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  • Svea dialects (linguistics)

    Swedish language: …century, formed principally on the Svea dialects spoken in Stockholm and around Lake M?lar but with some features from the G?ta dialects. It spread at the expense of Danish by the conquest of southern and western provinces in the 17th century. After Sweden ceded Finland to Russia in 1809, the…

  • Sveaborg (fort, Finland)

    Helsinki: …secure when a fortress, called Sveaborg by the Swedes and Suomenlinna by the Finns, was constructed on a group of small islands outside the harbour.

  • Svealand (region, Sweden)

    Svealand, region, central Sweden, encompassing the landskaper (provinces) of Uppland, S?dermanland, V?stmanland, N?rke, V?rmland, and Dalarna (qq.v.). Svealand is the smallest of Sweden’s three regions and lies between the regions of G?taland on the south and Norrland on the north. From the Baltic

  • Svear (people)

    Sweden: …derived from the Svear, or Suiones, a people mentioned as early as 98 ce by the Roman author Tacitus. The country’s ancient name was Svithiod. Stockholm has been the permanent capital since 1523.

  • Svecofennian Orogen (geology)

    Europe: Precambrian: …belt in the north, the Svecofennian, developed in the Early Proterozoic Era (2.5 to 1.6 billion years ago); it now occupies the bulk of the Baltic Shield, especially in Finland and Sweden, where it extends from the Kola Peninsula to the Gulf of Finland near Helsinki. The younger Sveconorwegian is…

  • Sveconorwegian Orogen (geology)

    Europe: Precambrian: The younger Sveconorwegian is a north–south-trending orogenic belt that developed between 1.2 billion and 850 million years ago. It occupies southern Norway and the adjacent area of southwestern Sweden between Oslo (Norway) and Gothenburg (Sweden). On its northern side it has been reactivated almost beyond recognition within…

  • Sveda, Michael (American chemist)

    Michael Sveda, American chemist who in 1937 invented cyclamates, a noncaloric artificial sweetener that was widely used in diet soft drinks and desserts before being banned by the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare as a possible carcinogen in 1969 (b. Feb. 3, 1912, West Ashford, Conn.—d.

  • Svedberg, Emanuel (Swedish philosopher)

    Emanuel Swedenborg, Swedish scientist, Christian mystic, philosopher, and theologian who wrote voluminously in interpreting the Scriptures as the immediate word of God. Soon after his death, devoted followers created Swedenborgian societies dedicated to the study of his thought. These societies

  • Svedberg, The (Swedish chemist)

    Theodor H.E. Svedberg, Swedish chemist who won the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1926 for his studies in the chemistry of colloids and for his invention of the ultracentrifuge, an invaluable aid in those and subsequent studies. After receiving his doctorate from the University of Uppsala in 1907,

  • Svedberg, Theodor H.E. (Swedish chemist)

    Theodor H.E. Svedberg, Swedish chemist who won the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1926 for his studies in the chemistry of colloids and for his invention of the ultracentrifuge, an invaluable aid in those and subsequent studies. After receiving his doctorate from the University of Uppsala in 1907,

  • Svéd?v st?l (cave, Czech Republic)

    Brno: …in a nearby cave called ?véd?v St?l (“Swedish Table”), and a camping ground of the Cro-Magnon mammoth hunters (30,000 bce) was discovered at Dolní Věstonice, on the edge of the Pavlov Hills, 20 miles (30 km) south. Also in the locality are traces of Celts and other tribes and many…

  • ?vehla, Antonín (Czech politician)

    Czechoslovak history: The establishment of the republic: …II; from its ranks came Antonín ?vehla (prime minister, 1921–29) and his successors.

  • Svein Estridsson (king of Denmark)

    Sweyn II Estridsen, king of Denmark (1047–74) who ended a short period of Norwegian domination (1042–47). The son of Ulf, a Danish earl, and Estrid, a sister of Canute I the Great, Sweyn fled to Sweden after his father was murdered in 1027 on orders of Canute. After the death of Canute (1035), when

  • Svein Tjugeskjegg (king of Denmark and England)

    Sweyn I, king of Denmark (c. 987–1014), a leading Viking warrior and the father of Canute I the Great, king of Denmark and England. Sweyn formed an imposing Danish North Sea empire, establishing control in Norway in 1000 and conquering England in 1013, shortly before his death. The son of the

  • Sveinsson, Brynjólfur (Icelandic bishop)

    Codex Regius: …into the possession of Bishop Brynjólfur Sveinsson, the book was missing 8 pages and consisted of just 45 pages. (Some of the lost poems were preserved in prose form in the V?lsunga saga.) Sveinsson incorrectly attributed the work to S?mundr the Learned and erroneously named it S?mundar Edda, a name…

  • Svend Dyrings huus (work by Hertz)

    Henrik Hertz: …who aids his bankrupt family; Svend Dyrings huus (1837; “Sven Dyring’s House”), about the woman protagonist’s failed battle to express her eroticism in a repressive society; and Kong Renés datter (1845; King René’s Daughter), based on Proven?al folklore. He was also a prolific writer of many kinds of verse. Unfortunately…

  • Svend Estridsen (king of Denmark)

    Sweyn II Estridsen, king of Denmark (1047–74) who ended a short period of Norwegian domination (1042–47). The son of Ulf, a Danish earl, and Estrid, a sister of Canute I the Great, Sweyn fled to Sweden after his father was murdered in 1027 on orders of Canute. After the death of Canute (1035), when

  • Svend Tveskaeg (king of Denmark and England)

    Sweyn I, king of Denmark (c. 987–1014), a leading Viking warrior and the father of Canute I the Great, king of Denmark and England. Sweyn formed an imposing Danish North Sea empire, establishing control in Norway in 1000 and conquering England in 1013, shortly before his death. The son of the

  • Svendborg (Denmark)

    Svendborg, city, southern Funen island, Denmark, on Svendborg Sound. Chartered in 1253, it was often plundered in the Middle Ages because of its easily accessible coastal location, and it suffered in the religious wars of the 16th and 17th centuries. The 13th-century Romanesque-style Church of

  • Svengali (fictional character)

    Svengali, fictional character, the villain of the romantic novel Trilby (1894) by George du Maurier. The name Svengali became synonymous with an authority figure or mentor who exerts undue, usually evil influence over another

  • Svengali (film by Mayo [1931])

    Archie Mayo: Films of the 1930s: …compels her to wed, while Svengali (1931) was a weak adaptation of George du Maurier’s novel Trilby, despite an effective performance by John Barrymore in the title role. Mayo then made Bought! (1931), a drama starring Constance Bennett—then Hollywood’s highest-paid actress—as a woman who aspires to be wealthy until discovering…

  • Svensk

    Swedish language, the official language of Sweden and, with Finnish, one of the two national languages of Finland. Swedish belongs to the East Scandinavian group of North Germanic languages. Until World War II, it was also spoken in parts of Estonia and Latvia. Swedish was spoken by about eight

  • Svensk Filmindustri (Swedish film studio)

    Svensk Filmindustri, (Swedish: “Swedish Film Industry”) oldest and one of the most important Swedish motion-picture studios, as well as a major film distributor and exhibitor. Formed in 1919 by the merger of Svenska Biografteatern and Filmindustribolaget Skandia, Svensk Filmindustri initially

  • Svenska Aeroplan Aktiebolaget (Swedish firm)

    Saab AB, Swedish high-technology company involved in defense, aviation, and aerospace. Its products include airplanes, missiles, electronics, and computers. Saab’s headquarters are in Link?ping, Sweden. Saab was incorporated in 1937 as Svenska Aeroplan Aktiebolaget. The company was engaged

  • Svenska Dagbladet (Swedish newspaper)

    Svenska Dagbladet, (Swedish: “Swedish Daily Paper”) morning daily newspaper published in Stockholm, one of the most influential papers in Sweden and one that was editorially aligned with the centre-right Moderate Party. Founded in 1884, Svenska Dagbladet was operated from 1940 to 1973 under the

  • Svenska Kyrkan (Swedish Lutheran denomination)

    Church of Sweden, church of Sweden that, until 2000, was supported by the state; it changed from the Roman Catholic to the Lutheran faith during the 16th-century Protestant Reformation. During the 9th century the Swedish people had gradually begun to accept Christianity. The first Christian

  • Svenska siare och skalder (work by Atterbom)

    Per Daniel Amadeus Atterbom: … (1814; “The Blue Bird”); and Svenska siare och skalder (1841–55; “Swedish Prophets and Poets”), a book that earned Atterbom the rank of Sweden’s first great literary historian. In this six-volume work, distinguished for its style and erudition, Atterbom shows an appreciation for the writings he had recklessly attacked in his…

  • Svensson, Esbj?rn (Swedish musician)

    Esbj?rn Svensson, Swedish jazz pianist (born April 16, 1964, V?steras, Swed.—died June 14, 2008, off the coast near Stockholm, Swed.), led the jazz group the Esbj?rn Svensson Trio (better known as e.s.t.) and was twice voted Swedish Jazz Musician of the Year (1995 and 1996). As a child Svensson

  • Svensson, Gloria May Josephine (American actress)

    Gloria Swanson, American motion-picture, stage, and television actress who was known primarily as a glamorous Hollywood star during the 1920s and as the fading movie queen Norma Desmond in the 1950 film Sunset Boulevard. Swanson was the only child of a civilian official of the U.S. Army transport

  • Svensson, M?rta Birgit (Swedish singer)

    Birgit Nilsson, Swedish operatic soprano, celebrated as a Wagnerian interpreter and known for her powerful, rich voice. On the advice of a local choirmaster, she went to study with Joseph Hislop in Stockholm, where she joined the Royal Opera and made her debut in 1946 as Agathe in Carl Maria von

  • Sverák, Jan (Czech director, actor, writer, and producer)
  • Sverdlov, Yakov Mikhaylovich (Soviet statesman)

    Yakov Mikhaylovich Sverdlov, Soviet Communist Party leader and government official. His organizational skills and mastery of personnel made him a key figure in the Bolshevik Party in 1917–18. The son of a Jewish engraver, Sverdlov became involved in politics while a teenager and joined the Russian

  • Sverdlovsk (Ukraine)

    Sverdlovsk, city, eastern Ukraine, in the Donets Basin. Sverdlovsk, named for the Bolshevik leader Yakov Mikhaylovich Sverdlov, is a coal-mining centre historically important for the production of anthracite. Other economic activities have included panel manufacturing and food processing. To the

  • Sverdlovsk (Russia)

    Yekaterinburg, city and administrative centre of Sverdlovsk oblast (region), west-central Russia. The city lies along the Iset River, which is a tributary of the Tobol River, and on the eastern slope of the Ural Mountains, slightly east of the border between Europe and Asia. Yekaterinburg is

  • Sverdlovsk (oblast, Russia)

    Sverdlovsk, oblast (region), west-central Russia. The oblast occupies an area along the eastern slopes of the Ural Mountains, stretching from the crestline, which reaches 5,148 feet (1,569 m) in Mount Konzhakovsky Kamen, to the West Siberian Plain. Almost the entire oblast is in swampy forest, or

  • Sverdrup Basin (geological feature, Canada)

    Triassic Period: Marine deposits: …Triassic sediments accumulated in the Sverdrup Basin of Arctic Canada. The Tethys Sea, a deep, narrow arm of Panthalassa stretching along an east-west belt separating what is now Africa from southern Europe, also received basinal deposits.

  • Sverdrup Islands (archipelago, Canada)

    Sverdrup Islands, archipelago in Franklin district, Northwest Territories, part of the Queen Elizabeth Islands, Canada, in the Arctic Ocean, west of Ellesmere Island. Named for Otto Sverdrup (1885–1930), the Norwegian Arctic explorer, the major islands are Axel Heiberg Island, Amund Ringnes,

  • Sverdrup transport (hydrology)

    Ekman layer: …Ekman transport is called the Sverdrup transport, after the Norwegian oceanographer H.U. Sverdrup, who formulated the basic theory in 1947. Several years later (1950), the American geophysicist and oceanographer Walter H. Munk and others expanded Sverdrup’s work, explaining many of the major features of the wind-driven general circulation by using…

  • Sverdrup, Harald Ulrik (Norwegian oceanographer)

    Harold Ulrik Sverdrup, Norwegian meteorologist and oceanographer known for his studies of the physics, chemistry, and biology of the oceans. He explained the equatorial countercurrents and helped develop the method of predicting surf and breakers. A unit of water flow in the oceans was named after

  • Sverdrup, Harold Ulrik (Norwegian oceanographer)

    Harold Ulrik Sverdrup, Norwegian meteorologist and oceanographer known for his studies of the physics, chemistry, and biology of the oceans. He explained the equatorial countercurrents and helped develop the method of predicting surf and breakers. A unit of water flow in the oceans was named after

  • Sverdrup, Johan (prime minister of Norway)

    Johan Sverdrup, Norwegian statesman, prime minister (1884–89) of Norway in the first ministry of the Venstre (Left, or Liberal) Party. His appointment to that post followed his victory in obtaining ministerial representation in the Storting (parliament). Sverdrup was educated as a lawyer and

  • Sverdrup, Otto (Norwegian explorer)

    Arctic: The North American Arctic: …expedition in the Fram under Otto Sverdrup did a tremendous amount of work in south and west Ellesmere Island and north Devon Island and discovered three islands to the west—Axel Heiberg Island and the Ringnes Islands. The last gaps in the outline of Ellesmere Island were filled in by Walter…

  • Sverige

    Sweden, country located on the Scandinavian Peninsula in northern Europe. The name Sweden was derived from the Svear, or Suiones, a people mentioned as early as 98 ce by the Roman author Tacitus. The country’s ancient name was Svithiod. Stockholm has been the permanent capital since 1523. Sweden

  • Sverige, Konungariket

    Sweden, country located on the Scandinavian Peninsula in northern Europe. The name Sweden was derived from the Svear, or Suiones, a people mentioned as early as 98 ce by the Roman author Tacitus. The country’s ancient name was Svithiod. Stockholm has been the permanent capital since 1523. Sweden

  • Sveriges Radio (Swedish broadcasting corporation)

    broadcasting: Partnership of public authorities and private interests: …thus emphasizing the independence of Sveriges Radio from the government. The shares of the corporation must be held by the Swedish press (20 percent), large noncommercial national bodies or movements (60 percent), and commerce and industry (20 percent). The board of governors is made up of a chairman and government…

  • Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel (award)
  • Sveriges Socialdemokratiska Arbetar Partiet (political party, Sweden)

    Swedish Social Democratic Party (SAP), socialist political party in Sweden, the country’s oldest existing political party. From its founding in 1889, the SAP has been committed to the creation of an egalitarian society. It has led Sweden’s government for most of the period since 1932. The SAP

  • Sveriges Socialdemokratiska Arbetarepartiet (political party, Sweden)

    Swedish Social Democratic Party (SAP), socialist political party in Sweden, the country’s oldest existing political party. From its founding in 1889, the SAP has been committed to the creation of an egalitarian society. It has led Sweden’s government for most of the period since 1932. The SAP

  • Sverker (king of Sweden)

    Christianity: Papal mission: …Christian during the reign of Sverker (c. 1130–56). Sweden’s Eric IX controlled Finland and in 1155 required the Finns to be baptized, but only in 1291, with the appointment of Magnus, the first Finnish bishop, was evangelization completed.

  • Sverre Sigurdsson (king of Norway)

    Sverrir Sigurdsson, king of Norway (1177–1202) and one of the best-known figures in medieval Norwegian history. By expanding the power of the monarchy and limiting the privileges of the church, he provoked civil uprisings that were not quelled until 1217. The son of Gunnhild, a Norwegian woman

  • Sverrir (king of Iceland)

    saga: Kings’ sagas: … describes the life of King Sverrir (reigned 1184–1202). The first part was written by Abbot Karl Jónsson under the supervision of the king himself, but it was completed (probably by the abbot) in Iceland after Sverrir’s death. Sturla Tórearson wrote two royal biographies: Hákonar saga on King Haakon Haakonsson (c.…

  • Sverrir Sigurdsson (king of Norway)

    Sverrir Sigurdsson, king of Norway (1177–1202) and one of the best-known figures in medieval Norwegian history. By expanding the power of the monarchy and limiting the privileges of the church, he provoked civil uprisings that were not quelled until 1217. The son of Gunnhild, a Norwegian woman

  • Sverris saga (Icelandic literature)

    saga: Kings’ sagas: Sverris saga describes the life of King Sverrir (reigned 1184–1202). The first part was written by Abbot Karl Jónsson under the supervision of the king himself, but it was completed (probably by the abbot) in Iceland after Sverrir’s death. Sturla Tórearson wrote two royal biographies:…

  • ?vetā?vatara Upanishad (Vedic literature)

    Hinduism: Shaivism: …those circles that produced the Shvetashvatara Upanishad (c. 400 bce), Shiva rose to the highest rank. Its author proposed a way of escape from samsara, proclaiming Shiva the sole eternal Lord. Rudra-Shiva developed into an ambivalent and many-sided lord and master. His many manifestations, however, were active among humankind: as…

  • Sveti Naum (monastery, North Macedonia)

    Ohrid: The 10th-century monastery of Sveti Naum (St. Naum), about 19 miles (31 km) south, crowns a prominent crag on the North Macedonia–Albania frontier and overlooks Lake Ohrid. Pop. (2002) 42,033; (2014 est.) 39,250.

  • Sveti Nikola, Mount (mountain, Hvar Island)

    Hvar: …(626 m) in elevation at Mount Sveti Nikola and is separated from the island of Bra? by a narrow channel. The Mediterranean climate is favourable to the production of various fruits, honey, lavender, rosemary, and wine, as well as to a prosperous tourist industry. Boatbuilding, fishing, and marble quarrying are…

  • Sveti-Tskhoveli, Cathedral of (cathedral, Mtskheta, Georgia)

    Mtskheta: …and architectural interest are the Cathedral of Sveti-Tskhoveli, the traditional burial place for the kings of Georgia, founded in the 4th century and reconstructed in the 15th and 18th centuries; the Samtavro convent; and the Dzhvari Church. Mtskheta’s religious buildings were designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1994. On…

  • Svetlanov, Yevgeny Fyodorovich (Russian musician)

    Yevgeny Fyodorovich Svetlanov, Russian conductor, composer, and pianist (born Sept. 6, 1928, Moscow, U.S.S.R.—died May 3, 2002, Moscow, Russia), as artistic director and principal conductor of his country’s State Symphony Orchestra for 35 years (1965–2000), was renowned for his sensitive i

  • Svevo, Italo (Italian author)

    Italo Svevo, Italian novelist and short-story writer, a pioneer of the psychological novel in Italy. Svevo (whose pseudonym means “Italian Swabian”) was the son of a German-Jewish glassware merchant and an Italian mother. At 12 he was sent to a boarding school near Würzburg, Ger. He later returned

  • SVG (graphics language)

    vector graphics: …a new graphics language called scalable vector graphics (SVG). SVG is a royalty-free language that contains vector shapes and text and can contain embedded raster graphics. One common application for vector graphics in general, and SVG specifically, is in geographic information systems (GIS). SVG is used in GIS applications to…

  • Sviatopolk-Mirskii, Pyotr Danilovich (Russian statesman)

    Pyotr Danilovich Svyatopolk-Mirsky, Russian minister of the interior during the years of prerevolutionary unrest. Svyatopolk-Mirsky, who owned much land and had been governor-general of several important districts, was named minister of the interior in 1904 upon the assassination of his

  • Sviatoslav I (prince of Kiev)

    Svyatoslav I, grand prince of Kiev from 945 and the greatest of the Varangian princes of early Russo-Ukrainian history. He was the son of Grand Prince Igor, who was himself probably the grandson of Rurik, prince of Novgorod. Svyatoslav was the last non-Christian ruler of the Kievan state. After

  • Svinal?ngorna (film by August [2010])

    Noomi Rapace: …with her in Svinal?ngorna (2010; Beyond), in which she portrayed a woman who must come to terms with her past as the abused daughter of alcoholic parents. Notable among Rapace’s other movies was the bleak Danish picture Daisy Diamond (2007), in which she starred as an aspiring actress and single…

  • Svindal, Aksel Lund (Norwegian skier)

    Aksel Lund Svindal, Norwegian Alpine skier who won two men’s Fédération International de Ski (FIS) World Cup overall championships (2007 and 2009), as well as a gold medal in the supergiant slalom (super-G) at the 2010 Winter Olympic Games in Vancouver. Svindal’s parents, both skiers, bought him

  • Svinhufvud, Pehr Evind (president of Finland)

    Pehr Evind Svinhufvud, first chief of state of independent Finland, as prime minister and then as president. He headed the Finnish government during his country’s civil war (1918) and in the early 1930s. He was instrumental in suppressing Finland’s Communist Party and maintaining a rightist regime.

  • Sviridov, Georgy Vasilyevich (Russian composer and pianist)

    Georgy Vasilyevich Sviridov, Russian composer and pianist (born Dec. 16, 1915, Fatezh, Russia—died Jan. 5, 1998, Moscow, Russia), wrote music that paid tribute to Russian literature and folk traditions, achieving acclaim within the Soviet cultural system. Sviridov studied music under Dmitry S

  • Svishtov (Bulgaria)

    Svishtov, town, northern Bulgaria, on the terraced bank of the Danube River. Svishtov is one of the largest Bulgarian Danube ports and is a cultural centre. The Romans built on a strategic site near the town in the 1st century ad. There is little historical record of the town during the First and

  • Svi?tov (Bulgaria)

    Svishtov, town, northern Bulgaria, on the terraced bank of the Danube River. Svishtov is one of the largest Bulgarian Danube ports and is a cultural centre. The Romans built on a strategic site near the town in the 1st century ad. There is little historical record of the town during the First and

  • Svithiod

    Sweden, country located on the Scandinavian Peninsula in northern Europe. The name Sweden was derived from the Svear, or Suiones, a people mentioned as early as 98 ce by the Roman author Tacitus. The country’s ancient name was Svithiod. Stockholm has been the permanent capital since 1523. Sweden

  • Svityaz, Lake (lake, Ukraine)

    Ukraine: Drainage: One of the largest is Lake Svityaz, 11 square miles (28 square km) in area, in the northwest. Small saltwater lakes occur in the Black Sea Lowland and in Crimea. Larger saline lakes occur along the coast. Known as limans, these bodies of water form at the mouths of rivers…

  • Svizzera

    Switzerland, federated country of central Europe. Switzerland’s administrative capital is Bern, while Lausanne serves as its judicial centre. Switzerland’s small size—its total area is about half that of Scotland—and its modest population give little indication of its international significance. A

  • Svizzera, Confederazione

    Switzerland, federated country of central Europe. Switzerland’s administrative capital is Bern, while Lausanne serves as its judicial centre. Switzerland’s small size—its total area is about half that of Scotland—and its modest population give little indication of its international significance. A

  • Svizzra

    Switzerland, federated country of central Europe. Switzerland’s administrative capital is Bern, while Lausanne serves as its judicial centre. Switzerland’s small size—its total area is about half that of Scotland—and its modest population give little indication of its international significance. A

  • Svoboda (Russia)

    Liski, city and administrative centre of Liski rayon (sector), Voronezh oblast (region), western Russia, situated on the banks of the Don River. It is a main railway junction, with shops for servicing locomotives; its food industries include meat-packing and flour milling. It became a city in 1937

  • Svoboda Party (political party, Ukraine)

    Ukraine: The Yanukovych presidency: …40 seats, and the ultranationalist Svoboda (“Freedom”) party had a surprisingly strong showing, winning 37 seats. Challenging the validity of the results, Tymoshenko embarked on a hunger strike. Although international observers called attention to irregularities in some contests, the European Parliament characterized the election as comparatively fair, and the main…

  • Svoboda, Jaroslav (Czech immunologist)
  • Svoboda, Josef (Czech theatrical designer)

    Josef Svoboda, Czech stage scenographer (born May 10, 1920, Caslav, Czech.—died April 8, 2002, Prague, Czech Rep.), enhanced more than 700 theatre, ballet, and opera productions in Europe and the U.S. with his unique vision and technical ingenuity; his innovative designs ranged from massive p

  • Svoboda, Ludvík (president of Czechoslovakia)

    Ludvík Svoboda, president of Czechoslovakia (1968–75) who achieved great popularity by resisting the Soviet Union’s demands during and after its invasion of August 1968. He was also a national hero of two world wars. Deserting from the Austro-Hungarian army during World War I, Svoboda fought in the

  • Svobodny (Russia)

    Svobodny, city and centre of Svobodny rayon (sector), Amur oblast (region), southeastern Russia. It is situated on the right bank of the Zeya River, which is a tributary of the Amur River, and on the Trans-Siberian Railroad. Svobodny was founded in 1912. It is now an important transportation

  • Svobodnyj (Russia)

    Svobodny, city and centre of Svobodny rayon (sector), Amur oblast (region), southeastern Russia. It is situated on the right bank of the Zeya River, which is a tributary of the Amur River, and on the Trans-Siberian Railroad. Svobodny was founded in 1912. It is now an important transportation

  • Svoi lyudi sochtemsya (work by Ostrovsky)

    Aleksandr Nikolayevich Ostrovsky: His next play, Bankrot (“The Bankrupt”), later renamed Svoi lyudi sochtemsya (It’s a Family Affair, We’ll Settle It Among Ourselves), written in 1850, provoked an outcry because it exposed bogus bankruptcy cases among Moscow merchants and brought about Ostrovsky’s dismissal from the civil service. The play was banned…

  • Svolder, Battle of (Norway)

    Olaf Tryggvason: …met his death in the Battle of Svolder (c. 1000) at the hands of the Danish king Sweyn I, the Swedish king Olaf Sk?tkonung, and Eric the Norwegian, earl of Lade. The battle is often retold in medieval Scandinavian poems. After his death large portions of Norway reverted to foreign…

  • Svolv?r (Norway)

    Svolv?r, chief town and port of the Lofoten island group, northern Norway, and part of the municipality of V?gan (see also Kabelv?g). It is on the southern coast of Austv?g?ya, the easternmost island of the group. Svolv?r’s economy depends almost entirely on cod fisheries. At the height of the

  • SVP (political party, Switzerland)

    Swiss People’s Party, conservative Swiss political party. The Swiss People’s Party (SVP) was founded in 1971 by the merger of the Farmers, Artisans, and Citizens’ Party—generally known as the Agrarian Party—with the Democratic Party. It has pursued conservative social and economic policies,

  • Svyataya Anna (vessel)

    Arctic: Conquest of the Northeast Passage: In one case the Svyataya Anna, commanded by Georgy L. Brusilov, was beset in the ice of the Kara Sea and drifted almost due north, then west past the north coasts of Franz Josef Land. There 14 men left it in the spring of 1914 to sledge south to…

  • Svyataya Anna Trough (geographical feature, Arctic Ocean)

    Kara Sea: …by two wide, deep-sea troughs—the Svyatoy Anny east of Franz Josef Land, with a depth of 2,034 feet (620 m), and the parallel Voronin Trough, some 180 miles (290 km) east, with a depth of 1,475 feet (450 m). East of Novaya Zemlya stretches the Novaya Zemlya Trough, 650–1,300 feet…

  • Svyatopolk (prince of Kiev)

    Kievan Rus: …as Vladimir’s eldest surviving son, Svyatopolk the Accursed, killed three of his other brothers and seized power in Kiev. His remaining brother—Yaroslav, the vice-regent of Novgorod—with the active support of the Novgorodians and the help of Varangian (Viking) mercenaries, defeated Svyatopolk and became the grand prince of Kiev in 1019.…

  • Svyatopolk the Accursed (prince of Kiev)

    Kievan Rus: …as Vladimir’s eldest surviving son, Svyatopolk the Accursed, killed three of his other brothers and seized power in Kiev. His remaining brother—Yaroslav, the vice-regent of Novgorod—with the active support of the Novgorodians and the help of Varangian (Viking) mercenaries, defeated Svyatopolk and became the grand prince of Kiev in 1019.…

  • Svyatopolk-Mirsky, Pyotr Danilovich (Russian statesman)

    Pyotr Danilovich Svyatopolk-Mirsky, Russian minister of the interior during the years of prerevolutionary unrest. Svyatopolk-Mirsky, who owned much land and had been governor-general of several important districts, was named minister of the interior in 1904 upon the assassination of his

  • Svyatoslav I (prince of Kiev)

    Svyatoslav I, grand prince of Kiev from 945 and the greatest of the Varangian princes of early Russo-Ukrainian history. He was the son of Grand Prince Igor, who was himself probably the grandson of Rurik, prince of Novgorod. Svyatoslav was the last non-Christian ruler of the Kievan state. After

  • Svyatoslav Igorevich (prince of Kiev)

    Svyatoslav I, grand prince of Kiev from 945 and the greatest of the Varangian princes of early Russo-Ukrainian history. He was the son of Grand Prince Igor, who was himself probably the grandson of Rurik, prince of Novgorod. Svyatoslav was the last non-Christian ruler of the Kievan state. After

  • Svyatoy Anny (geographical feature, Arctic Ocean)

    Kara Sea: …by two wide, deep-sea troughs—the Svyatoy Anny east of Franz Josef Land, with a depth of 2,034 feet (620 m), and the parallel Voronin Trough, some 180 miles (290 km) east, with a depth of 1,475 feet (450 m). East of Novaya Zemlya stretches the Novaya Zemlya Trough, 650–1,300 feet…

  • Svyatoy Iov (Russian Orthodox patriarch)

    Saint Job, ; canonized Oct. 9, 1989), first Russian Orthodox patriarch of Moscow (1589–1605). Until Job’s election, the head of the Russian church had held the title metropolitan of Moscow and was, at least nominally, subordinate to the patriarch of Constantinople. Moscow, however, was eager to

  • Svyatoy kolodets (work by Katayev)

    Valentin Katayev: …printed his Svyatoy kolodets (1967; The Holy Well), a remarkable lyrical-philosophical account of dreams experienced while the author is under anaesthesia for surgery. Clearly reflecting the influence of Marcel Proust, James Joyce, and Franz Kafka, Katayev weaves scenes of his family, friends, and lovers, events of Soviet history, and his…

  • Svyatoy Tikhon (Russian Orthodox patriarch)

    Saint Tikhon, ; canonized Oct. 9, 1989), patriarch of the Russian Orthodox church following the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917. At first sharply resisting the new Soviet state’s antiecclesiastical legislation, he refused to cooperate with a schismatic, state-supported, and politically oriented

  • Svyatoy Vasily Blazhenny (church, Moscow, Russia)

    Saint Basil the Blessed, church constructed on Red Square in Moscow between 1554 and 1560 by Tsar Ivan IV (the Terrible), as a votive offering for his military victories over the khanates of Kazan and Astrakhan. The church was dedicated to the protection and intercession of the Virgin, but it came

  • Svyatoy Vladimir (grand prince of Kiev)

    Vladimir I, ; feast day July 15), grand prince of Kyiv and first Christian ruler in Kievan Rus, whose military conquests consolidated the provinces of Kyiv and Novgorod into a single state, and whose Byzantine baptism determined the course of Christianity in the region. Vladimir was the son of the

  • Swaanswijk, Lubertus Jacobus (Dutch artist)

    COBRA: …(Nieuwenhuis), Pierre Alechinsky, Lucebert (Lubertus Jacobus Swaanswijk), and Jean Atlan. Influenced by poetry, film, folk art, children’s art, and primitive art, the semiabstract canvases by these artists display brilliant colour and spontaneous, violent brushwork that is akin to American Action painting. The human figure, treated in a wildly distorted,…

  • Swabia (historical region, Germany)

    Swabia, historic region of southwestern Germany, including what is now the southern portion of Baden-Württemberg Land (state) and the southwestern part of Bavaria Land in Germany, as well as eastern Switzerland and Alsace. Swabia’s name is derived from that of the Suebi, a Germanic people who,

  • Swabia, House of (German dynasty)

    Italy: Frederick I (Frederick Barbarossa): …and nephew, the duke of Swabia, Frederick I (1152–90), brought a major reassertion of imperial rule in Italy. Frederick saw himself not as the heir to a compromise but as a restorer of the Romano-Carolingian heritage of the German monarchy.

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