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  • symbiotic star (astronomy)

    planetary nebula: The nature of the progenitor stars: Symbiotic stars (i.e., stars with characteristics of both cool giants and very hot stars) also are candidates. Novae, stars that brighten temporarily while ejecting a shell explosively, are definitely not candidates; the nova shell is expanding at hundreds of kilometres per second.

  • symbol

    Symbol, a communication element intended to simply represent or stand for a complex of person, object, group, or idea. Symbols may be presented graphically, as in the cross for Christianity and the red cross or crescent for the life-preserving agencies of Christian and Islamic countries (see Red

  • symbol stage (psychology)
  • symbol, chemical

    Chemical symbol, short notation derived from the scientific name of a chemical element—e.g., S for sulfur and Si for silicon. Sometimes the symbol is derived from the Latin name—e.g., Au for aurum, gold, and Na for natrium, sodium. The present chemical symbols express the systematizing of

  • Symbolic Analysis of Relay and Switching Circuits, A (thesis by Shannon)

    Claude Shannon: Shannon’s master’s thesis, “A Symbolic Analysis of Relay and Switching Circuits” (1940), used Boolean algebra to establish the theoretical underpinnings of digital circuits. Because digital circuits are fundamental to the operation of modern computers and telecommunications equipment, this dissertation was called one of the most significant master’s theses…

  • symbolic approach (computer science)

    artificial intelligence: Symbolic vs. connectionist approaches: The top-down approach seeks to replicate intelligence by analyzing cognition independent of the biological structure of the brain, in terms of the processing of symbols—whence the symbolic label. The bottom-up approach, on the other hand, involves creating artificial neural networks in imitation of the brain’s structure—whence…

  • symbolic behaviour

    ritual: Functions of ritual: Whatever the referent, ritual as symbolic behaviour presupposes that the action is nonrational. That is to say, the means–end relation of ritual to its referent is not intrinsic or necessary. Such terms as latent, unintended, or symbolic are often used to specify the nonrational function of ritual. The fundamental problem…

  • symbolic convergence theory (communication)

    Ernest G. Bormann: …known as the originator of symbolic convergence theory (SCT) and its attendant method, fantasy theme analysis, which both explore how the sharing of narratives or “fantasies” can create and sustain group consciousness. For Bormann, these communal narratives encouraged group cohesion and fostered the development of a shared social reality among…

  • symbolic interaction (social process)

    animal social behaviour: Social behaviour is defined by interaction, not by how organisms are distributed in space. Clumping of individuals is not a requirement for social behaviour, although it does increase opportunities for interaction. When a lone female moth emits a bouquet of pheromones to attract male potential mates, she is engaging in…

  • Symbolic Logic (work by Lewis and Langford)

    modality: … and Cooper Harold Langford in Symbolic Logic (1932), which develops a modal system of “strict implication” for interpreting the logical force of “if . . . then.”

  • Symbolic Logic (work by Venn)

    John Venn: …developed his diagramming method in Symbolic Logic (1881), a work that was primarily a sophisticated defense of the attempt by the English mathematician George Boole to represent logical relations in algebraic terms (see logic, history of: Boole and De Morgan). In The Logic of Chance (1866) Venn presented the first…

  • symbolic logic

    Formal logic, the abstract study of propositions, statements, or assertively used sentences and of deductive arguments. The discipline abstracts from the content of these elements the structures or logical forms that they embody. The logician customarily uses a symbolic notation to express such

  • symbolic model (science)

    operations research: Model construction: …than three variables is difficult, symbolic models came into use. There is no limit to the number of variables that can be included in a symbolic model, and such models are easier to construct and manipulate than physical models.

  • symbolic restitution (philosophy and law)

    historical injustice: …lasting impact, and claims to symbolic restitution are often grounded on the moral quality of the wrongs committed. This article considers the theoretical underpinnings of arguments about reparations, responsibility for past injustices, and the rights of those wronged.

  • Symbolic Uses of Politics, The (work by Edelman)

    Murray Edelman: Edelman’s innovative and classic book The Symbolic Uses of Politics (1964) is the seminal work on symbolic politics, and it continues to exert a widespread influence on scholarly research. In it, Edelman explored the use of myths, rites, and other symbolic forms of communication in the formation of public opinion…

  • Symbolik (work by M?hler)

    Johann Adam M?hler: …of his outstanding books is Symbolik (“On the Creeds”), first published in 1832. In this work, as in his earlier volume Die Einheit in der Kirche (1825; “Unity in the Church”), M?hler argued that man’s journey to God could be made only in the church founded by Christ. He sympathized…

  • Symbolik und Mythologie der alten V?lker, besonders der Griechen (work by Creuzer)

    Georg Friedrich Creuzer: …first and most famous work, Symbolik und Mythologie der alten V?lker, besonders der Griechen, 4 vol. (1810–12; “Symbolism and Mythology of the Ancients, Especially the Greeks”). His controversial ideas were often the subject of vigorous attack. He also published a number of other works, among which were an edition of…

  • symboling (social science)
  • symbolism

    aesthetics: Understanding art: …art as a form of symbolism. But what is meant by this? Is such symbolism one thing or many? Is it a matter of evocation or convention, of personal response or linguistic rule? And what does art symbolize—ideas, feelings, objects, or states of affairs?

  • Symbolism (literary and artistic movement)

    Symbolism, a loosely organized literary and artistic movement that originated with a group of French poets in the late 19th century, spread to painting and the theatre, and influenced the European and American literatures of the 20th century to varying degrees. Symbolist artists sought to express

  • Symbolist Movement in Literature, The (work by Symons)

    Arthur Symons: …November 1893) into a book, The Symbolist Movement in Literature (1899), which influenced both Yeats and T.S. Eliot; in it he characterized Symbolist literature as suggesting or evoking the “unseen reality apprehended by the consciousness.” Symons’s criticism constitutes an ambitious development of Walter Pater’s model of the “aesthetic critic.”

  • symbolization (mental process)

    child development: …perform various mental operations using symbols, concepts, and ideas to transform information they gather about the world around them. The beginnings of logic, involving the classification of ideas and an understanding of time and number, emerge in later childhood (7 to 12 years). Children’s memory capacity also advances continually during…

  • Symbouleutikoi (work by Cydones)

    Demetrius Cydones: …to the Turks are his Symbouleutikoi (“Exhortations”), vainly urging the Byzantine people to unite with the Latins in order to resist the Turkish onslaught; these fervent appeals give a clear picture of the hopeless position of the Byzantine Empire in about the year 1370.

  • Symeon I (tsar of Bulgarian empire)

    Simeon I, tsar of the first Bulgarian empire (925–927), a warlike sovereign who nevertheless made his court a cultural centre. Educated in Constantinople (now Istanbul), Simeon succeeded his father, Boris I, in 893 after the short intervening reign (889–893) of his dissolute elder brother, V

  • Symeon of Durham (English historian)

    Simeon Of Durham, chronicler of medieval England. Simeon entered the Benedictine abbey at Jarrow, in the county of Durham, in about 1071. This abbey was moved (1083) to the town of Durham, and there he made his religious vows in 1085/86 and later became choirmaster. Between 1104 and 1108 Simeon w

  • Symeon of Polotsk (Belarusian writer and theologian)

    Fyodor III: …in Polish and Latin by Simeon Polotsky, a noted theologian who had studied in Kiev and Poland. When Alexis died, Fyodor ascended the throne (Jan. 19 [Jan. 29], 1676), but his youth and poor health prevented him from actively participating in the conduct of government affairs. His uncle Ivan B.…

  • Symeon the Great (tsar of Bulgarian empire)

    Simeon I, tsar of the first Bulgarian empire (925–927), a warlike sovereign who nevertheless made his court a cultural centre. Educated in Constantinople (now Istanbul), Simeon succeeded his father, Boris I, in 893 after the short intervening reign (889–893) of his dissolute elder brother, V

  • Symeon the New Theologian, Saint (Byzantine monk)

    Saint Symeon the New Theologian, Byzantine monk and mystic, termed the New Theologian to mark his difference from two key figures in Greek Christian esteem, St. John the Evangelist and the 4th-century theologian St. Gregory of Nazianzus. Through his spiritual experiences and writings Symeon

  • Symferopil (Ukraine)

    Simferopol, city and administrative centre of Crimea, in southern Ukraine. The city lies along the Salhyr (Salgir) River where it emerges from the Crimean Mountains. On the present outskirts of the city is the site of Neapolis, occupied by the Scythians from the 3rd century bce to the 4th century

  • Symington, Stuart (United States senator)

    Stuart Symington, U.S. senator from Missouri (1953–76) who was a staunch advocate of a strong national defense but became an outspoken critic of U.S. military involvement in Vietnam, which he believed was irrelevant to U.S. security. Symington served in World War I, attended Yale University

  • Symington, William (British engineer)

    William Symington, British engineer who developed (1801) a successful steam-driven paddle wheel and used it the following year to propel one of the first practical steamboats, the Charlotte Dundas. Although Symington was educated for the ministry at Glasgow and Edinburgh, his inclinations led him

  • Symington, William Stuart (United States senator)

    Stuart Symington, U.S. senator from Missouri (1953–76) who was a staunch advocate of a strong national defense but became an outspoken critic of U.S. military involvement in Vietnam, which he believed was irrelevant to U.S. security. Symington served in World War I, attended Yale University

  • Symmachan Forgeries (Christianity)

    Saint Symmachus: …literature, subsequently known as the Symmachan Forgeries, drawn on by later exponents of the doctrine quod prima sedes non judicatur a quoquam (“that no one can pass judgment on the pope”).

  • Symmachus (Greek scholar)

    biblical literature: The translation of Symmachus: Still another Greek translation was made toward the end of the same century by St. Symmachus, an otherwise unknown scholar, who made use of his predecessors. His influence was small despite the superior elegance of his work. Jerome did utilize Symmachus for his Vulgate,…

  • Symmachus, Quintus Aurelius Memmius (Roman senator [died 524])

    Quintus Aurelius Memmius Symmachus, Roman senator and patrician and a close friend of the philosopher Boethius, who married Symmachus’ daughter Rusticiana and with whom he was executed for treason by the Ostrogoth king Theodoric. Consul in 485, Symmachus was, like his son-in-law, an official of

  • Symmachus, Quintus Aurelius Memmius Eusebius (Roman statesman [circa 345–402])

    Quintus Aurelius Memmius Eusebius Symmachus, Roman statesman, a brilliant orator and writer who was a leading opponent of Christianity. Symmachus was the son of a consular family of great distinction and wealth. His oratorical ability brought him an illustrious official career culminating in the

  • Symmachus, Saint (pope)

    Saint Symmachus, ; feast day July 19), pope from 498 to 514. Apparently a Christian convert, Symmachus was an archdeacon in the Roman Church when elected to succeed Pope Anastasius II. Concurrently, a minority had elected, with the support of a strong Byzantine party, the archpriest Laurentius.

  • symmelus (congenital disorder)

    malformation: Somatic characters: …with no separate feet (sirenomelus or symmelus).

  • Symmes, Anna Tuthill (American first lady)

    Anna Harrison, American first lady (March 4–April 4, 1841), the wife of William Henry Harrison, ninth president of the United States, and grandmother of Benjamin Harrison, the 23rd president. The daughter of John Cleves Symmes (a soldier in the American Revolution and a judge) and Anna Tuthill

  • Symmes, Robert Edward (American poet)

    Robert Duncan, American poet, a leader of the Black Mountain group of poets in the 1950s. Duncan attended the University of California, Berkeley, in 1936–38 and 1948–50. He edited the Experimental Review from 1938 to 1940 and traveled widely thereafter, lecturing on poetry in the United States and

  • Symmetrel (drug)

    Amantadine, drug used to treat infections caused by influenza type A virus, the most common cause of influenza epidemics. Amantadine and its derivative, rimantadine, can be used successfully in the prevention and treatment of influenza A; however, these agents have no effect against influenza B

  • symmetria (sculptural technique)

    Polyclitus: …Greece this concept was called symmetria, and Polyclitus’s statues of young athletes, balanced, rhythmical, and finely detailed, were the best demonstration of his principles. His freer use of contrapposto (depiction of the human body with twistings in its vertical axis) helped liberate Greek sculpture from its tradition of rigid frontal…

  • symmetric cryptosystem (cryptology)

    public-key cryptography: Single-key cryptography is called symmetric for obvious reasons. A cryptosystem satisfying conditions 1–4 above is called asymmetric for equally obvious reasons. There are symmetric cryptosystems in which the encryption and decryption keys are not the same—for example, matrix transforms of the text in which one key is a nonsingular…

  • symmetric design (mathematics)

    combinatorics: BIB (balanced incomplete block) designs: …design is said to be symmetric if υ = b, and consequently r = k. Such a design is called a symmetric (υ, k, λ) design, and λ(υ ? 1) = k(k ? 1). A necessary condition for the existence of a symmetric (υ, k, λ) design is given by…

  • symmetric encryption (cryptology)

    public-key cryptography: Single-key cryptography is called symmetric for obvious reasons. A cryptosystem satisfying conditions 1–4 above is called asymmetric for equally obvious reasons. There are symmetric cryptosystems in which the encryption and decryption keys are not the same—for example, matrix transforms of the text in which one key is a nonsingular…

  • symmetric function (physics)

    quantum mechanics: Identical particles and multielectron atoms: …of Ψ remains unchanged, the wave function is said to be symmetric with respect to interchange; if the sign changes, the function is antisymmetric.

  • symmetric random walk (mathematics)

    probability theory: The symmetric random walk: A Markov process that behaves in quite different and surprising ways is the symmetric random walk. A particle occupies a point with integer coordinates in d-dimensional Euclidean space. At each time t = 1, 2,… it moves from its present location to…

  • symmetric wave function (physics)

    quantum mechanics: Identical particles and multielectron atoms: …of Ψ remains unchanged, the wave function is said to be symmetric with respect to interchange; if the sign changes, the function is antisymmetric.

  • symmetrical fold (geology)

    fold: A symmetrical fold is one in which the axial plane is vertical. An asymmetrical fold is one in which the axial plane is inclined. An overturned fold, or overfold, has the axial plane inclined to such an extent that the strata on one limb are overturned.…

  • symmetrical knot (carpet-making)

    rug and carpet: Materials and technique: The Turkish, or symmetrical, knot is used mainly in Asia Minor, the Caucasus, Iran (formerly Persia), and Europe. This knot was also formerly known as the Ghiordes knot. The Persian, or asymmetrical, knot is used principally in Iran, India, China, and Egypt. This knot was formerly known as the…

  • symmetrical relation (of a relation)

    formal logic: Classification of dyadic relations: …is true is called a symmetrical relation (example: “is parallel to”). If the relation ? is such that, whenever it holds between one object and a second, it fails to hold between the second and the first—i.e., if ? is such that (?x)(?y)(?xy ? ~?yx) —then ? is said to…

  • Symmetrodont (mammal)

    Spalacotherium: The genus Spalacotherium has a symmetrodont dentition, characterized by molar teeth with three cusps arranged in a triangle. The symmetrodonts are among the oldest known mammals and also among the most common European faunas of the time.

  • Symmetrodonta (mammal)

    Spalacotherium: The genus Spalacotherium has a symmetrodont dentition, characterized by molar teeth with three cusps arranged in a triangle. The symmetrodonts are among the oldest known mammals and also among the most common European faunas of the time.

  • symmetrogeny (biology)

    protist: Reproduction and life cycles: …mirror-image, type of fission (symmetrogenic fission). The ciliates, on the other hand, basically divide in a point-by-point correspondence of parts (homothetogenic fission), often seen as essentially transverse or perkinetal (across the kineties, or ciliary rows). Many amoebas exhibit, in effect, no clear-cut body symmetry or polarity, and thus their…

  • symmetry (definitions)

    Symmetry, In geometry, the property by which the sides of a figure or object reflect each other across a line (axis of symmetry) or surface; in biology, the orderly repetition of parts of an animal or plant; in chemistry, a fundamental property of orderly arrangements of atoms in molecules or

  • symmetry (crystallography)

    Symmetry, in crystallography, fundamental property of the orderly arrangements of atoms found in crystalline solids. Each arrangement of atoms has a certain number of elements of symmetry; i.e., changes in the orientation of the arrangement of atoms seem to leave the atoms unmoved. One such element

  • symmetry (of a relation)

    formal logic: Classification of dyadic relations: …is true is called a symmetrical relation (example: “is parallel to”). If the relation ? is such that, whenever it holds between one object and a second, it fails to hold between the second and the first—i.e., if ? is such that (?x)(?y)(?xy ? ~?yx) —then ? is said to…

  • Symmetry (work by Weyl)

    Hermann Weyl: …came to the fore in Symmetry (1952), a profusely illustrated work that examines symmetry in art and nature. He once said, “My work has always tried to unite the truth with the beautiful, but when I had to choose one or the other, I usually chose the beautiful.”

  • symmetry (biology)

    Symmetry, in biology, the repetition of the parts in an animal or plant in an orderly fashion. Specifically, symmetry refers to a correspondence of body parts, in size, shape, and relative position, on opposite sides of a dividing line or distributed around a central point or axis. With the

  • symmetry (physics)

    Symmetry, in physics, the concept that the properties of particles such as atoms and molecules remain unchanged after being subjected to a variety of symmetry transformations or “operations.” Since the earliest days of natural philosophy (Pythagoras in the 6th century bc), symmetry has furnished

  • symmetry breaking (physics)

    subatomic particle: Hidden symmetry: Throughout the 1950s, theorists tried to construct field theories for the nuclear forces that would exhibit the same kind of gauge symmetry inherent in James Clerk Maxwell’s theory of electrodynamics and in QED. There were two major problems, which were in fact related.…

  • symmetry, axis of (geometry)

    quasicrystal: Translational periodicity and symmetry: Fivefold symmetry axes are forbidden in ordinary crystals, while other axes, such as sixfold axes, are allowed. The reason is that translational periodicity, which is characteristic of crystal lattices, cannot be present in structures with fivefold symmetry. Figures 1 and 2 can be used to illustrate…

  • symmetry, centre of (physics)

    capacitor dielectric and piezoelectric ceramics: Piezoelectric ceramics: …as an inversion centre, or centre of symmetry—that is, a centre point from which the structure is virtually identical in any two opposite directions. In the case of BaTiO3, the centre of symmetry is lost owing to the transition from a cubic to a tetragonal structure, which shifts the Ti4+…

  • symmetry, plane of (geometry)

    symmetry: …in the five-armed starfishes), any plane passing through this axis will divide the animal into symmetrical halves. Animals having three, five, seven, etc., parts in a circle have symmetry that may be referred to, respectively, as three-rayed, five-rayed, seven-rayed, etc.; only certain planes through the axis will divide such animals…

  • Symnel, Lambert (English pretender)

    Lambert Simnel, impostor and claimant to the English crown, the son of an Oxford joiner, who was a pawn in the conspiracies to restore the Yorkist line after the victory of Henry VII (1485). A young Oxford priest, Richard Symonds, seeing in the handsome boy some alleged resemblance to Edward IV,

  • Symonds Yat (neck of land, England, United Kingdom)

    Symonds Yat, low-lying neck of land, 12 miles (19 km) south of Ross-on-Wye, Herefordshire unitary authority, Eng., in a great meander loop of the River Wye. Yat Rock (500 feet [150 metres]) to the south has a famous scenic

  • Symonds, John Addington (English writer)

    John Addington Symonds, English essayist, poet, and biographer best known for his cultural history of the Italian Renaissance. After developing symptoms of tuberculosis while a fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford, Symonds traveled extensively for his health, settling in Davos, Switz., in 1880.

  • Symonds, Richard (English priest)

    Lambert Simnel: A young Oxford priest, Richard Symonds, seeing in the handsome boy some alleged resemblance to Edward IV, determined to exploit him. In 1486, the rumour that the “princes in the Tower,” Edward’s children, were still alive, suggested that Simnel might be passed off as one of them. A year…

  • Symone, Raven (American actress)

    The Cosby Show: …and the irresistible Olivia (Raven Symone, who later starred in the Disney Channel’s That’s So Raven, 2003–07) was eventually introduced as Cliff and Clair’s five-year-old step-grandchild.

  • Symonenko, Petro (Ukrainian politician)

    Ukraine: Kuchma’s presidency: …Kuchma defeated Communist Party leader Petro Symonenko by a resounding margin. Politically, Kuchma had benefited from the splintering of the left among several candidates. He also had campaigned vigorously, using all the means available to him, particularly the media. Indeed, a strong bias in favour of Kuchma became evident in…

  • Symonette, Sir Roland Theodore (premier of The Bahamas)

    Sir Roland Theodore Symonette, Bahamian politician who served as the first premier of The Bahamas (1964–67). Symonette was educated at a day school on Eleuthera and became a shipyard owner and a contractor for the construction of roads, wharves, and harbours in The Bahamas. He was elected in 1935

  • Symons, A. J. A. (British author)

    A.J.A. Symons, British author and biographer best known for his brilliant and unconventional biography The Quest for Corvo (1934). Family economic difficulties obliged Symons to leave home and learn a trade at an early age. For three years he lived a life of drudgery, working as an apprentice to a

  • Symons, Alphonse James Albert (British author)

    A.J.A. Symons, British author and biographer best known for his brilliant and unconventional biography The Quest for Corvo (1934). Family economic difficulties obliged Symons to leave home and learn a trade at an early age. For three years he lived a life of drudgery, working as an apprentice to a

  • Symons, Arthur (English poet and critic)

    Arthur Symons, poet and critic, the first English champion of the French Symbolist poets. Symons’s schooling was irregular, but, determined to be a writer, he soon found a place in the London literary journalism of the 1890s. He joined the Rhymers’ Club (a group of poets including William Butler

  • Symons, Arthur William (English poet and critic)

    Arthur Symons, poet and critic, the first English champion of the French Symbolist poets. Symons’s schooling was irregular, but, determined to be a writer, he soon found a place in the London literary journalism of the 1890s. He joined the Rhymers’ Club (a group of poets including William Butler

  • Symons, George James (British meteorologist)

    George James Symons, British meteorologist who strove to provide reliable observational data by imposing standards of accuracy and uniformity on meteorological measurements and by substantially increasing the number of reporting stations. Symons was elected a member of the British Meteorological

  • sympathetic nervous system (anatomy)

    Sympathetic nervous system, division of the nervous system that functions to produce localized adjustments (such as sweating as a response to an increase in temperature) and reflex adjustments of the cardiovascular system. Under conditions of stress, the entire sympathetic nervous system is

  • sympathetic neuron (physiology)

    human nervous system: Enteric nervous system: …two types of sensory neurons: sympathetic neurons, which originate from dorsal-root ganglia found at the thoracic and lumbar levels; and parasympathetic neurons, which originate in the nodose ganglion of the vagus nerve or in dorsal-root ganglia at sacral levels S2–S4. The former innervate the gastrointestinal tract from the pharynx to…

  • sympathetic ophthalmia (pathology)

    eye disease: Ocular injuries: …of inflammation following injury, called sympathetic ophthalmia, is of particular importance. In this condition an injured eye causes the other, previously normal eye to take part in the inflammation, with resulting impairment of vision. Sympathetic ophthalmia can occur weeks, months, or years after the initial injury. The cause of sympathetic…

  • sympathetic ophthalmitis (pathology)

    eye disease: Ocular injuries: …of inflammation following injury, called sympathetic ophthalmia, is of particular importance. In this condition an injured eye causes the other, previously normal eye to take part in the inflammation, with resulting impairment of vision. Sympathetic ophthalmia can occur weeks, months, or years after the initial injury. The cause of sympathetic…

  • sympathetic outflow (anatomy)

    human nervous system: Sympathetic nervous system: …sometimes referred to as the thoracolumbar outflow.) The axons of these neurons exit the spinal cord in the ventral roots and then synapse on either sympathetic ganglion cells or specialized cells in the adrenal gland called chromaffin cells.

  • sympathetic string (music)

    stringed instrument: The production of sound: and the sitar, possess numerous sympathetic strings tuned according to the notes of the mode being played. The South Asian fiddle, sarangi, has some two to three dozen sympathetic strings; the Norwegian Hardanger fiddle (Hardingfele) has four or five sympathetic strings; and the viola d’amore typically has seven. Sympathetic strings…

  • sympathetic trunk (anatomy)

    human nervous system: The peripheral nervous system: …ganglia are located in the sympathetic trunks, two long chains of ganglia stretching along each side of the vertebral column from the base of the skull to the coccyx; these are referred to as paravertebral ganglia. Prevertebral motor ganglia are located near internal organs innervated by their projecting fibres, while…

  • sympatheticochromaffin complex (anatomy)

    hormone: Chromaffin tissue of the medulla: … and controls their involuntary functions. It is generally assumed that the chromaffin tissue and sympathetic nervous system together act to increase the capacity of the animal for effective action in emergencies. At such times, cardiac output increases, blood is distributed with maximum effectiveness, respiration is enhanced, and the nervous…

  • sympatheticochromaffin system (anatomy)

    hormone: Chromaffin tissue of the medulla: … and controls their involuntary functions. It is generally assumed that the chromaffin tissue and sympathetic nervous system together act to increase the capacity of the animal for effective action in emergencies. At such times, cardiac output increases, blood is distributed with maximum effectiveness, respiration is enhanced, and the nervous…

  • sympathomimetic drug

    Adrenergic drug, any of various drugs that mimic or interfere with the functioning of the sympathetic nervous system by affecting the release or action of norepinephrine and epinephrine. These hormones, which are also known as noradrenaline and adrenaline, are secreted by the adrenal gland, hence

  • sympatric speciation (biology)

    speciation: Sympatric speciation: …alternative to allopatric speciation is sympatric speciation, in which reproductive isolation occurs within a single population without geographic isolation. In general, when populations are physically separated, some reproductive isolation arises. How genetic divergence can happen within a population of individuals that are continually interacting with one another is usually difficult…

  • Symphalangus (primate genus)

    gibbon: >Symphalangus. Molecular data indicate that the four groups are as different from one another as chimpanzees are from humans.

  • Symphalangus syndactylus (primate)

    Siamang, (Symphalangus syndactylus), arboreal ape of the gibbon family (Hylobatidae), found in the forests of Sumatra and Malaya. The siamang resembles other gibbons but is more robust. The siamang is also distinguished by the webbing between its second and third toes and by a dilatable hairless

  • symphonia (musical instrument)

    hurdy-gurdy: Secular, one-man forms, called symphonia, appeared in the 13th century. It was fashionable during the reign of Louis XIV as the vielle à roue (“wheel fiddle”) and was played into the 20th century by folk and street musicians, notably in France and eastern Europe. The Swedish nyckelharpa is a…

  • symphonia (theology)

    Christianity: The views of Eusebius of Caesarea: …of the Christian church as symphōnia, or “harmony.” The church recognized the powers of the emperor as protector of the church and preserver of the unity of the faith and asserted its own authority over the spiritual domain of preserving Orthodox doctrine and order in the church. The emperor, on…

  • Symphoniae sacrae (concerto by Schütz)

    concerto: The Baroque vocal-instrumental concerto (c. 1585–1650): …the three sets of Schütz’s Symphoniae sacrae, or Sacred Symphonies (Venice, 1629; Dresden, 1647 and 1650), works that reveal all the variety of treatment to be found in Schein’s sacred concerti, except for Schein’s interest in the chorale. The first two of Schütz’s sets consisted of few-voice settings, mostly one…

  • Symphonic Dances (work by Rachmaninoff)

    Symphonic Dances, Op. 45, symphony for orchestra by Russian composer Sergey Rachmaninoff that premiered in the United States in 1940 and was the last of his major compositions. Rachmaninoff had left his homeland forever soon after the Russian Revolution of 1917. Symphonic Dances was first performed

  • symphonic poem (music)

    Symphonic poem, musical composition for orchestra inspired by an extra-musical idea, story, or “program,” to which the title typically refers or alludes. The characteristic single-movement symphonic poem evolved from the concert-overture, an overture not attached to an opera or play yet s

  • Symphonic Studies (work by Schumann)

    Robert Schumann: The early years: …and the études symphoniques (1834–37; Symphonic Studies), another work consisting of a set of variations. In 1834 Schumann had become engaged to Ernestine von Fricken, but long before the engagement was formally broken off (Jan. 1, 1836) he had fallen in love with the then 16-year-old Clara Wieck. Clara returned…

  • Symphonic Tribute to Duke Ellington (work by Schuller)

    Gunther Schuller: …pieces and in 1955 composed Symphonic Tribute to Duke Ellington. He often collaborated with John Lewis, notably with the Modern Jazz Quartet and the Modern Jazz Society.

  • symphonie concertante (music)

    Symphonie concertante, in music of the Classical period (c. 1750–c. 1820), symphony employing two or more solo instruments. Though it is akin to the concerto grosso of the preceding Baroque era in its contrasting of a group of soloists with the full orchestra, it rather resembles the Classical solo

  • Symphonie espagnole (work by Lalo)

    édouard Lalo: …composer, best known for his Symphonie espagnole and notable for the clarity of his orchestration.

  • Symphonie fantastique, Op. 14 (symphony by Berlioz)

    Symphonie fantastique, Op. 14, orchestral work by French composer Hector Berlioz, widely recognized as an early example of program music, that attempts to portray a sequence of opium dreams inspired by a failed love affair. The composition is also notable for its expanded orchestration, grander

  • Symphonie fantastique: épisode de la vie d’un artiste (symphony by Berlioz)

    Symphonie fantastique, Op. 14, orchestral work by French composer Hector Berlioz, widely recognized as an early example of program music, that attempts to portray a sequence of opium dreams inspired by a failed love affair. The composition is also notable for its expanded orchestration, grander

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