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  • San Juan (Puerto Rico)

    San Juan, capital and largest city of Puerto Rico, located on the northern coast of the island, on the Atlantic Ocean. A major port and tourist resort of the West Indies, it is the oldest city now under U.S. jurisdiction. Originally, the settlement was known as Puerto Rico and the island as San

  • San Juan Ara (Paraguayan festival)

    Paraguay: Daily life and social customs: The Feast of St. John (San Juan Ara), on June 24, is celebrated with traditional games, one of which includes walking on hot coals. The country’s Afro-Paraguayan community at Kamba Kua celebrates an annual music and dance festival. Throughout the country on August 1 it is…

  • San Juan Bautista (Paraguay)

    San Juan Bautista, town, southern Paraguay. It lies in the lowlands near the Tebicuary River. The town is the commercial and manufacturing centre for the agricultural and pastoral hinterland, which is utilized primarily for cotton growing and cattle ranching. There are schools of commerce and

  • San Juan Bautista (church, Ba?os de Cerrato, Spain)

    Western architecture: Spain: …structure is the church of San Juan Bautista at Ba?os de Cerrato, consecrated in 661; it is a small structure, originally planned as a three-aisled basilica, in which the horseshoe-shaped arch is predominant.

  • San Juan Bautista

    Puerto Rico, self-governing island commonwealth of the West Indies, associated with the United States. The easternmost island of the Greater Antilles chain, it lies approximately 50 miles (80 km) east of the Dominican Republic, 40 miles (65 km) west of the Virgin Islands, and 1,000 miles (1,600 km)

  • San Juan Capistrano (California, United States)

    San Juan Capistrano, city, Orange county, southern California, U.S. Located near the Pacific coast, it lies halfway between San Diego and Los Angeles. The seventh in the California chain of 21 Franciscan missions, Mission San Juan Capistrano was founded in 1776 by Father Junípero Serra and named

  • San Juan de Ciénaga (Colombia)

    Ciénaga, city, Caribbean port, northern Colombia, at the foothills of the Santa Marta Mountains. First called Aldea Grande (“Large Village”) by Fernandez Enciso in 1518, it was renamed for the nearby Great Swamp (Ciénaga Grande) of Santa Marta, a Caribbean inlet in the alluvial lowlands of the

  • San Juan de la Frontera (Argentina)

    San Juan, city, capital of San Juan provincia (province), west-central Argentina. It lies along the San Juan River and is enclosed by foothills of the Andes Mountains on three sides. Founded in 1562 by Juan Jufré y Montesa, governor of the captaincy general of Cuyo, the city was moved in 1593 to

  • San Juan de la Maguana (Dominican Republic)

    San Juan, city, western Dominican Republic. It lies on the San Juan River, an affluent of the Yaque del Sur River, northwest of Santo Domingo city. The Spanish explorer Diego Velázquez founded San Juan in 1508 by royal decree on the site of the Taino Indian capital, then ruled by Chief Caonabo. The

  • San Juan de los Morros (Venezuela)

    San Juan de los Morros, city, capital of Guárico estado (state), central Venezuela. It is located on the southern slopes of the central highlands. San Juan de los Morros was named the state capital in 1934, replacing Calabozo. A health resort, it is known for its natural hot springs. San Juan de

  • San Juan de Ulúa, Battle of (English history)

    United Kingdom: The clash with Spain: …poisoned Anglo-Iberian relations was the Battle of San Juan de Ulúa in September 1568, where a small fleet captained by Hawkins and Drake was ambushed and almost annihilated through Spanish perfidy. Only Hawkins in the Minion and Drake in the Judith escaped. The English cried foul treachery, but the Spanish…

  • San Juan del Monte (Philippines)

    San Juan del Monte, city, central Luzon, northern Philippines, an eastern residential and industrial suburb of Manila. Located south of Quezon City and north of Mandaluyong, it is on the San Juan and Pasig rivers just above their junction. San Juan del Monte is near the site of the battle of

  • San Juan Heights, Battle of (Spanish-American War [1898])

    Battle of San Juan Hill, (1 July 1898), also known as the Battle of San Juan Heights, the most significant U.S. land victory, and one of the final battles, of the Spanish-American War. After the Battle of Las Guasimas in Cuba, Major General William Shafter planned to take Santiago de Cuba, the

  • San Juan Hill, Battle of (Spanish-American War [1898])

    Battle of San Juan Hill, (1 July 1898), also known as the Battle of San Juan Heights, the most significant U.S. land victory, and one of the final battles, of the Spanish-American War. After the Battle of Las Guasimas in Cuba, Major General William Shafter planned to take Santiago de Cuba, the

  • San Juan Island National Historical Park (park, Washington, United States)

    San Juan Island National Historical Park, historical park, San Juan Islands, northwestern Washington, U.S. Established in 1966, it covers 1,752 acres (710 hectares). The San Juan Islands archipelago consists of more than 170 islands and makes up a county of Washington

  • San Juan Islands (islands, Washington, United States)

    San Juan Islands, archipelago of more than 170 islands composing San Juan county, northwestern Washington, U.S. The islands are part of a submerged mountain chain in upper Puget Sound near the Canadian border, south of the Strait of Georgia and east of Juan de Fuca Strait. The islands were explored

  • San Juan Mountains (mountains, Colorado, United States)

    San Juan Mountains, segment of the southern Rockies, extending southeastward for 150 mi (240 km) from Ouray, in southwestern Colorado, U.S., along the course of the Rio Grande to the Chama River, in northern New Mexico. Many peaks in the northern section exceed 14,000 ft (4,300 m), including Mts.

  • San Juan River (river, Central America)

    San Juan River, river and outlet of Lake Nicaragua, issuing from the lake’s southeastern end at the Nicaraguan city of San Carlos and flowing along the Nicaragua–Costa Rica border into the Caribbean Sea at the Nicaraguan port of San Juan del Norte. It receives the San Carlos and Sarapiquí rivers

  • San Juan River (river, United States)

    San Juan River, river in the southwestern United States, rising in the San Juan Mountains of southern Colorado, on the west side of the Continental Divide. It then flows southwest into New Mexico, past Farmington, northwest into Utah, and west to the Colorado River near Rainbow Bridge National

  • San Juan Valley (region, Hispaniola)

    Haiti: Relief and drainage: …interior basin, known as the Central Plateau in Haiti and the San Juan Valley in the Dominican Republic, occupies about 150 square miles (390 square km) in the centre of the country. The plateau has an average elevation of about 1,000 feet (300 metres), and access to it is difficult…

  • San Juan, battle of (Spanish-American War)

    Rough Rider: …assist in the seizure of San Juan Ridge, the highest point of which is San Juan Hill.

  • San Justo (Argentina)

    San Justo, cabecera (county seat) of La Matanza partido (county), Gran (Greater) Buenos Aires, eastern Argentina. It lies directly southwest of the city of Buenos Aires, in Buenos Aires provincia (province). In 1856 the poblador (person granted land as an incentive to settle an area) of San Justo,

  • San Justo, Church of (church, Segovia, Spain)

    Segovia: The Romanesque Church of San Justo is notable for its 12th-century paintings.

  • San Kuan (Chinese mythology)

    Sanguan, in Chinese Daoism, the Three Officials: Tianguan, official of heaven who bestows happiness; Diguan, official of earth who grants remission of sins; and Shuiguan, official of water who averts misfortune. The Chinese theatre did much to popularize Tianguan by introducing a skit before each

  • San Kuo chih yen-i (Chinese novel)

    Cao Cao: … (in full Sanguozhi Tongsu Yanyi; Romance of the Three Kingdoms), and since then he has been one of the most popular figures of Chinese legend and folklore, with various evil magic powers ascribed to him. Modern historians tend to view Cao as a skillful general and pragmatic politician. After Cao’s…

  • San languages

    Bushman languages, loose grouping of languages that confusingly have been considered to be a separate group within the Khoisan languages. The term Bushman as it is used to describe certain southern African hunter-gatherers is somewhat controversial because it is perceived as racist. The name San is

  • San Lazzaro (monastery, Venice, Italy)

    Armenian chant: …the Armenian Catholic Monastery of San Lazzaro in Venice (founded 1717), where the traditional Armenian melodies are said to be fairly well preserved.

  • San Leandro (California, United States)

    San Leandro, city, Alameda county, western California, U.S. Lying south of Oakland on San Francisco Bay, it forms part of the East Bay metropolitan strip characterized by suburban developments, commercial trading centres, and waterfront industries. The region was explored by the Spanish in the

  • San Leucio (Italy)

    Caserta: San Leucio, 2 miles (3 km) north, is a village founded by Ferdinand IV, king of Naples, in 1789; it has large silk factories. In the Italian Risorgimento (movement for political unity), the Battle of the Volturno (1860), in which the nationalist leader Giuseppe Garibaldi…

  • San Lorenzo (church, Florence, Italy)

    San Lorenzo, early Renaissance-style church designed by Brunelleschi and constructed in Florence from 1421 to the 1460s, except for the facade, which was left uncompleted. Also by Brunelleschi is the Old Sacristy (finished in 1428). The New Sacristy, more commonly called the Medici Chapel, is

  • San Lorenzo (Honduras)

    San Lorenzo, Pacific port city, southern Honduras, situated on the northern shore of the Gulf of Fonseca. The shallow waters of the gulf long precluded development of the port, but construction of major roads nearby and the inconvenience of the old port at Amapala fostered the project. Construction

  • San Lorenzo (ancient city, Mexico)

    pre-Columbian civilizations: The rise of Olmec civilization: San Lorenzo is now established as the oldest known Olmec centre. In fact, excavation has shown it to have taken on the appearance of an Olmec site by 1150 bce and to have been destroyed, perhaps by invaders, around 900 bce. Thus, the Olmec achieved…

  • San Lorenzo (Argentina)

    San Lorenzo, city and port, southeastern Santa Fe provincia (province), northeastern Argentina. It is located on the Paraná River, 14 miles (23 km) north of the city of Rosario, and is an integral part of Greater Rosario. The settlement grew up around a monastery, which the Argentine liberator José

  • San Lorenzo de Los Negros (Veracruz, Mexico)

    slave rebellions: …de Los Negros (now called Yanga), the first settlement of freed African slaves in North America.

  • San Lorenzo Fuori le Mura (church, Rome, Italy)

    Rome: San Lorenzo Fuori le Mura: Now in the midst of the Campo Verano cemetery, Rome’s Catholic burying ground from 1830, San Lorenzo Fuori le Mura (St. Lawrence Outside the Walls) dates from the 4th century. The nave is a 13th-century basilica built by Pope Honorius…

  • San Lorenzo Maggiore (church, Milan, Italy)

    Western architecture: Second period, after ad 313: San Lorenzo Maggiore, begun about 370, is a quadrifoil room with four niches and ambulatory; an octagon adjoining it (today Sant’Aquilino) was formerly an imperial mausoleum or baptistery. The church of the Holy Apostles, the present San Nazaro Maggiore (begun in 382), is cruciform in…

  • San Lorenzo Maggiore (church, Naples, Italy)

    Naples: Santa Chiara: The splendid Gothic church of San Lorenzo Maggiore stands on layers of antiquities. Beneath its cloister, which contains exposed remains from Roman times, a large excavation from the Greek and Roman eras of Naples constitutes—with antiquities discovered below the nearby Duomo—a considerable segment of the ancient city centre. At San…

  • San Lorenzo, Treaty of (United States-Spain [1795])

    Pinckney’s Treaty, (Oct. 27, 1795), agreement between Spain and the United States, fixing the southern boundary of the United States at 31° N latitude and establishing commercial arrangements favourable to the United States. U.S. citizens were accorded free navigation of the Mississippi River

  • San Luca e Santa Martina (church, Rome, Italy)

    Western architecture: Origins and development in Rome: …decisively altered villa design; his San Luca e Santa Martina, Rome (1635), was the first church to exhibit fully developed high Baroque characteristics in which the movement toward plasticity, continuity, and dramatic emphasis, begun by Maderno, achieved fruition. Pietro’s reworking of a small square in Rome to include his facade…

  • San Luca, Accademia di (institution, Rome, Italy)

    academy of art: …were taken up by the Accademia di San Luca, reestablished as an educational program in 1593 at Rome by the painter Federico Zuccari and Cardinal Federico Borromeo. With its emphasis on instruction and exhibition, the Accademia di San Luca was the prototype for the modern academy. Among its functions, much-imitated…

  • San Lucas, Cape (cape, Mexico)

    Cape San Lucas, extreme southern tip of the Baja California peninsula, Mexico. The rocky headland forms the southern extremity of the Sierra de San Lazaro and includes the western shore of San Lucas Bay. The isolated town of San Lucas lies 2 miles (3 km) north of the cape. The area is popular with

  • San Luigi dei Francesi, Church of (church, Rome, Italy)

    Caravaggio: The Contarelli Chapel and other church commissions: …side walls of the Contarelli Chapel of San Luigi dei Francesi, the church of the French in Rome. The commission was secured for him by his patron Cardinal del Monte, whose links to the Medici meant that he had close connections with the French community in Rome. Not only was…

  • San Luis (Cuba)

    San Luis, city, eastern Cuba. It lies on the northern slopes of the Sierra Maestra, which separates it from Santiago de Cuba, about 12 miles (20 km) to the south. San Luis is both a rail junction and a commercial and manufacturing centre for the agricultural hinterland, which produces sugarcane,

  • San Luis (province, Argentina)

    San Luis, provincia (province), west-central Argentina. It is separated from Mendoza province (west) by seasonal rivers having headwaters in the Andes Mountains. The central city of San Luis is the provincial capital. The landscape of San Luis province is transitional, incorporating drier sections

  • San Luis (Argentina)

    San Luis, city, capital of San Luis provincia (province), west-central Argentina. It is located on the Chorrillos River, near the southern end of the foothills of the Sierra de San Luis. Founded in 1594 by order of the governor of Chile, it was abandoned during wars with the Araucanian Indians.

  • San Luis (Mexico)

    San Luis, city, northwestern Sonora estado (state), northwestern Mexico. It lies on the Mexico-U.S. border south of Yuma, Arizona, and just east of the Colorado River. The city grew prosperous as a port of entry and as the commercial and manufacturing centre of a large, irrigated agricultural area,

  • San Luis de la Punta (Argentina)

    San Luis, city, capital of San Luis provincia (province), west-central Argentina. It is located on the Chorrillos River, near the southern end of the foothills of the Sierra de San Luis. Founded in 1594 by order of the governor of Chile, it was abandoned during wars with the Araucanian Indians.

  • San Luis Obispo (California, United States)

    San Luis Obispo, city, seat (1850) of San Luis Obispo county, western California, U.S. It lies on San Luis Obispo Creek at the base of the Santa Lucia Mountains, 20 miles (30 km) east of the Pacific Ocean and 80 miles (130 km) northwest of the city of Santa Barbara. It grew up as a farming centre

  • San Luis Potosí (Mexico)

    San Luis Potosí, city, capital of San Luis Potosí estado (state), northeastern Mexico. It is situated on the Mesa Central at an elevation of 6,158 feet (1,877 metres) above sea level, giving it a temperate climate. Founded as a Franciscan mission in 1583 and made a city in 1658, San Luis Potosí was

  • San Luis Potosí (state, Mexico)

    San Luis Potosí, estado (state), northeastern Mexico. It is bounded by the states of Coahuila to the north; Nuevo León, Tamaulipas, and Veracruz to the east; Hidalgo, Querétaro, and Guanajuato to the south; and Jalisco and Zacatecas to the west. The capital, the city of San Luis Potosí, is located

  • San Luis Potosí, Plan of (Mexico [1910])

    Mexico: Precursors of revolution: …day of his escape, the Plan of San Luis Potosí, which proclaimed the principles of “effective suffrage, no reelection.” Madero declared that Díaz was illegally president of Mexico. Designating Sunday, November 20, as the day when citizens should take up arms against the Díaz government, Madero promised that a successful…

  • San Luis Río Colorado (Mexico)

    San Luis, city, northwestern Sonora estado (state), northwestern Mexico. It lies on the Mexico-U.S. border south of Yuma, Arizona, and just east of the Colorado River. The city grew prosperous as a port of entry and as the commercial and manufacturing centre of a large, irrigated agricultural area,

  • San Manuel Bueno, mártir (work by Unamuno)

    Spanish literature: Novels and essays: …final spiritual position—Kierkegaardian existentialism—revealed in San Manuel Bueno, mártir (1933; “San Manuel Bueno, Martyr”). Unamuno was an influential journalist and an unsuccessful but powerful dramatist who also ranks among Spain’s greatest 20th-century poets.

  • San Marco altarpiece (work by Angelica)
  • San Marco Basilica (cathedral, Venice, Italy)

    San Marco Basilica, church in Venice that was begun in its original form in 829 (consecrated in 832) as an ecclesiastical structure to house and honour the remains of St. Mark that had been brought from Alexandria. St. Mark thereupon replaced St. Theodore as the patron saint of Venice, and his

  • San Marco Freeing the Slave (work by Tintoretto)

    Tintoretto: Career: …and literary men with his San Marco Freeing the Slave (also called Miracle of the Slave). A letter from Aretino, full of praise yet also intended to temper Tintoretto’s youthful exuberance, confirmed the fame of the 30-year-old painter. Relations between Tintoretto and Aretino did not come to an end at…

  • San Marco, Great School of (building, Venice, Italy)

    Venice: Trade guild buildings: …architectural decoration, as at the Great School of San Marco (founded c. 1260, rebuilt after a fire 1487–95; now a hospital), with its trompe l’oeil marble panels. The painted panels and ceilings of the Great School of San Rocco (instituted 1478, completed 1560) are masterpieces by Tintoretto. The School of…

  • San Marco, Piazza (square, Venice, Italy)

    Venice: The Piazza San Marco: Before the five arched portals of the basilica lies the Piazza San Marco, a vast paved and arcaded square. Napoleon called the piazza the finest drawing room in Europe. The northern and southern wings of the square are formed by two official…

  • San Marco, priory of (priory, Florence, Italy)

    Fra Angelico: Years at the priory of San Marco: …1439, when he entered the priory of San Marco in Florence. There he worked mostly on frescoes. San Marco had been transferred from the Sylvestrine monks to the Dominicans in 1436, and the rebuilding of the church and its spacious priory began about 1438, from designs by the Florentine architect…

  • San Marcos (Guatemala)

    San Marcos, city, southwestern Guatemala, in the Sierra Madre de Chiapas at an elevation of 7,700 feet (2,350 metres) above sea level. A long-standing boundary feud with San Pedro Sacatepéquez, 1.5 miles (2 km) to the east, was settled by joining the towns by a broad, tree-lined boulevard. The

  • San Marcos (Texas, United States)

    San Marcos, city, seat (1848) of Hays county, south-central Texas, U.S. The city lies on the San Marcos River, 30 miles (50 km) southwest of Austin. Franciscan missionaries probably first saw the river on St. Mark’s Day in 1709. The original Spanish settlement, Villa de San Marcos de Neve,

  • San Marcos Bridge (bridge, El Salvador)

    bridge: Tacoma Narrows: …Norman Sollenberger to design the San Marcos Bridge (1951) in El Salvador with inclined suspenders, thus forming a cable truss between cables and deck—the first of its kind.

  • San Marcos de Arica (Chile)

    Arica, city, northern Chile. It lies along the Pacific coast, at the foot of El Morro (a precipitous headland), and is fringed on its southern edge by sand dunes of the rainless Atacama Desert. Arica is situated near the Peruvian border and is the northernmost Chilean seaport. Founded as Villa de

  • San Marcos National Monument, Castillo de (monument, Florida, United States)

    Castillo de San Marcos National Monument, site of the oldest masonry fort in the United States, built by the Spaniards on Matanzas Bay between 1672 and 1695 to protect the city of St. Augustine, in northeastern Florida. Established as Fort Marion National Monument in 1924, it was renamed in 1942.

  • San Marcos of Lima, Main National University of (university, Lima, Peru)

    Main National University of San Marcos of Lima, coeducational state-financed institution of higher learning situated at Lima, the capital of Peru. The university, the oldest in South America, was founded in 1551 by royal decree and confirmed by a papal bull of 1571. At the time the Peruvian

  • San Marino (California, United States)

    San Marino, residential city, Los Angeles county, southern California, U.S. The affluent city lies southeast of Pasadena. In 1903 the American railroad magnate Henry E. Huntington purchased the San Marino Ranch and founded the community. His estate, deeded to the public, includes the Huntington

  • San Marino (republic, Europe)

    San Marino, small republic situated on the slopes of Mount Titano, on the Adriatic side of central Italy between the Emilia-Romagna and Marche regions and surrounded on all sides by the republic of Italy. It is the smallest independent state in Europe after Vatican City and Monaco and, until the

  • San Marino city (national capital, San Marino)

    San Marino, city, capital of San Marino. It is located near the centre of the country and set high on the western slopes of Mount Titano. In 2008 the mountain and the historic centre of the city were together named a UNESCO World Heritage site. According to tradition, the country of San Marino was

  • San Marino, flag of

    horizontally divided white-blue national flag; when displayed by the government, it incorporates a central coat of arms. The flag has a width-to-length ratio of approximately 3 to 4.At the peak of Mount Titano in the Italian Apennines are three towers (Guaita, Cesta, and Montale) in the

  • San Martín (Argentina)

    General San Martín, cabecera (county seat) and partido (county) of Gran (Greater) Buenos Aires, eastern Argentina. It lies immediately northwest of the city of Buenos Aires, in Buenos Aires provincia (province). The county seat and county began as an early rural settlement centred on the

  • San Martín (county, Argentina)

    General San Martín: …years later the county of San Martín (named for the Argentine liberator) was created. In 1911 General San Martín town was given official city status, and since then it has grown into a major industrial centre, processing and manufacturing linseed oil, textiles, dairy products, frozen meat, cigarettes, liquor, and a…

  • San Martín Bridge (bridge, Toledo, Spain)

    Toledo: …northwest is the bridge of San Martín, dating from the late 13th century. Parts of the walls of Toledo are of Visigothic origin, although most are Moorish or Christian. There are well-preserved gateways from various periods, including the Puerta Vieja de Bisagra (10th century), traditionally used by Alfonso VI in…

  • San Martín de Porres (district, Peru)

    San Martín de Porres, distrito (district), in the Lima-Callao metropolitan area, Peru. It lies on the north bank of the Rímac River. Among the oldest and best developed of Lima’s pueblos jóvenes (young towns), San Martín de Porres is primarily a working-class residential area. It contains numerous

  • San Martín del Rey Aurelio (Spain)

    San Martín del Rey Aurelio, municipio (municipality), in Asturias provincia (province) and comunidad autónoma (autonomous community), northwestern Spain. It lies in the mountains known as the Cordillera Cantábrica, just southeast of Oviedo city. The municipality takes its name from the tomb of

  • San Martin Land (peninsula, Antarctica)

    Antarctic Peninsula, peninsula claimed by the United Kingdom, Chile, and Argentina. It forms an 800-mile (1,300-km) northward extension of Antarctica toward the southern tip of South America. The peninsula is ice-covered and mountainous, the highest point being Mount Jackson at 10,446 feet (3,184

  • San Martín, José de (Argentine revolutionary)

    José de San Martín, Argentine soldier, statesman, and national hero who helped lead the revolutions against Spanish rule in Argentina (1812), Chile (1818), and Peru (1821). San Martín’s father, Juan de San Martín, a Spanish professional soldier, was administrator of Yapeyú, formerly a Jesuit

  • San Martín, Juan Zorrilla de (Uruguayan poet)

    Juan Zorrilla de San Martín, Uruguayan poet famous for a long historical verse epic, Tabaré (1886; final edition after several revisions, 1926), a poem in six cantos, based upon a legend of the love between a Spanish girl and an Indian boy. Zorrilla de San Martín was educated in various Jesuit

  • San Martini, Giovanni Battista (Italian composer)

    Giovanni Battista Sammartini, Italian composer who was an important formative influence on the pre-Classical symphony and thus on the Classical style later developed by Joseph Haydn and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. The son of Alexis Saint-Martin, a French oboist, he spent most of his life in Milan, was

  • San Martini, Giuseppe (Italian composer)

    Giuseppe Sammartini, oboist and composer prominent in England in the first half of the 18th century and brother of Giovanni Battista Sammartini. Giuseppe wrote an aria and sinfonia (both lost) for La Calumnia Delusa, which was performed in Milan in 1724. In about 1728 he went to London, where he

  • San Martino, abbey of (abbey, San Martino delle Scale, Italy)

    Monreale: …Monreale, in the village of San Martino delle Scale, is the famous Benedictine abbey of San Martino, founded by Pope St. Gregory I the Great in the 6th century, restored in 1346, and extended in 1770. Its church dates from the 16th century.

  • San Martino, Cathedral of (cathedral, Lucca, Italy)

    Lucca: Particularly notable are the Cathedral of San Martino (probably founded in the 6th century; rebuilt 1060–70; completed 13th–14th century); San Frediano (rebuilt 1112–47), retaining traces of an 8th-century structure; San Michele in Foro (begun 1143); and Santa Maria Forisportam, begun in the 13th century. Lucca is noted for its…

  • San Mateo (California, United States)

    San Mateo, city, San Mateo county, western California, U.S. It lies on the western shore of San Francisco Bay, 16 miles (26 km) south of the city of San Francisco. Sheltered by hills from ocean wind and fog, San Mateo enjoys a mild maritime climate. The area was first inhabited by Ohlone Indians. A

  • San Mateo de Osorno, Ciudad de (Chile)

    Osorno, city, southern Chile, lying at the junction of the Damas and Rahue rivers, 40 miles (64 km) inland from the Pacific coast. It was founded in 1553 under the name Santa Marina de Gaete, but this attempt failed. It was refounded in 1558 by García Hurtado de Mendoza, who named it Ciudad de San

  • San Matteo Cathedral (cathedral, Salerno, Italy)

    Salerno: Matthew (San Matteo), founded in 845 and rebuilt in 1076–85 by Robert Guiscard. In the crypt is the sepulchre of St. Matthew, whose body was, according to legend, brought to Salerno in the 10th century. The cathedral also contains the tomb of Pope Gregory VII.

  • San Michele, Santuario di (sanctuary, Monte Sant’Angelo, Italy)

    Monte Sant'Angelo: …around the famous Santuario di S. Michele (Sanctuary of St. Michael), founded c. 490 over a cave in which the archangel Michael is said to have appeared to St. Laurentius Maioranus, archbishop of Sipontum. The bronze doors were made in Constantinople in 1076, and the octagonal campanile dates from 1273.…

  • San Miguel (county, New Mexico, United States)

    San Miguel, county, north-central New Mexico, U.S. The northwestern portion of the county lies at the southern end of the Sangre de Cristo range of the Southern Rocky Mountains, with Hermit Peak (10,263 feet [3,128 metres]) and Elk Mountain (11,661 feet [3,554 metres]) its highest summits. The

  • San Miguel (island, California, United States)

    Channel Islands: San Miguel, the westernmost of the park’s islands, is administered by the U.S. Navy. It comprises a windswept tableland with a rocky coast, and its climate is often rainy and foggy. Santa Rosa Island is leased by its former owners for game hunting; the remains…

  • San Miguel (county, Argentina)

    San Miguel, partido (county), Gran (Greater) Buenos Aires, Argentina. It is situated northwest of the city of Buenos Aires, in Buenos Aires provincia (province). The early settlement of the area centred on the agricultural plantation of San Jose del Pilar, founded by Adolfo Sourdeaux in 1862. Ten

  • San Miguel (El Salvador)

    San Miguel, city, east-central El Salvador, at the foot of San Miguel and Chinameca volcanoes. Founded in 1530 by Spanish settlers near the west bank of the Río Grande de San Miguel, the city was badly damaged by a severe earthquake in 1917. It was rebuilt and has become one of the largest cities

  • San Miguel (volcano, El Salvador)

    El Salvador: Relief: … (6,430 feet [1,960 metres]) and San Miguel (6,988 feet [2,130 metres]), to that of Conchagua (4,078 feet [1,243 metres]) in the extreme east. These volcanoes are separated by a series of basins (commonly referred to as El Salvador’s central plain), lying at elevations of between 3,500 and 5,000 feet (1,000…

  • San Miguel (district, Manila, Philippines)

    Manila: City layout: The district of San Miguel is the site of Malaca?ang Palace, the presidential residence; and several universities are located in Sampaloc, on the northeastern edge of the city. Adjacent to the heavily populated districts on the northern shore is Manila North Harbor; Manila South Harbor, the main international…

  • San Miguel de Allende (Mexico)

    San Miguel de Allende, city, east-central Guanajuato estado (state), north-central Mexico. It lies on the Mexican Plateau on a small tributary of the Laja River, at 6,135 feet (1,870 metres) above sea level, 32 miles (52 km) by highway north of Celaya. The first Spanish settlement in Guanajuato, it

  • San Miguel de Guadalupe (Spanish colony, South Carolina, United States)

    Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón: …to found a settlement called San Miguel de Guadalupe, probably at the mouth of the Pee Dee River (Winyah Bay), in South Carolina. (Little credence can be given to the claim that the settlement was made at Jamestown, Va., 81 years before the English arrived there.) The colony was abandoned…

  • San Miguel de la Palma (island, Canary Islands, Spain)

    La Palma, island, Santa Cruz de Tenerife provincia (province), in the comunidad autónoma (autonomous community) of the Canary Islands of Spain, in the North Atlantic Ocean, off the northwestern coast of Africa. Its central geographic feature is La Caldera de Taburiente, a large volcanic caldera (6

  • San Miguel de Tucumán (Argentina)

    San Miguel de Tucumán, city, capital of Tucumán provincia (province), northwestern Argentina. It lies along the Salí River, at the foot of the scenic Aconquija Mountains. It was founded in 1565 by the Spanish colonial governor Diego de Villarroel at Ibatín on the Tejar River (now Pueblo Viejo on

  • San Miguel del Padrón (Cuba)

    San Miguel del Padrón, city, west-central Cuba. It is situated 10 miles (16 km) south-southeast of central Havana and constitutes a municipality in the province-level Ciudad de la Habana (City of Havana). For many years San Miguel del Padrón was a small commercial and manufacturing centre in a

  • San Miguel, Gulf of (gulf, Panama)

    Vasco Nú?ez de Balboa: Sighting of the Pacific: …shore, where he explored the Gulf of San Miguel (1517–18). Meantime, the stream of charges of misconduct and incapacity levelled against Pedrarias by Balboa and others had finally convinced the crown of Pedrarias’s unfitness to govern; news arrived in Darién of his imminent replacement by a new governor who would…

  • San Miniato (church, Florence, Italy)

    San Miniato al Monte, three-aisled basilican church in Florence completed in 1062. It is considered one of the finest examples of the Tuscan Romanesque style of architecture. The black and white marble panels used to ornament both the interior and the exterior, as well as the painted timber truss

  • San Miniato al Monte (church, Florence, Italy)

    San Miniato al Monte, three-aisled basilican church in Florence completed in 1062. It is considered one of the finest examples of the Tuscan Romanesque style of architecture. The black and white marble panels used to ornament both the interior and the exterior, as well as the painted timber truss

  • San Murezzan (Switzerland)

    Saint Moritz, town, or Gemeinde (commune), Graubünden canton, southeastern Switzerland. Saint Moritz lies in the Oberengadin (Upper Inn Valley) and is surrounded by magnificent Alpine peaks. The town consists of the Dorf (village), the Bad (spa), and the hamlets of Suvretta and Champfèr. Originally

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