the largest Harappan settlements so far identified; a nine-year excavation at the site completed in 2001 yielded a walled Indus valley city that…

  • Surma languages

    Surmic languages, group of languages that are spoken in southwestern Ethiopia and neighbouring zones of South Sudan and that form part of the Nilo-Saharan language family. The three branches of Surmic languages are the Northern, represented by the Majang language; the Southwestern, including Baale,

  • Surma River (river, Asia)

    Surma River, river in northeastern India and eastern Bangladesh, 560 miles (900 km) in length. It rises in the Manipur Hills in northern Manipur state, India, where it is called the Barak, and flows west and then southwest into Mizoram state. There it veers north into Assam state and flows west

  • Surmic languages

    Surmic languages, group of languages that are spoken in southwestern Ethiopia and neighbouring zones of South Sudan and that form part of the Nilo-Saharan language family. The three branches of Surmic languages are the Northern, represented by the Majang language; the Southwestern, including Baale,

  • surmullet (fish)

    Goatfish, any of more than 60 species of elongated marine fishes of the family Mullidae (order Perciformes). Goatfishes are characterized by two well-separated dorsal fins and by a pair of long, sensory chin barbels. The barbels are used to find the small, bottom-living invertebrates on which the

  • surna (musical instrument)

    shehnai: …a descendent of the Persian surna and is played on auspicious occasions, such as weddings and temple festivities. Bismillah Khan, who introduced the shehnai to the concert stage, is one of the best-known performers on this instrument.

  • surname

    Surname, name added to a “given” name, in many cases inherited and held in common by members of a family. Originally, many surnames identified a person by his connection with another person, usually his father (Johnson, MacDonald); others gave his residence (Orleans, York, Atwood [i.e., living at

  • Surname-i Vehbi (work by Vehbi)

    Islamic arts: Other arts: …the latter is the manuscript Surname-i Vehbi painted by Abdülcelil Levn? in the early 18th century.

  • surnāy (musical instrument)

    shehnai: …a descendent of the Persian surna and is played on auspicious occasions, such as weddings and temple festivities. Bismillah Khan, who introduced the shehnai to the concert stage, is one of the best-known performers on this instrument.

  • S?rnena Mountains (mountains, Bulgaria)

    Sredna Mountains: …Stryama River valley is the S?rnena (“Deer”) Range, which rises to its highest point of 4,054 feet (1,236 m) at the summit of Bratan (formerly Morozov), then dwindles eastward to the confluence of the Tundzha and Mochuritsa rivers. This section extends 85 miles (137 km) east-west.

  • Surnia ulula (bird)

    hawk owl: The northern hawk owl (Surnia ulula) is approximately 40 cm (about 16 inches) long. Its tail is long, and its wings are short and pointed like those of a hawk. The facial disk of the northern hawk owl does not extend above the eyes, and it…

  • Surowy jedwab (poetry by Paw?ikowska-Jasnorzewska)

    Maria Pawlikowska-Jasnorzewska: …poetry—including Poca?unki (1926; “Kisses”) and Surowy jedwab (1932; “Raw Silk”)—in which she dealt with such subject matter as the loves, the disenchantments, and the carefree life of a sophisticated modern woman.

  • surplice (religious dress)

    Surplice, white outer vestment worn by clergymen, acolytes, choristers, or other participants in Roman Catholic and in Anglican, Lutheran, and other Protestant religious services. It is a loose garment, usually with full sleeves. Originally the surplice was full length, but gradually it was

  • surplus (economics)

    economic system: Centralized states: …on tradition, can generate immense surpluses of wealth—indeed, the very purpose of a command organization of economic life can be said to lie in securing such a surplus. Command systems thereby acquire the wherewithal to change the conditions of material existence in far-reaching ways. Prior to the modern era, when…

  • surplus value (economics)

    Surplus value, Marxian economic concept that professed to explain the instability of the capitalist system. Adhering to David Ricardo’s labour theory of value, Karl Marx held that human labour was the source of economic value. The capitalist pays his workers less than the value their labour has

  • surprise (emotion)

    human behaviour: Emotional development: …that implies the emotion of surprise. A second behavioral profile, expressed by increased movement, closing of the eyes, an increase in heart rate, and crying, usually arises in response to hunger or discomfort and is a distress response to physical privation. A third set of reactions includes decreased muscle tone…

  • Surprise (album by Simon [2006])

    Paul Simon: Later work and assessment: music legend Brian Eno for Surprise (2006). In addition to cowriting three of the songs on Surprise, Eno was credited with creating the album’s “sonic landscape”—a rich layering of electronic instrumentation and rhythms that complemented Simon’s lyrics. Simon followed with So Beautiful or So What (2011), an album that was…

  • Surprise Attack Study (United States [1954])

    20th-century international relations: Arms control and defense: In 1954 a high-level “Surprise Attack Study” chaired by the scientist James Killian assured the President of a growing American superiority in nuclear weapons that would hold until the 1958–60 period but warned that the U.S.S.R. was ahead in long-range rocketry and would soon achieve its own secure nuclear…

  • Surprise de l’amour, La (play by Marivaux)

    French literature: Marivaux and Beaumarchais: La Surprise de l’amour, a title Marivaux used twice (1722, 1727), becomes a regular motif, the interest of each play resting in the precise and delicate changes of attitude and circumstance rung by the dramatist and the sharp, witty discourse in which his characters’ exchanges…

  • Surprise Lake (lake, Alaska, United States)

    Aniakchak National Monument and Preserve: …cones, and, at its bottom, Surprise Lake. A 1,500-foot (450-metre) rift in the crater wall allows the lake’s water to drain, the flow forming the Aniakchak River. Access to the area is by float plane; raft trips also are made on the Aniakchak, which is designated a national wild river.

  • Surprise Symphony (work by Haydn)

    Surprise Symphony, orchestral work by Austrian composer Joseph Haydn, so named for the “surprise”—a startlingly loud chord—that interrupts the otherwise soft and gentle flow of the second movement. The distinctive feature did not appear in the original score. Rather, it was added by the composer on

  • surprise-generating mechanism (science)

    complexity: Surprise-generating mechanisms: The vast majority of counterintuitive behaviours shown by complex systems are attributable to some combination of the following five sources: paradox/self-reference, instability, uncomputability, connectivity, and emergence. With some justification, these sources of complexity can be thought of as surprise-generating mechanisms, whose quite different…

  • Surprised by Sin: The Reader in Paradise Lost (work by Fish)

    Stanley Fish: In Surprised by Sin: The Reader in “Paradise Lost” (1967), Fish suggested that the subject of John Milton’s masterpiece is in fact the reader, who is forced to undergo spiritual self-examination when led by Milton down the path taken by Adam and Eve and Satan. In…

  • Surquillo (city and district, Peru)

    Surquillo, city, southern Lima-Callao metropolitan area, Peru. Surquillo is primarily a lower- and middle-income residential area, but there are also scattered retail and service establishments. It is situated about 6 miles (10 km) from central Lima and just north and east of Miraflores. Pop.

  • surra (animal disease)

    dipteran: Importance: Surra, a disease of horses and camels in the Middle East and parts of Asia, is caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma evansi and is transmitted by horse flies. Trypanosomes, transmitted by tsetse flies, cause sleeping sickness in humans and nagana in animals throughout tropical Africa.…

  • surra (kinship)

    Sudan: Family and kinship patterns: …of the smallest lineage (surra), together with their dependents, formed a single camp. The organization of a surra depended on the number of cattle and the distribution of their ownership among the surra’s members. Each surra had a leader who was wealthy but who had no administrative functions unless…

  • Surratt, John H. (American conspirator)

    assassination of Abraham Lincoln: Another conspirator, John Surratt, Jr., fled the country but was later captured and stood trial in 1867, though his case was dismissed.

  • Surratt, Mary (American businesswoman)

    Mary Surratt, American boardinghouse operator, who, with three others, was convicted of conspiracy to assassinate President Abraham Lincoln. At age 17 Mary Jenkins married John Harrison Surratt, a land owner. Following a fire that destroyed their home, the couple in 1852 opened a tavern that also

  • Surratt, Mary Elizabeth (American businesswoman)

    Mary Surratt, American boardinghouse operator, who, with three others, was convicted of conspiracy to assassinate President Abraham Lincoln. At age 17 Mary Jenkins married John Harrison Surratt, a land owner. Following a fire that destroyed their home, the couple in 1852 opened a tavern that also

  • Surrealism (art and literature)

    Surrealism, movement in visual art and literature, flourishing in Europe between World Wars I and II. Surrealism grew principally out of the earlier Dada movement, which before World War I produced works of anti-art that deliberately defied reason; but Surrealism’s emphasis was not on negation but

  • Surrealistic Pillow (album by the Jefferson Airplane)

    the Jefferson Airplane: Their second album, Surrealistic Pillow (1967), produced two Top Ten singles, “White Rabbit” and “Somebody to Love,” both cowritten by Slick for her previous band, the Great Society, and drew hordes of fans to San Francisco’s Summer of Love pageantry. The city’s Haight-Ashbury neighbourhood had become the centre…

  • Surrender (album by the Chemical Brothers)

    the Chemical Brothers: …fresh path, the Chemical Brothers’ Surrender (1999) alternated between a gentler, house-influenced sound and further forays into rhapsodic psychedelia. “Before, our music was about a disorienting, punishing kind of joy,” Rowlands declared. “Surrender is a nicer way of achieving that—lifting you up instead of blasting you out of a cannon.”…

  • Surrender of Breda, The (painting by Velázquez)

    Diego Velázquez: Middle years: The Surrender of Breda (c. 1635), Velázquez’s famous contribution to the series of military triumphs painted for the same throne room, is his only surviving historical subject. Though the elaborate composition was based on a pictorial formula of Rubens, he creates a vivid impression of…

  • Surrentum (Italy)

    Sorrento, town and archiepiscopal see, Campania regione, southern Italy. It lies on a peninsula separating the Bay of Naples, which it faces, from the Gulf of Salerno, south-southeast of Naples. The backbone of the peninsula is formed by the Lattari Mountains, which culminate in Mount Sant’Angelo

  • Surrey (county, England, United Kingdom)

    Surrey, administrative and historic county of southeastern England. It is situated just southwest of London, adjoining the River Thames. Surrey is bordered to the northwest by Berkshire, to the northeast by the Greater London conurbation, to the east by Kent, to the south by Sussex, and to the west

  • Surrey (embroidery)

    Berlin woolwork: …raised or clipped stitch called Surrey was employed that created a thick wool pile and enhanced the colour and shading of floral designs. Coloured glass beads were also introduced to accent the floral and scenic patterns.

  • surrey (carriage)

    Surrey, popular American doorless, four-wheeled carriage of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Usually two-seated (for four passengers), surreys had a variety of tops, ranging from the rigid, fringed canopy-top, popularized in the Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein song “The Surrey with

  • Surrey Heath (district, England, United Kingdom)

    Surrey Heath, borough (district) in the northwestern part of the administrative and historic county of Surrey, southeastern England. The borough owes its name to its natural vegetation. The sands and gravels that underlie the area yield an acidic infertile soil supporting rough heathland, scrub,

  • Surrey Iron Railway (British railway system)

    Surrey: The Surrey Iron Railway from Wandsworth to Merstham, worked by horses, was the first public railway sanctioned by the British Parliament (1801). During the 19th century Surrey acquired the densest network of suburban railways anywhere in the world, originating at seven terminal stations in London and…

  • Surrey, Henry Howard, Earl of (English poet)

    Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey, poet who, with Sir Thomas Wyatt (1503–42), introduced into England the styles and metres of the Italian humanist poets and so laid the foundation of a great age of English poetry. The eldest son of Lord Thomas Howard, Henry took the courtesy title of Earl of Surrey in

  • Surrey, John de Warenne, 6th earl of (English noble)

    John de Warenne, 6th earl of Surrey, eminent English lord during the reigns of Henry III and Edward I of England. John de Warenne was son and heir of the 5th earl, William de Warenne, and succeeded upon his father’s death in 1240. (He and his family claimed the earldom of Sussex but never held it

  • Surrey, John de Warenne, 7th earl of (English noble)

    John de Warenne, 7th earl of Surrey, prominent supporter of Edward II of England, grandson of the 6th earl of Surrey. Warenne opposed Edward II’s favourite, Piers Gaveston, but nevertheless supported the king against the Lords Ordainer, a baronial committee seeking to restrict the king’s powers of

  • Surrey, Philip Howard, earl of (English noble)

    Philip Howard, 1st (or 13th) earl of Arundel, first earl of Arundel of the Howard line, found guilty of Roman Catholic conspiracies against Elizabeth I of England. Philip was the eldest son of Thomas Howard, 4th duke of Norfolk, executed for high treason in 1572, and of Lady Mary, daughter and

  • Surrey, Richard Fitzalan, 10th Earl of (English noble)

    Richard Fitzalan, 4th earl of Arundel, one of the chief opponents of Richard II. He began as a member of the royal council during the minority of Richard II and about 1381 was made one of the young king’s governors. About 1385 he joined the baronial party led by the King’s uncle, Thomas of

  • Surrey, Thomas Fitzalan, 11th Earl of (English noble)

    Thomas Fitzalan Arundel, 11th earl of Surrey, only surviving son of Richard Fitzalan, the 4th earl, and a champion of Henry IV and Henry V of England. King Richard II made him a ward of John Holland, duke of Exeter, from whose keeping he escaped about 1398 and joined his uncle, Archbishop Thomas

  • Surrey, Thomas Holland, Duke of, 3rd Earl of Kent (English noble)

    Thomas Holland, duke of Surrey, prominent English noble in the reign of Richard II. Son of Thomas Holland, 2nd Earl of Kent (1350–97), he aided in the arrest and destruction of Richard II’s enemies and was awarded with the dukedom of Surrey in 1397. In 1398 he was created marshal of England and

  • Surrey, Thomas Howard, Earl of (English noble [1473-1554])

    Thomas Howard, 3rd duke of Norfolk, powerful English noble who held a variety of high offices under King Henry VIII. Although he was valuable to the king as a military commander, he failed in his aspiration to become the chief minister of the realm. Howard was the brother-in-law of King Henry VII

  • Surrey, Thomas Howard, Earl of (English noble)

    Thomas Howard, 2nd earl of Arundel, English noble prominent during the reigns of James I and Charles I and noted for his art collections of marbles and manuscripts. The son of Philip Howard, the first earl of the Howard line, he was educated at Westminster School and at Trinity College, Cambridge.

  • Surrey, Thomas Howard, Earl of (English noble [1443-1524])

    Thomas Howard, 2nd duke of Norfolk, noble prominent during the reigns of Henry VII and Henry VIII of England. Son of the 1st Duke of Norfolk, Thomas Howard early shared his father’s fortunes; he fought at Barnet for Edward IV and was made steward of the royal household and created Earl of Surrey in

  • Surrey, Thomas Howard, Earl of (English noble [1538-1572])

    Thomas Howard, 4th duke of Norfolk, English nobleman executed for his intrigues against Queen Elizabeth I on behalf of Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots, a Roman Catholic claimant to the English throne. He was the son of Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey, who was put to death for alleged treasonable

  • Surriage, Agnes (American colonial figure)

    Agnes Surriage, Lady Frankland, American colonial figure whose romantic ascent from humble beginnings to British nobility made her the subject of many fictional accounts. Agnes Surriage went to work as a maid in a local tavern at an early age. A pretty and charming girl, barefoot and in tattered

  • surrogate motherhood

    Surrogate motherhood, practice in which a woman (the surrogate mother) bears a child for a couple unable to produce children in the usual way, usually because the wife is infertile or otherwise unable to undergo pregnancy. In so-called traditional surrogacy, the surrogate mother is impregnated

  • surround inhibition (physiology)

    human nervous system: Receptors: …achieved by what is called surround inhibition. In the retina, for example, there is an inhibitory area around the excited area. This mechanism accentuates the excited area. Surround excitation, on the other hand, is characterized by an excitatory area around an inhibitory area. In both cases contrast is enhanced and…

  • surrounding net (fishing)

    commercial fishing: Gear: …(9) seining, (10) fishing with surrounding nets, (11) driving fish into nets, (12) fishing with lift nets, (13) fishing with falling gear, (14) gillnetting, (15) fishing with entangling nets, and (16) harvesting with machines.

  • Sūrsāgar (Hindi literature)

    A??chāp: …collection of poetry called the Sūrsāgar, a work that is admired throughout the Hindi-speaking areas of northern India. It is particularly rich in its details of daily life and in its sensitive perception of human emotion, the parent’s for the child and the maiden’s for her lover. Other members of…

  • Surselvan (Swiss dialect)

    Rhaetian dialects: …of which are two dialects, Sursilvan and Sutsilvan, that constitute the main dialects of the Romansh language. Other Rhaetian dialects are Engadine, Ladin, and Friulian.

  • Sursilvan (Swiss dialect)

    Rhaetian dialects: …of which are two dialects, Sursilvan and Sutsilvan, that constitute the main dialects of the Romansh language. Other Rhaetian dialects are Engadine, Ladin, and Friulian.

  • Súrsson, Gísli (Icelandic poet)

    Gísla saga: …tells of an outlaw poet, Gísli Súrsson (d. c. ad 980), who was punished by his enemies for loyally avenging his foster brother. It includes rich descriptions of nature and is said to contain many verses composed by Gísli himself. The best English translation, by G. Johnstone, was published in…

  • Surt (Norse mythology)

    Muspelheim: …in the south, guarded by Surt, the fire giant. In the beginning, according to one tradition, the warm air from this region melted the ice of the opposite region, Niflheim, thus giving form to Aurgelmir (Ymir), the father of the evil giants. Sparks from Muspelheim became the Sun, Moon, and…

  • Surt (Libya)

    Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant: ISIL outside of Iraq and Syria: By mid-2015 ISIL had captured Surt, a strategic city linking the eastern and western halves of Libya. Surt was recaptured by Libyan forces in December 2016.

  • Surt, Khalij (gulf, Libya)

    Gulf of Sidra, arm of the Mediterranean Sea, indenting the Libyan coast of northern Africa. It extends eastward for 275 mi (443 km) from Mi?rātah to Banghāzī. A highway links scattered oases along its shore, which is chiefly desert, with salt marshes. In August the gulf’s water temperature reaches

  • Surtees, John (British motorsport racer)

    John Surtees, British motorsport racer who was the only competitor to have won world championships while racing motorcycles and automobiles, with seven motorcycle-racing world championships in two classes (1956–60) and one Formula One drivers’ championship (1964). Surtees’s parents owned a

  • Surtees, Robert (American cinematographer)
  • Surtees, Robert L. (American cinematographer)
  • Surtees, Robert Smith (British writer)

    Robert Smith Surtees, English novelist of the chase and the creator of Mr. Jorrocks, one of the great comic characters of English literature, a Cockney grocer who is as blunt as John Bull and entirely given over to fox hunting. A younger son, Surtees worked as a lawyer until he inherited his

  • Surts Island (island, Iceland)

    Surtsey, (Icelandic: “Surts Island”) volcanic island off the southern coast of Iceland, southwest of the Vestmanna Islands (Vestmannaeyjar). It emerged from the Atlantic Ocean in a fiery eruption in November 1963. During the next three and one-half years its volcanic core built up an island 1

  • Surtsey (island, Iceland)

    Surtsey, (Icelandic: “Surts Island”) volcanic island off the southern coast of Iceland, southwest of the Vestmanna Islands (Vestmannaeyjar). It emerged from the Atlantic Ocean in a fiery eruption in November 1963. During the next three and one-half years its volcanic core built up an island 1

  • Surtur (Icelandic mythology)

    Surtsey: …the government of Iceland for Surtur, the fire god of Icelandic mythology.

  • surubí (fish)

    Río de la Plata: Animal life: …that resembles a salmon), the surubí (a fish with a long rounded body, flattened at the nose), the patí (a large, scaleless river fish that frequents deep and muddy waters), the pacu (a large river fish with a flat body, almost as high as it is long), the pejerrey (a…

  • Surud Ad, Mount (mountain, Somalia)

    Galgodon Highlands: …rise to Somalia’s highest point, Surud Cad, which has an elevation of 7,900 feet (2,408 m). Consisting of old volcanic lava, the region is deeply dissected by a series of shallow, dry riverbeds and narrow, steep valleys. Passes, including the Shiikh and Karinduusha, divide the highlands into separate mountain peaks…

  • Surud Cad, Mount (mountain, Somalia)

    Galgodon Highlands: …rise to Somalia’s highest point, Surud Cad, which has an elevation of 7,900 feet (2,408 m). Consisting of old volcanic lava, the region is deeply dissected by a series of shallow, dry riverbeds and narrow, steep valleys. Passes, including the Shiikh and Karinduusha, divide the highlands into separate mountain peaks…

  • Surus (Hannibal’s elephant)

    elephant: Importance to humans: …Asian, Hannibal’s personal elephant named Surus (meaning “Syrian”), was the only one that survived to reach Italy.

  • Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program (United States program)

    cancer: Statistical records: …survival, and mortality is the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program, sponsored by the U.S. National Cancer Institute. SEER was established in 1973 in order to facilitate the collection and publication of data from population-based cancer registries in the United States. The figures are updated every year and are…

  • Surveiller et punir: naissance de la prison (work by Foucault)

    Michel Foucault: Education and career: …naissance de la prison (1975; Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison), a monograph on the emergence of the modern prison; three volumes of a history of Western sexuality; and numerous essays. Foucault continued to travel widely, and as his reputation grew he spent extended periods in Brazil, Japan,…

  • Survenant, Le (work by Guèvremont)

    Canadian literature: World War II and the postwar period, 1935–60: …translated and published together as The Outlander), continued to examine rural society, though with greater detachment. One of the most prolific novelists, Yves Thériault, found new subjects among Quebec’s native peoples in Agaguk (1958; Eng. trans. Agaguk) and Ashini (1960; Eng. trans. Ashini).

  • survey

    anthropology: Archaeology: These include archaeological survey (reconnaissance), excavation, and detailed analysis of recovered artifacts. Survey, or the discovery and recording of archaeological sites or other human-created features, such as roads and irrigation systems, is usually the first phase of archaeological research. Archaeological survey often employs aerial photographs and satellite…

  • survey (data accumulation)

    statistics: Sample survey methods: As noted above in the section Estimation, statistical inference is the process of using data from a sample to make estimates or test hypotheses about a population. The field of sample survey methods is concerned with effective ways of obtaining sample data.…

  • Survey of London, A (work by Stow)

    John Stow: …antiquaries, author of the famous A Survey of London (1598; revised and enlarged, 1603).

  • Survey of Modern Algebra, A (work by Mac Lane and Birkhoff)

    algebra: The structural approach dominates: Prominent among these was A Survey of Modern Algebra (1941) by Saunders Mac Lane and Garret Birkhoff, a book that was fundamental for the next several generations of mathematicians in the United States. Nevertheless, it must be stressed that not all algebraists felt, at least initially, that the new…

  • survey township (United States governmental unit)

    township: …to distinguish it from the congressional, or survey, township of six miles by six miles, which is not a unit of government.

  • surveying (civil engineering)

    Surveying, a means of making relatively large-scale, accurate measurements of the Earth’s surfaces. It includes the determination of the measurement data, the reduction and interpretation of the data to usable form, and, conversely, the establishment of relative position and size according to given

  • Surveyor (space probe)

    Surveyor, any of a series of seven unmanned U.S. space probes sent to the Moon between 1966 and 1968 to photograph and study the lunar surface. Surveyor 1 (launched May 30, 1966), carrying a scanning television camera and special sensors, landed on the Moon on June 2, 1966, and transmitted 11,150

  • surveyor’s chain (instrument)

    Surveyor’s chain, measuring device and arbitrary measurement unit still widely used for surveying in English-speaking countries. Invented by the English mathematician Edmund Gunter in the early 17th century, Gunter’s chain is exactly 22 yards (about 20 m) long and divided into 100 links. In the

  • surveyor’s chain (unit of length)

    Chain, in surveying, a unit of length. See surveyor’s

  • surveyor’s level (instrument)

    Surveyor’s level, instrument used in surveying to measure the height of distant points in relation to a bench mark (a point for which the height above sea level is accurately known). It consists of a telescope fitted with a spirit level and, generally, mounted on a tripod. It is used in

  • survival

    Scientology: Hubbard’s early life and beliefs: …principle of human existence is survival. Even before the publication of Dianetics, Hubbard wrote, “I suddenly realized that survival was the pin on which you could hang the rest of this with adequate and ample proof…[and] that life, all life, is trying to survive.” Actions that support survival are good…

  • survival analysis (statistics)

    Sir David Cox: The statistical field of survival analysis is concerned with the interval of time that passes until a particular event, such as a mechanical failure or the death of a patient, takes place. The rate at which the failure happens or the patient dies is known as the hazard function.…

  • Survival in Auschwitz (work by Levi)

    Primo Levi: …questo è un uomo (1947; If This Is a Man, or Survival in Auschwitz), demonstrated extraordinary qualities of humanity and detachment in its analysis of the atrocities he had witnessed. His later autobiographical works, La tregua (1963; The Truce, or The Reawakening) and I sommersi e i salvati (1986; The…

  • Survival of the Dead (film by Romero [2009])

    George A. Romero: …of the Dead (2007), and Survival of the Dead (2009). The Dead series was rife with social commentary, with allusions to the Cold War, consumerism, and class conflict. In addition to zombies, Romero’s films have explored other horror movie staples, including witchcraft in Hungry Wives (1972; rereleased as Season of…

  • survival of the fitter (biology)

    survival of the fittest: Use in evolutionary theory: …fittest; he regarded it as survival of the fitter, because the “struggle for existence” (a term he took from English economist and demographer Thomas Malthus) is relative and thus not absolute. Instead, the winners with respect to species within ecosystems could become losers with a change of circumstances. For example,…

  • survival of the fittest (biology)

    Survival of the fittest, term made famous in the fifth edition (published in 1869) of On the Origin of Species by British naturalist Charles Darwin, which suggested that organisms best adjusted to their environment are the most successful in surviving and reproducing. Darwin borrowed the term from

  • survival training

    Survival training, teaching people to survive in the wilderness, using essentially Stone Age skills. Such techniques include building shelters from available materials, making fire without matches, locating water, identifying edible plants, manufacturing tools, hunting and trapping animals with

  • survivalism

    militia movement: …of people were attracted to survivalism, a movement that advocated a retreat to self-sufficient and well-armed rural settlements in anticipation of a general breakdown of society. Survivalists often warned of the imminent collapse of the United States as a result of nuclear attack.

  • survivals (anthropology)

    Survivals, in anthropology, cultural phenomena that outlive the set of conditions under which they developed. The term was first employed by the British anthropologist Edward Burnett Tylor in his Primitive Culture (1871). Tylor believed that seemingly irrational customs and beliefs, such as peasant

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