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  • Sweet Liberty (film by Alda [1986])

    Alan Alda: Films he directed included Sweet Liberty (1986) and Betsy’s Wedding (1990).

  • Sweet Mama Stringbean (American singer and actress)

    Ethel Waters, American blues and jazz singer and dramatic actress whose singing, based in the blues tradition, featured her full-bodied voice, wide range, and slow vibrato. Waters grew up in extreme poverty and was married for the first time at the age of 12, while she was still attending convent

  • sweet marjoram (herb)

    Marjoram, (Origanum majorana), perennial plant of the mint family (Lamiaceae), grown as a culinary herb. Its fresh or dried leaves and flowering tops are used to season many foods, imparting a warm, aromatic, slightly sharp, and bitterish flavour. Marjoram is particularly appreciated for the taste

  • sweet marten (mammal, Martes martes)

    marten: The pine marten (M. martes) of European and Central Asian forests is also called baum marten and sweet marten. It has a dark brown coat with an undivided yellowish throat patch. Its head-and-body length is 42–52 cm (about 16.5–20.5 inches), with a 22–27-cm (about 9–11-inch) long…

  • Sweet Old World (album by Williams)

    Lucinda Williams: Sweet Old World, a folk-infused collection that included songs of suicide and regret, came out in 1992. That same year, Mary Chapin Carpenter covered Williams’s “Passionate Kisses,” a single from her self-titled album. Carpenter’s version earned Williams a Grammy Award for country song of the…

  • sweet olive (plant)

    tea olive: Sweet olive, or sweet osmanthus (Osmanthus fragrans), a 10-metre (33-foot) tree, produces an edible fruit. Its leaves, used to perfume tea, hide the white flowers. Orange osmanthus (O. aurantiaca), 2.5 metres in height, has fragrant orange flowers. Holly osmanthus, or false holly (O. heterophyllus), distinguished…

  • sweet orange (fruit)

    orange: Cultivation: The tree of the sweet orange often reaches 6 metres (20 feet) in height. The broad, glossy, evergreen leaves are medium-sized and ovate; the petioles (leafstalks) have narrow wings. Its white five-petaled flowers are very fragrant. The fruit is a modified berry known as a hesperidium, and the flesh…

  • sweet osmanthus (plant)

    tea olive: Sweet olive, or sweet osmanthus (Osmanthus fragrans), a 10-metre (33-foot) tree, produces an edible fruit. Its leaves, used to perfume tea, hide the white flowers. Orange osmanthus (O. aurantiaca), 2.5 metres in height, has fragrant orange flowers. Holly osmanthus, or false holly (O. heterophyllus), distinguished…

  • sweet pea (plant)

    Sweet pea, (Lathyrus odoratus), annual plant of the pea family (Fabaceae), widely cultivated for its beautiful, fragrant flowers. Hundreds of varieties of sweet pea have been developed and are grown as garden ornamentals or are grown commercially for the floral industry. The plant is sometimes

  • sweet pepper (plant cultivar, Capsicum annuum)

    Bell pepper, (Capsicum annuum), pepper cultivar in the nightshade family (Solanaceae), grown for its thick, mild fruits. Bell peppers are used in salads and in cooked dishes and are high in vitamin A and vitamin C. The large furrowed fruits are technically berries and can be green, red, yellow, or

  • sweet pitcher plant (botany)

    pitcher plant: Sarraceniaceae: The sweet pitcher plant (S. rubra) produces dull red, violet-scented flowers. The crimson pitcher plant (S. leucophylla) has white trumpet-shaped pitchers with ruffled upright hoods and scarlet flowers. The yellow pitcher plant (S. flava) has bright yellow flowers and a long, green, trumpet-shaped leaf the lid…

  • sweet potato (plant)

    Sweet potato, (Ipomoea batatas), food plant of the morning glory family (Convolvulaceae), native to tropical America. The sweet potato is widely cultivated in tropical and warm temperate climates and is an important food crop in the southern United States, tropical America and the Caribbean, the

  • sweet potato (musical instrument)

    Ocarina, (Italian: “little goose”, ) globular flute, a late 19th-century musical development of traditional Italian carnival whistles of earthenware, often bird-shaped and sounding only one or two notes. It is an egg-shaped vessel of clay or metal or, as a toy, of plastic and is sounded on the

  • sweet prayer plant (botany)

    miracle fruit: The unrelated sweet prayer plant (Thaumatococcus daniellii) is also known as miracle fruit for its similar ability to make sour foods taste sweet.

  • Sweet Rosie O’Grady (film by Cummings [1943])

    Irving Cummings: …again on the pleasant musical Sweet Rosie O’Grady (1943), with Robert Young portraying the love interest. Cummings’s next films were especially notable for the performances of their lead actresses, Rosalind Russell in the romantic comedy What a Woman! (1943) and Jean Arthur in the dramedy The Impatient Years (1944). In…

  • sweet rush (plant)

    oil grass: Lemongrass, or sweet rush (Cymbopogon citratus), contains citral, obtained by steam distillation of the leaves. The plant is common in Asian cuisine and is also used in scented cosmetics and medicine. Citronella grass (C. nardus) contains geraniol (citronella oil), used in cosmetics and insect repellents.

  • sweet rush (plant)

    Acorales: Acorus calamus (sweet flag) occurs in the wetlands of North America and from India to Indonesia. Other species are distributed in temperate areas in Asia and Europe, where they are often found at pond margins or along fast-moving streams.

  • sweet scabious (plant, Scabiosa atropurpurea)

    scabious: Major species: Pincushion flower, also called sweet scabious, mourning bride, or garden scabious (Scabiosa atropurpurea), a southern European annual with deeply cut basal leaves and feathery stem leaves, produces fragrant 5-cm (2-inch) flower heads in white, rose, crimson, blue, or deep mahogany purple. It is about 1…

  • Sweet Science, The (essays by Liebling)

    boxing: Boxing in art, literature, and film: Liebling’s reportage in The Sweet Science (1956), for example, appeals both to writers and sports fans, and Heywood Broun’s newspaper column “The Orthodox Champion” (1922) managed to both celebrate and poke fun at the way boxing and literature are often conjoined. To understand why writers, especially male writers…

  • sweet shrub (plant)

    Sweet shrub, (genus Calycanthus), one of two species of small ornamental trees of the family Calycanthaceae, with aromatic bark and sweet-scented flowers, both native to North America. The sweet shrub bush has opposite, simple, smooth-margined leaves. The petals of the brownish maroon to red

  • sweet singer of Hartford, the (American author)

    L.H. Sigourney, popular writer, known as “the sweet singer of Hartford,” who was one of the first American women to succeed at a literary career. Lydia Huntley worked as a schoolteacher and published her first work, Moral Pieces in Prose and Verse, in 1815. After her marriage in 1819 to Charles

  • Sweet Smell of Success (film by Mackendrick [1957])

    Sweet Smell of Success, American film noir, released in 1957, that was praised for its intensity, intelligent dialogue, and searing look at corruption in big-city journalism. Burt Lancaster played J.J. Hunsecker, a ruthless Broadway columnist (based on Walter Winchell) who delights in destroying

  • Sweet Smell of Success (musical theatre)

    John Lithgow: 3rd Rock from the Sun and return to the stage: …gossip columnist in the musical Sweet Smell of Success (based on the film of the same name), and in 2008 he debuted an autobiographical solo stage show, John Lithgow: Stories by Heart, which transferred to Broadway in 2018. He also starred as Joseph Alsop in David Auburn’s play The Columnist…

  • sweet sorghum (grain)

    Sorghum, (Sorghum bicolor), cereal grain plant of the grass family (Poaceae) and its edible starchy seeds. The plant likely originated in Africa, where it is a major food crop, and has numerous varieties, including grain sorghums, used for food; grass sorghums, grown for hay and fodder; and

  • Sweet Sweetback’s Baadasssss Song (film by Van Peebles [1971])

    blaxploitation movies: Melvin Van Peebles’s Sweet Sweetback’s Baadasssss Song (1971) is usually considered to be the first of many black-themed movies that would present a new film image of African Americans.

  • sweet syringa (plant genus)

    Philadelphus, genus of deciduous shrubs of the family Hydrangeaceae, including the popular garden forms commonly known as mock orange (from its characteristic orange-blossom fragrance) and sweet syringa. Philadelphus, comprising about 65 species, is native to northern Asia and Japan, the western

  • Sweet Tooth (novel by McEwan)

    Ian McEwan: Sweet Tooth (2012) is the Cold War-era tale of a young woman recruited by MI5 to secretly channel funding to writers whose work reflected Western values. The Children Act (2014; film 2017) centres on a judge who must rule on the medical treatment of a…

  • sweet vernal grass (plant)

    Sweet vernal grass, (Anthoxanthum odoratum), fragrant perennial grass in the family Poaceae, native to Eurasia and North Africa. Sweet vernal grass is sometimes grown as a lawn grass or houseplant for its sweet scent; the fragrant coumarin in the leaves is released when the grass is mown or cut.

  • sweet viburnum (plant)

    viburnum: Sweet viburnum (V. odoratissimum), from India and Japan, bears dark-green, shiny, evergreen leaves and large clusters of fragrant flowers.

  • Sweet Water Canal (canal, Egypt)

    Suez Canal: Construction: …combined were formerly called the Sweet Water Canal) to Suez and a northern one (Al-?Abbāsiyyah Canal) to Port Said. This supplied drinking water in an otherwise arid area and was completed in 1863.

  • sweet William (plant)

    Sweet William, (Dianthus barbatus), familiar old-fashioned garden plant, in the pink family (Caryophyllaceae), grown for its clusters of small bright-coloured flowers. It is usually treated as a garden biennial, seed sown the first year producing flowering plants the second year. The plant, growing

  • sweet woodruff (plant)

    bedstraw: Sweet woodruff, or sweet scented bedstraw (G. odoratum, formerly Asperula odorata), has an odour similar to that of freshly mown hay; its dried shoots are used in perfumes and sachets and for flavouring beverages. Lady’s bedstraw, or yellow bedstraw (G. verum), is used in Europe…

  • sweet wormwood (plant)

    malaria: Treatment: …Artemisia annua, a type of wormwood whose dried leaves have been used against malarial fevers since ancient times in China. All of these drugs destroy the malarial parasites while they are living inside red blood cells. For the treatment of malignant or cerebral malaria, the antimalarial drug must be given…

  • Sweet, Henry (British linguist)

    language: Definitions of language: Henry Sweet, an English phonetician and language scholar, stated: “Language is the expression of ideas by means of speech-sounds combined into words. Words are combined into sentences, this combination answering to that of ideas into thoughts.” The American linguists Bernard Bloch and George L. Trager…

  • Sweet, Winifred (American journalist)

    Winifred Sweet Black, American reporter whose sensationalist exposés and journalistic derring-do reflected the spirit of the age of yellow journalism. Winifred Sweet grew up from 1869 on a farm near Chicago. She attended private schools in Chicago, in Lake Forest, Illinois, and in Northampton,

  • sweet-pepper bush (plant)

    Clethra: alnifolia, commonly known as sweet-pepper bush, or summer sweet, occurs on the eastern Coastal Plain and grows about 1 to 3 metres (3 to 10 feet) tall. Its foliage turns yellow or orange in the fall. C. acuminata, commonly called cinnamon clethra, occurs in mountainous and hilly regions of…

  • Sweet-Shop Owner, The (novel by Swift)

    Graham Swift: His first novel, The Sweet-Shop Owner (1980), juxtaposes the final day of a shopkeeper’s life with memories of his life as a whole. Shuttlecock (1981) concerns a police archivist whose work uncovers conflicting information about his father’s mental illness and involvement in World War II.

  • sweetbread (food)

    offal: …dietary source of iron, and sweetbread (thymus) is considerably higher in the water-soluble protein albumin than is beef.

  • sweetbrier (plant)

    Sweetbrier, (Rosa eglanteria, or R. rubiginosa), small, prickly wild rose with fragrant foliage and numerous small pink flowers. Native to Europe and western Asia, it is widely naturalized in North America, where it grows along roadsides and in pastures from Nova Scotia and Ontario southwestward t

  • sweetener (food)

    Sweetener, any of various natural and artificial substances that provide a sweet taste in food and beverages. In addition to their sweetening power, they may be used for such processes as food preservation, fermentation (in brewing and wine making), baking (where they contribute to texture,

  • sweetening (petroleum refining)

    natural gas: Sweetening: Sour gas is sweetened, or purified of its sulfur compounds, by treatment with ethanolamine, a liquid absorbent that acts much like the glycol solution in dehydration. After bubbling through the liquid, the gas emerges almost entirely stripped of sulfur. The ethanolamine is processed

  • sweetening agent (food)

    Sweetener, any of various natural and artificial substances that provide a sweet taste in food and beverages. In addition to their sweetening power, they may be used for such processes as food preservation, fermentation (in brewing and wine making), baking (where they contribute to texture,

  • Sweetest Dream, The (novel by Lessing)

    Doris Lessing: The Sweetest Dream (2001) is a semiautobiographical novel set primarily in London during the 1960s, while the parable-like novel The Cleft (2007) considers the origins of human society. Her collection of essays Time Bites (2004) displays her wide-ranging interests, from women’s issues and politics to…

  • Sweetest Taboo, The (recording by Sade)

    Sade: …featured the hit song “The Sweetest Taboo,” which stayed on the American pop charts for six months. In 1988 Sade embarked on a second world tour to coincide with the release of a third album, Stronger than Pride.

  • sweetfish (fish)

    Sweetfish, delicately flavoured marine fish that migrates upstream to spawn in clear waters. It is found in East Asia and is of the family Osmeridae. The sweetfish is light yellow or olive-coloured, about 30 cm (1 foot) long, and similar to a small trout in appearance. It is distinguished by a

  • sweetgrass basket (basketry)

    Sweetgrass basket, type of basket made of sweetgrass (Muhlenbergia filipes), so called because it smells like freshly mowed hay. The art of the sweetgrass coiled basket, born in West Africa centuries ago, is still practiced in the United States in the 21st century, chiefly in the Low Country of

  • sweetgum (plant)

    Sweet gum, (genus Liquidambar), genus of 15 species of deciduous trees, the only genus of the family Altingiaceae. Sweet gums are native to North America and Asia and are valued as a source of resin and timber. Several species are grown as ornamental trees for their showy fall foliage. The taxonomy

  • Sweetheart of the Rodeo (album by the Byrds)

    country rock: …created country rock’s pivotal album, Sweetheart of the Rodeo (1968), the country-purist goals of which seemed somewhat avant-garde in a rock world that had come to disdain all things conceivably old-fashioned. To hear the Byrds perform the Louvin Brothers’ country standard “The Christian Life” was to enter a distanced, hyperaestheticized…

  • Sweethearts (film by Van Dyke [1938])

    W.S. Van Dyke: Powell and Loy, Eddy and MacDonald: Sweethearts (1938) was another pairing of Eddy and MacDonald, but the formula was showing signs of wear, despite the lavish Technicolor production values, the Victor Herbert score, and the screenplay by Dorothy Parker and Alan Campbell; Robert Z. Leonard directed some scenes, but his work…

  • sweetleaf (plant)

    horse sugar: tinctoria, also known as sweetleaf, is a shrub or small tree native to southeastern North America. The yellow, fragrant flowers are about 1 cm across and are borne in dense clusters. The oblong, orange-brown fruit is about 1 cm in diameter. The plant yields a yellow dye.

  • sweetleaf family (plant family)

    Ericales: Symplocaceae: Symplocaceae is a group of tropical to subtropical evergreen trees. There is a single genus, Symplocos, with about 320 species that grow in North America, South America, Southeast Asia, Indo-Malesia, and especially New Caledonia. The toothed leaves of Symplocos often dry yellowish because the…

  • sweetlips (fish)

    grunt: …larger fishes; several species of sweetlips (Plectorhynchus), which are Indo-Pacific fishes, highly variable in colouring and sometimes kept in marine aquariums; and the tomtates (Bathystoma rimator and related species), grunts found off Florida and the West Indies.

  • Sweetness (American football player)

    Walter Payton, American professional gridiron football player whose productivity and durability made him one of the game’s greatest running backs. He retired in 1987 as the leading rusher in the history of the National Football League (NFL), a title he held until 2002, when he was surpassed by

  • Sweets Edison (American musician)

    Harry Edison, (“Sweets”), American jazz trumpeter who was noted for his muted stylings; he was a soloist in Count Basie’s classic late-1930s band, appeared in the noted Gjon Mili short film Jammin’ the Blues (1944), and stayed with Basie until 1950. He later toured with the Jazz at the Philharmonic

  • Sweets of Pimlico, The (novel by Wilson)

    A.N. Wilson: His first novel, The Sweets of Pimlico (1977), centres upon an introverted woman who is drawn into the mysterious world of an elderly aristocratic man. Wilson’s next two novels, Unguarded Hours (1978) and Kindly Light (1979), chronicle the misadventures of a man who begins a career in organized…

  • sweetsop (tree and fruit)

    Sweetsop, (Annona squamosa), small tree or shrub of the custard apple family (Annonaceae). Native to the West Indies and tropical America, sweetsop has been widely introduced to the Eastern Hemisphere tropics. The fruit contains a sweet custardlike pulp, which may be eaten raw. See also custard

  • sweetveld (vegetation)

    veld: Plant life: …sweeter (and is consequently called sweetveld) than elsewhere, where it is commonly called sourveld. Sweetvelds are more palatable to livestock than sourvelds, the latter being usable as fodder only in winter.

  • Sweetwater (Texas, United States)

    Sweetwater, city, seat (1881) of Nolan county, west-central Texas, U.S. It lies on the Callahan Divide between the Colorado and Brazos rivers, about 40 miles (65 km) west of Abilene. A trading post called Blue Goose (1877) on nearby Sweetwater Creek was moved to the present site when the Texas and

  • Sweetwater River (river, Wyoming, United States)

    Sweetwater River, river rising in the southern tip of Wind River Range, central Wyoming, U.S. It flows generally east for 175 miles (282 km) and empties into Pathfinder Reservoir on the North Platte River. The Oregon Trail followed the Sweetwater westward from the vicinity of Casper to South Pass.

  • Sweezy v. New Hampshire (law case)

    Felix Frankfurter: In Sweezy v. New Hampshire (1957), however, he upheld a claim of academic freedom by a socialist college professor subjected to a state investigation.

  • Sweezy, Paul Marlor (American economist)

    Paul Marlor Sweezy, American economist (born April 10, 1910, New York, N.Y.—died Feb. 28, 2004, Larchmont, N.Y.), was one of the leading Marxist intellectuals of the second half of the 20th century, notably as publisher of Monthly Review, a journal he cofounded in 1949. Trained at Harvard U

  • swehi (game)

    hopscotch: …the game is known as swehi. The diagram is drawn in sand, and a stone or a ball of crushed leaves is used as a marker. The rules resemble those in the German game of Hinkspiel. In swehi, if the player’s stone is tossed on a line, she is out…

  • swell box (musical instrument device)

    keyboard instrument: Stop and key mechanisms: Such enclosures are called swell boxes. In pursuit of still greater expressivity, organists since the 16th century have often employed an accessory called a tremulant, which by repeatedly interrupting the flow of wind to the wind-chest creates a pulsation in the tone of the pipes.

  • swell organ (musical instrument)

    keyboard instrument: Great Britain: …what Jordan described as the swelling organ, but it was not to reach its full development until 150 years later; no 18th-century organ music demands a swell box. There are hardly any surviving examples of British instruments of this period in original condition.

  • swell wave (hydrology)

    wave: Wind waves and swell: Wind waves are the wind-generated gravity waves. After the wind has abated or shifted or the waves have migrated away from the wind field, such waves continue to propagate as swell.

  • Swellendam (historical district, South Africa)

    Swellendam and Graaff-Reinet, in South Africa, administrative districts of the Cape of Good Hope under the rule of the Dutch East India Company. Established in 1743 and 1786, respectively, they became centres of a frontier independence movement in the 1790s. With the continuous expansion of

  • Swellendam (South Africa)

    Swellendam, town, Western Cape province, South Africa. It is situated in the Breede River valley 120 miles (190 km) east of Cape Town. The town lies inland from the Indian Ocean at the base of the Langeberg mountains. Founded (1743) by the Dutch East India Company, it was named for the Cape

  • swellfish (fish)

    Puffer, any of about 90 species of fishes of the family Tetraodontidae, noted for their ability when disturbed to inflate themselves so greatly with air or water that they become globular in form. Puffers are found in warm and temperate regions around the world, primarily in the sea but also, in

  • swelling (physics)

    wood: Shrinkage and swelling: Wood undergoes dimensional changes when its moisture fluctuates below the fibre saturation point. Loss of moisture results in shrinkage, and gain in swelling. It is characteristic that these dimensional changes are anisotropic—different in axial, radial, and tangential directions. Average values for shrinkage are roughly…

  • swelling (physiology)

    angioedema: …in which large, localized, painless swellings similar to hives appear under the skin. The swelling is caused by massive accumulation of fluid (edema) following exposure to an allergen (a substance to which the person has been sensitized) or, in cases with a hereditary disposition, after infection or injury. The reaction…

  • swelling organ (musical instrument)

    keyboard instrument: Great Britain: …what Jordan described as the swelling organ, but it was not to reach its full development until 150 years later; no 18th-century organ music demands a swell box. There are hardly any surviving examples of British instruments of this period in original condition.

  • Swenson, May (American poet)

    May Swenson, American poet whose work is noted for its engaging imagery, intricate wordplay, and eccentric use of typography. Her poetry has been compared to that of Emily Dickinson, Elizabeth Bishop, Marianne Moore, and George Herbert. Swenson was educated at Utah State University (B.A., 1939).

  • Swept Away (film by Wertmüller [1974])

    Lina Wertmüller: …destino nell’azzurro mare d’agosto (1974; Swept Away), a witty comedy in which a poor sailor establishes his dominance over a haughty rich woman while they are marooned on a deserted island, and Pasqualino settebellezze (1975; Seven Beauties), a film about an Italian dandy who must betray all moral values while…

  • swept wing (aeronautics)

    airplane: Wing types: Swept wings are angled, usually to the rear and often at an angle of about 35°. Forward swept wings also are used on some research craft.

  • Sweringen, Oris Paxton and Mantis James Van (American businessmen)

    Oris Paxton and Mantis James Van Sweringen, brothers, railroad executives who from 1916 purchased and reorganized several major U.S. railways. They were also real estate speculators who from 1905 developed Shaker Heights, a prosperous suburb of Cleveland, on land previously held by a Shaker

  • Swern oxidation

    organosulfur compound: Reactions: …oxidant in a process termed Swern oxidation. Notable rearrangements of the sulfone group include the Ramberg-B?cklund reaction and the Truce-Smiles rearrangement.

  • Swertia (plant genus)

    Gentianaceae: Major genera and species: Swertia, an herb with blue star-shaped flowers, and Exacum, a tropical indoor ornamental, are other attractive members of the family.

  • Swerve: How the World Became Modern, The (work by Greenblatt)

    Stephen Greenblatt: …suggestions about atomic structure, in The Swerve: How the World Became Modern (2011). The latter work received particular acclaim and won both a National Book Award and a Pulitzer Prize. The Rise and Fall of Adam and Eve (2017) focuses on the biblical origin story.

  • Swett, John (American educator)

    John Swett, American educator known as the father of the California public school system. Swett was educated at the Pittsfield and Pembroke academies and at the Merrimack Normal Institute. He had become a teacher at the age of 17, but he left New England in 1852, spending most of the next year

  • Swettenham, Sir Frank Athelstane (British colonial official)

    Sir Frank Swettenham, British colonial official in Malaya who was highly influential in shaping British policy and the structure of British administration in the Malay Peninsula. In 1871 Swettenham was sent to Singapore as a cadet in the civil service of the Straits Settlements (Singapore, Malacca,

  • Sweyn Forkbeard (king of Denmark and England)

    Sweyn I, king of Denmark (c. 987–1014), a leading Viking warrior and the father of Canute I the Great, king of Denmark and England. Sweyn formed an imposing Danish North Sea empire, establishing control in Norway in 1000 and conquering England in 1013, shortly before his death. The son of the

  • Sweyn I (king of Denmark and England)

    Sweyn I, king of Denmark (c. 987–1014), a leading Viking warrior and the father of Canute I the Great, king of Denmark and England. Sweyn formed an imposing Danish North Sea empire, establishing control in Norway in 1000 and conquering England in 1013, shortly before his death. The son of the

  • Sweyn II Estridsen (king of Denmark)

    Sweyn II Estridsen, king of Denmark (1047–74) who ended a short period of Norwegian domination (1042–47). The son of Ulf, a Danish earl, and Estrid, a sister of Canute I the Great, Sweyn fled to Sweden after his father was murdered in 1027 on orders of Canute. After the death of Canute (1035), when

  • Sweynheim, Konrad (German printer)

    history of publishing: Italy: Two German printers, Konrad Sweynheim and Arnold Pannartz, who had settled there, soon moved to Rome (1467), where the church encouraged the production of inexpensive books. In Italy as in Germany, however, it was the great commercial towns that became centres of printing and publishing. By 1500, Venice…

  • Swiatek, Kazimierz Cardinal (Polish Roman Catholic cleric)

    Kazimierz Cardinal Swiatek, Polish Roman Catholic cleric (born Oct. 21, 1914, Valga, Estonia, Russian Empire [now in Estonia]—died July 21, 2011, Pinsk, Belarus), braved a Soviet death sentence (1941) and survived harsh conditions for nearly a decade (1944–54) in the Siberian Gulag before devoting

  • ?wibno (Poland)

    Vistula River: Physiography: …open sea was excavated near ?wibno to facilitate floodwater runoff and the removal of debris and ice carried by the river; later, all lateral watercourses were separated by locks, rendering them navigable, with controlled flows; the ?wibno cut was extended into the open sea by lengthening the controlling embankments. This…

  • Swiczinsky, Helmut (Polish architect)

    Coop Himmelblau: …13, 1942, Vienna, Austria) and Helmut Swiczinsky (b. January 13, 1944, Poznań, Poland).

  • swidden agriculture (agriculture)

    Slash-and-burn agriculture, method of cultivation in which forests are burned and cleared for planting. Slash-and-burn agriculture is often used by tropical-forest root-crop farmers in various parts of the world and by dry-rice cultivators of the forested hill country of Southeast Asia. The ash

  • ?widnica (Poland)

    ?widnica, city, Dolno?l?skie województwo (province), southwestern Poland, on the Bystrzyca River, a tributary of the Oder River. Located in the Sudeten (Sudety) foothills, the city is an economic centre for the Lower Silesia agricultural area. It has metal, chemical, wood, sugar, and textile

  • Swieten, Gerhard van (Dutch physician)

    Maria Theresa: Domestic reforms: …that her physician, the Dutchman Gerhard van Swieten, carried through at the universities (such as the introduction of textbooks, the linking of the medical school of the University of Vienna with the embryonic public health service, and the sovereign’s right to veto the election of deans by the faculties) even…

  • Swietenia (plant genus)

    Meliaceae: >Swietenia, Entandrophragma, and Cedrela (especially the Spanish cedar, C. odorata) are economically important timber trees and are valued as a source of mahogany wood. The neem tree, also called the margosa tree (Azadirachta indica), is grown throughout the

  • Swietenia mahagoni (tree)

    conservation: Logging and collecting: …particularly valuable trees such as mahogany may be selectively logged from an area, eliminating both the tree species and all the animals that depend on it. Another example is the coast sandalwood (Santalum ellipticum), a tree endemic to the Hawaiian Islands that was almost completely eliminated from its habitats for…

  • Swi?to Winkelrida (work by Andrzejewski)

    Jerzy Andrzejewski: …Jerzy Zagórski, a satirical drama, Swi?to Winkelrida (1946; “Winkelried’s Feast”). Contemporary political problems are projected in Popió? i diament (1948; Ashes and Diamonds), translated into 27 languages and generally considered his finest novel. It presents a dramatic conflict between young Polish patriots and the communist regime during the last days…

  • ?wi?toch?owice (Poland)

    ?wi?toch?owice, city, ?l?skie województwo (province), south-central Poland; it is a northwestern suburb of the city of Katowice in the heavily industrialized Upper Silesia coalfields. The local economy is based on coal mining and the iron and steelmaking industry. Pop. (2011)

  • ?wi?tochowski, Aleksandr (Polish writer)

    Polish literature: Positivism: …writers of the Warsaw school, Aleksander ?wi?tochowski voiced anticlerical and antiaristocratic views in his weekly Prawda (“Truth”). Boles?aw Prus (Aleksander G?owacki), a journalist, ranked high among Polish novelists with works such as Lalka (1890; The Doll), which was a complex picture of bourgeois life in Warsaw, and Faraon (1897; The…

  • ?wi?tokrzyskie (province, Poland)

    ?wi?tokrzyskie, województwo (province), southern Poland. It is bordered by 6 of the 16 provinces: Mazowieckie to the north, Lubelskie to the east, Podkarpackie to the southeast, Ma?opolskie to the south, ?l?skie to the southwest, and ?ódzkie to the northwest. Created in 1999 to replace the former

  • ?wi?tokrzyskie Mountains (mountains, Poland)

    ?wi?tokrzyskie Mountains, mountain range, part of the Little Poland Uplands, in south-central Poland, surrounding the city of Kielce. The highest peaks are ?ysica (2,008 feet [612 m]) and ?ysa Mountain (1,946 feet [593 m]), both in the ?ysogóry range. The ?wi?tokrzyskie Mountains take their name,

  • ?wietope?k-Czetwertyński (Polish family)

    Czetwertyński family, Polish princely family descended from the Kievan grand prince Svyatopolk II Izyaslavich (d. 1113) of the house of Rurik. Among its prominent members was Antoni Czetwertyński (1748–94), the castellan of Przemy?l and last leader of the pro-Russian Confederation of Targowica that

  • swift (bird)

    Swift, any of about 75 species of agile, fast-flying birds of the family Apodidae (sometimes Micropodidae), in the order Apodiformes, which also includes the hummingbirds. The family is divided into the subfamilies Apodinae, or soft-tailed swifts, and Chaeturinae, or spine-tailed swifts. Almost

  • Swift (United States satellite observatory)

    Swift, U.S. satellite observatory designed to swing into the proper orientation to catch the first few seconds of gamma-ray bursts. It was launched on November 20, 2004. Swift has a gamma-ray telescope that makes the first detection of a gamma-ray burst. The spacecraft is moved so that the

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