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  • San Nazaro Maggiore (church, Milan, Italy)

    Western architecture: Second period, after ad 313: …the Holy Apostles, the present San Nazaro Maggiore (begun in 382), is cruciform in plan with an apse in the east, built in imitation of the church of the same name at Constantinople. At Cologne, the oval plan of St. Gereon (built about 380) is enriched by eight smaller apses…

  • San Nicola (church, Bari, Italy)

    Bari: …extended; and the Basilica of San Nicola, founded in 1087 to house the relics of St. Nicholas, the patron saint of Bari. The seat of an archbishop and of a university (founded 1924), the city has a provincial picture gallery and archaeological museum. The annual Fiera del Levante, an Occidental-Oriental…

  • San Nicolas (Aruba)

    San Nicolas, town, southeastern end of the island of Aruba, West Indies, in the southern Caribbean Sea. Its deepwater port, with facilities for cargo handling and fuel bunkering, serves a nearby oil refinery. Near San Nicolas is the coastal village of Sabaneta, which, under the name

  • San Nicolás de Bari y de los Arroyos (Argentina)

    San Nicolás de los Arroyos, city and port, northern Buenos Aires provincia (province), eastern Argentina. It is located on the western bank of the Paraná River. It was founded in 1748 as San Nicolás de Bari y de los Arroyos by Don Rafael Aguiar and was declared a city in 1819. The Pact of San

  • San Nicolás de los Arroyos (Argentina)

    San Nicolás de los Arroyos, city and port, northern Buenos Aires provincia (province), eastern Argentina. It is located on the western bank of the Paraná River. It was founded in 1748 as San Nicolás de Bari y de los Arroyos by Don Rafael Aguiar and was declared a city in 1819. The Pact of San

  • San Nicolás Obisbo, Colegio de (school, Mexico)

    Vasco de Quiroga: …humanist educator who founded the Colegio de San Nicolás Obisbo in colonial Mexico.

  • San Nicolás, Pact of (Argentina [1852])

    unitario: …the provincial governors signed the Pact of San Nicolás (at San Nicolás de los Arroyos, in Buenos Aires province), by which the federal agreement of 1831 between Argentina and the littoral provinces was reinstated and a call for a constitutional convention was issued. Gen. Justo José de Urquiza, who had…

  • San Nicolinos (people)

    Gabrielino: …apparently related, group was the Nicolino (Nicole?o, or San Nicolinos), who inhabited San Nicolas Island.

  • san no tsuzumi (drum)

    tsuzumi: … drums, of which only the san no tsuzumi form survives in komagaku style (courtly music of Japanese, Korean, and other non-Chinese, non-Indian ancestry). The tsuzumi is related to the Korean changgo, a large hourglass-shaped, two-headed drum.

  • San Pa-lo (Buddhist god)

    Sa?vara, (Sanskrit: “Union”, ) in northern Buddhism, a fierce protective deity. Like Heruka and Hevajra, he is an emanation of the Buddha Ak?obhya and wears a figure of that god in his headdress. Sa?vara is widely worshiped as a yi-dam (tutelary, or guardian, deity) in Tibet and China and is said

  • San Pablo (Philippines)

    San Pablo, city, southwestern Luzon, north-central Philippines, about 10 miles (16 km) southeast of Los Ba?os. Seven small crater lakes are within the city, which is almost surrounded by quiescent volcanic cones. Originally the site of a Spanish military and missionary post, it was incorporated in

  • San Paolo (island, Italy)

    Lake Iseo: The islet of San Paolo, south of Monte Isola, is occupied by the buildings of a small disused Franciscan convent, and that of Loreto, north, has a ruined chapel containing frescoes.

  • San Paolo Fuori le Mura (basilica, Rome, Italy)

    Rome: San Paolo Fuori le Mura: San Paolo Fuori le Mura (St. Paul Outside the Walls), a basilica built by Constantine over the grave of St. Paul, the Apostle, was replaced starting in 386 by a structure mammoth for its time. It was faithfully restored after…

  • San Pasqual Battlefield State Historic Park (park, California, United States)

    Escondido: Just southeast of the city, San Pasqual Battlefield State Historic Park marks the site of the bloodiest battle (1846) in California history, when the Californian forces of General Andrés Pico met U.S. Army troops under Brigadier General Stephen W. Kearny. Also southeast of the city is San Diego Wild Animal…

  • San Pedro (California, United States)

    San Pedro, main unit of the Port of Los Angeles (the other units are Wilmington and Terminal Island), southern California, U.S. The port is situated on the southeastern slopes of Palos Verdes Peninsula, overlooking Los Angeles Harbor (a section of San Pedro Bay) from the west. San Pedro’s recorded

  • San Pedro (Mexico)

    San Pedro, city, southwestern Coahuila estado (state), northeastern Mexico. It is located on one of the irrigation canals of the Nazas River, near the swampy Mayrán Lagoon. San Pedro lies 3,619 feet (1,103 metres) above sea level and is located 35 miles (60 km) by highway northeast of Torreón. In

  • San Pedro (Paraguay)

    San Pedro, town, central Paraguay. It lies in the lowlands between the Jejui Guazú and Paraguay rivers. San Pedro was founded in 1786 and lies in a well-watered lowland of savanna and forest whose streams drain westward into the Paraguay River. It is the commercial and manufacturing centre for this

  • San Pedro church (church, Teruel, Spain)

    Teruel: …of the Gothic church of San Pedro were buried the celebrated “Lovers of Teruel,” Diego Juan Martínez de Marcilla and Isabel de Segura (13th century). Their story is the subject of works by Tirso de Molina (real name Gabriel Téllez), Juan Pérez de Montalbán, Juan Eugenio Hartzenbusch, and—in an Italian…

  • San Pedro de Durazno (Uruguay)

    Durazno, city, central Uruguay, on the Yi River. Long part of an unclaimed area between Spanish and Portuguese territories, Durazno was not formally founded until 1821, when José Fructuoso Rivera established a settlement called San Pedro de Durazno, a name concocted from Dom Pedro de Alcantara,

  • San Pedro de Las Colonias (Mexico)

    San Pedro, city, southwestern Coahuila estado (state), northeastern Mexico. It is located on one of the irrigation canals of the Nazas River, near the swampy Mayrán Lagoon. San Pedro lies 3,619 feet (1,103 metres) above sea level and is located 35 miles (60 km) by highway northeast of Torreón. In

  • San Pedro de Macorís (Dominican Republic)

    San Pedro de Macorís, city, southeastern Dominican Republic. It is situated at the mouth of the wide estuary of the Macorís River. The chief city of the southeastern region, San Pedro de Macorís has an economy centred on the production of sugar. Its modern port handles much of the country’s

  • San Pedro Mártir (mountain, Baja California, Mexico)

    Baja California: The granitic Juárez and San Pedro Mártir mountains, the latter rising to 10,154 feet (3,095 metres) above sea level, form the divide in the north, with lower parallel ranges much interrupted by erosion along both coasts. The centre of the peninsula is dominated by volcanoes and vast lava flows…

  • San Pedro Sula (Honduras)

    San Pedro Sula, city, northwestern Honduras. It is situated in the Ulúa River valley, 37 miles (60 km) inland by highway and railroad from Puerto Cortés, on the Gulf of Honduras. The city, founded in 1536, has been almost completely rebuilt. It is the centre of an important agricultural area that

  • San Pedro Tlaquepaque (Mexico)

    Tlaquepaque, city, north-central Jalisco estado (state), west-central Mexico. Formerly known as San Pedro Tlaquepaque, the city lies in the temperate Guadalajara valley, approximately 5,400 feet (1,650 metres) above sea level. A suburb of Guadalajara, the state capital, 7 miles (11 km) southeast,

  • San Pedro y San Pablo, Río (river, Mexico)

    Usumacinta River: …state; the central arm, called San Pedro y San Pablo, flows into the bay at the town of San Pedro; and the eastern arm, the Palizada, empties into the Términos Lagoon in Campeche state. The total length of the main channel, including the Chixoy, is approximately 600 miles (1,000 km).…

  • San Pedro, Church of (church, Lima, Peru)

    Bernardo Bitti: …for the Jesuits’ college and Church of San Pedro in Lima. In Lima and elsewhere in Peru, Bitti frequently collaborated with Pedro de Vargas, also a Jesuit. Together they produced the sculptural support for many retablos. Among Bitti’s works for the Church of San Pedro is the Coronation of the…

  • San Petronio (church, Bologna, Italy)

    Jacopo della Quercia: …sculpture around the portal of San Petronio at Bologna. The 10 scenes from Genesis, including The Creation of Eve, 5 scenes from the early life of Christ, the reliefs of prophets, and the statues of the Virgin and Child with Saints Petronius and Ambrose give a sense of depth often…

  • San Pietro in Montorio (church, Rome, Italy)

    Donato Bramante: Roman period: …known as the Tempietto in San Pietro in Montorio, on the site where St. Peter was said to have been crucified.

  • San Pietro in Vincoli (church, Rome, Italy)

    Rome: San Pietro in Vincoli: Originally the Basilica Eudoxiana, San Pietro in Vincoli (St. Peter in Chains) minor basilica was built in 432–440 with money from the empress Eudoxia for the veneration of the chains of the apostle Peter’s Jerusalem imprisonment. Later his Roman chains were…

  • San Procolo, Cathedral of (Pozzuoli, Italy)

    Pozzuoli: The Cathedral of San Procolo incorporates several columns of the ancient Temple of Augustus. Inland, to the northeast, is the famous Solfatara, a semiactive volcano that exhales sulfurous vapours and gives vent to liquid mud and hot mineral springs. Along the coast is the Monte Nuovo,…

  • San Quentin News (American newspaper)

    San Quentin State Prison: Reforms and renovations: …the inmates also began publishing Wall City News, called “the only newspaper in the world published within the walls of a prison.” Although it ceased publication in the mid-1930s, the paper was revived (as San Quentin News) under Clinton Duffy, warden from 1940 to 1951; the newspaper was suspended periodically…

  • San Quentin State Prison (prison, San Quentin, California, United States)

    San Quentin State Prison, maximum-security correctional facility for men located in San Quentin, near San Francisco, California. Opened in 1854, the penitentiary is the state’s oldest prison and its only facility that conducts executions. San Quentin is also among the most well-known prisons in the

  • San Rafael (Argentina)

    San Rafael, city, central Mendoza provincia (province), western Argentina. It is situated near the eastern base of the Andes Mountains on the Diamante River. It originated around San Rafael Fort, built in 1805 at the frontier then roughly marking the southern limits of European colonization.

  • San Rafael (California, United States)

    San Rafael, city, seat (1893) of Marin county, western California, U.S. It lies on the northwestern shore of San Francisco Bay. The area developed around the Mission San Rafael Arcángel (1817; restored) as a ranch town. Growth was sustained by the arrival of the San Francisco and North Pacific

  • San Rafael Mountains (mountains, California, United States)

    San Rafael Mountains, segment of the Coast Ranges (see Pacific mountain system), southwestern California, U.S. The range extends southeastward for about 50 miles (80 km) from the Cuyama River to near the Santa Barbara–Ventura county line. Several peaks exceed 6,000 feet (1,800 metres), including

  • San Rafael National Park (national park, Chile)

    San Rafael National Park, national park, southern Chile, on the Pacific coast. Established in 1945, it occupies an area of 2,300 sq mi (5,900 sq km). One of its great attractions is Laguna San Rafael (Lake San Rafael), a fjord more than 10 mi (16 km) long between Península de Taitao and the

  • San Rafael, Mount (mountain, Paraguay)

    Paraguay: Relief: The highest peak is Mount San Rafael at 2,789 feet (850 metres), in the Cordillera de San Rafael in southeastern Paraguay. To the west lies the broad valley of the Paraguay River. The area from Encarnación northward to the Brazilian border, comprising one-third of eastern Paraguay, is called the…

  • San Remo (Italy)

    San Remo, town, Liguria region, northwestern Italy. It is the chief resort of that part of the Italian Riviera known as the Riviera dei Fiori, east of Nice, France. A year-round health resort since 1861, its repute was greatly increased by the visit of Frederick III of Germany in 1887–88. In 1920

  • San Remo, Conference of (Italy [1920])

    Conference of San Remo, (April 19–26, 1920), international meeting convened at San Remo, on the Italian Riviera, to decide the future of the former territories of the Ottoman Turkish Empire, one of the defeated Central Powers in World War I; it was attended by the prime ministers of Great Britain,

  • San River (river, Poland)

    Vistula River: Physiography: …principal sections delineated by the San and Narew rivers, the two most prominent tributaries. The upper reach extends from the source to where the San joins its parent river near Sandomierz; its length is about 240 miles. The middle reach, from the mouth of the San to that of the…

  • San Rocco, Great School of (building, Venice, Italy)

    Venice: Trade guild buildings: …panels and ceilings of the Great School of San Rocco (instituted 1478, completed 1560) are masterpieces by Tintoretto. The School of San Giorgio degli Schiavoni (for Slavic merchants) has the finest collection of Vittore Carpaccio’s works outside Venice’s chief gallery, the Academy of Fine Arts, whose own collection came in…

  • San Roque Dam (dam, Córdoba, Argentina)

    Córdoba: …Primero River in 1866 of San Roque Dam, one of South America’s earliest large dams. The lake impounded by the dam, which has since been improved, supplies Córdoba with water, irrigates orchards and grain fields, and is the source of hydroelectric power for the city’s leather, textile, automotive, glass, and…

  • San Salvador (national capital, El Salvador)

    San Salvador, capital of El Salvador. It is located on the Ace Chaute River in the Valley of the Hammocks (Valle de las Hamacas) at an elevation of 2,238 feet (682 metres). San Salvador Volcano is 7 miles (11 km) west-northwest. Founded near Suchitoto in 1525 by the Spanish conquistador Pedro de

  • San Salvador (volcano, El Salvador)

    El Salvador: Relief: …[1,965 metres]), through those of San Salvador (6,430 feet [1,960 metres]) and San Miguel (6,988 feet [2,130 metres]), to that of Conchagua (4,078 feet [1,243 metres]) in the extreme east. These volcanoes are separated by a series of basins (commonly referred to as El Salvador’s central plain), lying at elevations…

  • San Salvador de Bayamo (Cuba)

    Bayamo, city, eastern Cuba. It lies on the Bayamo River, a major tributary of the Cauto River. It was founded as San Salvador de Bayamo in 1513. In colonial times Bayamo was one of Cuba’s most important cities, and it was the scene of several uprisings, including the independence movement of 1895.

  • San Salvador de Jujuy (Argentina)

    San Salvador de Jujuy, city, capital of Jujuy provincia (province), northwestern Argentina. It lies between the Xibi-xibi and Grande rivers, overlooking the valley of Jujuy at 4,131 feet (1,259 metres) above sea level. It was founded in 1593 by Francisco de Arga?arás y Murguia, a colonial soldier,

  • San Salvador Island (island, Galápagos Islands, Ecuador)

    San Salvador Island, one of the Galapagos Islands, in the eastern Pacific Ocean about 600 miles (965 km) west of mainland Ecuador. Its relief is dominated by two volcanoes, the larger rising to 1,700 feet (520 m), that form the mass of the island’s area of 203 square miles (526 square km).

  • San Salvador Island (island, The Bahamas)

    San Salvador Island, one of the islands of The Bahamas, in the West Indies. San Salvador is believed by many scholars to be the island of Guanahani, where Christopher Columbus made his first landing in the New World on October 12, 1492. Some scholars assert, however, that the island of Guanahani is

  • San Salvador Kongo language

    Kongo language: …are many dialects of Kongo; San Salvador Kongo, spoken in Congo (Kinshasa) and Angola, has more than 1.5 million speakers and is often listed as a separate language because it is not mutually intelligible with other Kongo dialects. There are more than seven million native speakers of Kongo, many of…

  • San Salvatore, Basilica of (church, Spoleto, Italy)

    Spoleto: …Gregorio Maggiore (12th century), and San Salvatore, an elaborately decorated monument, usually assigned to the 5th century but possibly dating from the late 8th. The town is supplied with water by an aqueduct that crosses a ravine on an arched bridge built in 1364.

  • San Salvatore, Mount (mountain, Switzerland)

    Lugano: …Italy; to the south is Mount San Salvatore (2,992 feet [912 metres]), and to the east is Mount Brè (3,035 feet [925 metres]). First mentioned in the 6th century, it was occupied in 1499 by the French and was taken in 1512 by the Swiss. The centre of Lugano canton…

  • San Sebastián (Spain)

    Donostia–San Sebastián, city, capital of Guipúzcoa provincia (province), northeastern Basque Country comunidad autónoma(autonomous community), north-central Spain. It is a fashionable seaside resort at the mouth of the canalized Urumea River on the Bay of Biscay, east of Bilbao and near the French

  • San Sebastián de la Gomera (Spain)

    Gomera, La: San Sebastián de la Gomera, on the east coast, is the chief port and capital. It has a sheltered roadstead and is backed by the steep cliffs of a wide ravine. It was the last stopping place of Christopher Columbus on his first transatlantic voyage,…

  • San Sebastián, Pact of (Spain [1930])

    Niceto Alcalá Zamora: …and Catalan left in the Pact of San Sebastián (August 1930). As leader of the revolutionary committee, he successfully demanded Alfonso’s abdication on the basis of the municipal elections of April 1931. Alfonso left Spain, and Alcalá Zamora went from prison to become prime minister. He resigned on Oct. 14,…

  • San Sebastiano (church, Venice, Italy)

    Paolo Veronese: The early years: …summons of the prior of S. Sebastiano in Venice, Veronese began the decoration of the church that was later to become his burial place. Whereas in the Palazzo Ducale he had often worked in collaboration with Zelotti, Veronese worked alone in S. Sebastiano. In the Story of Esther, depicted on…

  • San Sebastiano, Basilica of (church, Rome, Italy)

    catacomb: …the subterranean cemetery under the Basilica of San Sebastiano (located on the Appian Way near Rome), which was reputed to have been the temporary resting place of the bodies of Saints Peter and Paul in the last half of the 3rd century. By extension, the word came to refer to…

  • San Severo (Italy)

    San Severo, city and episcopal see, Puglia (Apulia) regione, east-central Italy. It lies in the north of the Puglia Tableland, just north of Foggia city. A flourishing market centre in the 12th century, it was owned by a succession of feudal rulers before passing to the Kingdom of Naples and, in

  • San Simeon (California, United States)

    San Simeon, village, San Luis Obispo county, southwestern California, U.S. It lies along the Pacific Ocean overlooking San Simeon Bay. Part of a Mexican land grant of 1840, Rancho Piedras Blancas was purchased by George Hearst, father of publisher William Randolph Hearst, in 1865. George Hearst

  • San Simón, University of (university, Cochabamba, Bolivia)

    Cochabamba: …the site of the Main University of San Simón (established in 1826) and has a museum, municipal library, cathedral, and government palace.

  • San Simpliciano (church, Milan, Italy)

    Milan: Cultural life: …Corso Garibaldi stands the Basilica San Simpliciano, which according to tradition was founded in the 4th century by St. Ambrose. Its apse contains the 15th-century fresco Coronation of the Virgin by Ambrogio Bergognone. Other notable churches in the central area include San Satiro, Sant’Eustorgio, San Lorenzo Maggiore, and San Babila.…

  • San Stefano, Treaty of (Russia-Turkey [1878])

    Treaty of San Stefano, (March 3 [February 19, Old Style], 1878), peace settlement imposed on the Ottoman government by Russia at the conclusion of the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78. It provided for a new disposition of the European provinces of the Ottoman Empire that would have ended any effective

  • San Telmo (area, Buenos Aires, Argentina)

    Buenos Aires: City neighbourhoods: San Telmo, or Barrio Sur, south of the Plaza de Mayo, began to be restored and gentrified in the early 1990s after nearly a century of neglect and decay. By the later part of the decade the area had become trendy and bohemian. Its numerous…

  • San Tomás de la Nueva Guayana de la Angostura (Venezuela)

    Ciudad Bolívar, city, capital of Bolívar estado (state), southeastern Venezuela. It lies on a small hill on the south bank of the Orinoco River, opposite Soledad on the north. Its elevation ranges from 85 to 246 feet (26 to 75 metres) above sea level; the average annual temperature is in the

  • San Valentín, Mount (mountain, Chile)

    Chile: The Chilean Andes: …significant heights are still reached: Mount San Valentín is more than 12,000 feet high, and Mount Darwin in Tierra del Fuego reaches almost 8,000 feet. Reminders of the last ice age are the perfectly U-shaped glacial troughs, sharp-edged mountains, Andean lakes, and some 7,000 square miles of continental ice masses.…

  • San Vicente (El Salvador)

    San Vicente, city, south-central El Salvador. It lies along the Accihuapa River at the northeastern foot of San Vicente Volcano (7,155 feet [2,181 metres]), in a region of hot springs and geysers. Founded in 1635, on the site of Tehuacán, an ancient Indian settlement, it has served as both the

  • San Vicente (Chile)

    Concepción: …outport of Talcahuano, Huachipato, and San Vicente with Concepción. San Vicente is both a resort and a source of fresh and preserved seafood for Santiago, the nation’s capital, 260 miles (420 km) northeast. The Huachipato steel mill (operational since 1950), a petroleum refinery (1966), and the San Vicente chemical complex…

  • San Vicente (Spain)

    Majorca: …of which are those of San Vicente in the north, whose type and carvings indicate a close relationship to those of southern France, near Arles. At Valldemosa is the monastery where the French writer George Sand stayed and the Polish composer Frédéric Chopin wrote some of his finest mazurkas and…

  • San Vincente de la Ciénaga (New Mexico, United States)

    Silver City, town, seat (1874) of Grant county, southwestern New Mexico, U.S. It lies just east of the Continental Divide, at an altitude of 5,931 feet (1,808 metres) in the foothills of the Pinos Altos Range, on the edge of Gila National Forest (of which it is headquarters). It was established in

  • San Vitale, Church of (church, Ravenna, Italy)

    Church of San Vitale, church in Ravenna, Italy, that was built in the 6th century and is considered a masterpiece of Byzantine achitecture. It is especially noted for the colourful mosaics of Christian iconography that decorate the interior walls and ceilings. The church was begun by Bishop

  • San Yu, U (president of Burma)

    U San Yu, Myanmar (Burmese) politician who headed a repressive military government while serving as president from 1981 to 1988 (b. 1919--d. Jan. 28,

  • San Zanipòlo (church, Venice, Italy)

    Giovanni Battista Piazzetta: …Chapel of the Sacrament in Santi Giovanni e Paolo. The “Ecstasy of St. Francis,” perhaps his finest religious work, dates from about 1732, and some three years later he was commissioned to execute an “Assumption” for the elector of Cologne. The celebrated “Fortune Teller” is dated 1740. “The Pastoral” and…

  • San Zeno Maggiore (church, Verona, Italy)

    Verona: …outstanding churches include the Romanesque San Zeno Maggiore (originally 5th century, rebuilt 1117–1227), with a brick and marble facade, a celebrated marble porch, and a triptych by the 14th-century painter Andrea Mantegna, and the Gothic Sant’Anastasia (foundation 1290; completed 1422–81). The Romanesque-Gothic cathedral (rebuilt 15th century) contains an Assumption by…

  • San, Saya (Myanmar leader)

    Saya San, leader of the anti-British rebellion of 1930–32 in Burma (Myanmar). Saya San was a native of Shwebo, a centre of nationalist-monarchist sentiment in north-central Burma that was the birthplace of the Konbaung (or Alaungpaya) dynasty, which controlled Myanmar from 1752 until the British

  • San-ch’ing (Taoist deities)

    San-ch’ing, (Chinese: “Three Pure Ones”) highest triad of deities in the generalized pantheon of sectarian religious Taoism. First in evidence during the T’ang dynasty, the triad represented a ranking of three deities associated with the three highest heavens (or “pure” realms) in the Taoist

  • San-ch’ung (Taiwan)

    San-ch’ung, former municipality (shih, or shi), northern Taiwan. In 2010 it became a city district of the special municipality of New Taipei City, when the former T’ai-pei county was administratively reorganized. San-ch’ung lies in the northern part of Taiwan’s western coastal plain on the west

  • san-hsien (musical instrument)

    Sanxian, (Chinese: “three strings”) any of a group of long-necked, fretless Chinese lutes. The instrument’s rounded rectangular resonator has a snakeskin front and back, and the curved-back pegbox at the end of the neck has lateral, or side, tuning pegs that adjust three silk or nylon strings. The

  • San-kuan Pass (mountain pass, China)

    Shaanxi: Relief and drainage: …cross the Qin Mountains: the Sanguan Pass south of Baoji, which leads to the Jialing River valley and thus into Sichuan; the Gaoguan Pass south of Xi’an, which leads to the Hanzhong Basin; and the Lantian Pass southeast of Xi’an, which affords a route to Nanyang in Henan and to…

  • San-kuo (ancient kingdoms, China)

    Three Kingdoms, (ad 220–280), trio of warring Chinese states that followed the demise of the Han dynasty (206 bc–ad 220) In ad 25, after a brief period of disruption, the great Han empire had been reconstituted as the Dong (Eastern) Han. However, by the end of the 2nd century, the Dong Han empire

  • San-lun (Buddhism)

    San-lun, school of Chinese Buddhism derived from the Indian Mādhyamika school. See

  • San-men-hsia (gorge, China)

    Sanmen Gorge, gorge enclosing one section of the Huang He (Yellow River) in western Henan province, eastern China. The gorge is the site of a large dam and hydroelectric installation. The gorge is some 20 miles (30 km) east of the city of Sanmenxia. At the gorge the Huang He narrows to flow between

  • San-Min Chu-i (Chinese ideology)

    Three Principles of the People, the ideological basis of the political program of the Chinese Nationalist leader Sun Yat-sen (1866–1925), championing the principles of nationalism, democracy, and socialism. The principles were originally formulated as slogans for Sun’s revolutionary student group,

  • San-ming (China)

    Sanming, city, west-central Fujian sheng (province), southeastern China. It lies along the Sha River, a southern tributary of the Min River, the valley of which provides the chief southwest-to-northeast route through central Fujian. Westward and southwestward routes fan out into the mountainous

  • San-Pédro (C?te d’Ivoire)

    San-Pédro, port town, southwestern C?te d’Ivoire (Ivory Coast). It is situated about 40 miles (65 km) southwest of Sassandra, on the Gulf of Guinea. Until the mid-1960s, San-Pédro was a tiny fishing village of fewer than 100 inhabitants, but, following the start of port construction there in 1968,

  • San-tsang (Buddhist monk)

    Xuanzang, Buddhist monk and Chinese pilgrim to India who translated the sacred scriptures of Buddhism from Sanskrit into Chinese and founded in China the Buddhist Consciousness Only school. His fame rests mainly on the volume and diversity of his translations of the Buddhist sutras and on the

  • Sana (national capital, Yemen)

    Sanaa, city, capital of Yemen. It is situated at the western foot of Mount Nuqum, at an elevation of more than 7,200 feet (2,200 metres) above sea level, in the western part of the country. Sanaa has for many centuries been the chief economic, political, and religious centre of the Yemen Highlands.

  • Sanaa (national capital, Yemen)

    Sanaa, city, capital of Yemen. It is situated at the western foot of Mount Nuqum, at an elevation of more than 7,200 feet (2,200 metres) above sea level, in the western part of the country. Sanaa has for many centuries been the chief economic, political, and religious centre of the Yemen Highlands.

  • SANAA (Japanese architectural firm)

    Kazuyo Sejima and Ryue Nishizawa: …founding partners of the firm SANAA (Sejima and Nishizawa and Associates), designed structures that were admired for their refined simplicity, spatial fluidity, and thoughtful integration into their surroundings. In 2010 they were awarded the Pritzker Prize, becoming only the second partnership to be so honoured. (The first was Jacques Herzog…

  • Sanaa, University of (university, Sanaa, Yemen)

    Yemen: Education: The University of Sanaa (founded 1970), established largely with grants from Kuwait, is coeducational and comprises a variety of specialized colleges—e.g., those of agriculture, medicine, commerce, and law. The University of Aden (1975) offers a similar array of specialties. These two senior institutions of higher learning…

  • SANAC (British-South African history)

    South Africa: Milner and reconstruction: The South African Native Affairs Commission (SANAC) was appointed to provide comprehensive answers to “the native question.” Its report (1905) proposed territorial separation of black and white landownership, systematic urban segregation by the creation of black “locations,” the removal of black “squatters” from white farms and…

  • Sanada Yukitsura (Japanese official)

    Sakuma Zōzan: …the most trusted councillors of Sanada Yukitsura, a member of the council of advisers to the shogun, the hereditary military dictator of Japan. His espousal of Japan’s adoption of Western technology, however, was at odds with the shogunate’s xenophobic attitudes, and he and Sanada were forced to resign.

  • Sanaga River (river, Cameroon)

    Sanaga River, stream located in central Cameroon. Its most important headstreams—the Agoua and the Djérem—meet to form the Sanaga about 56 miles (90 km) north-northwest of Bertoua. The river then flows about 325 miles (525 km) southwest across the central plateau past Nanga-Eboko, Monatélé, and

  • Sanaka-sampradaya (Vai??ava sect)

    Indian philosophy: Nimbarka: …sect is known as the Sanaka-sampradaya of Vaishnavism. Nimbarka’s commentary of the Vedanta-sutras is known as Vedanta-parijata-saurabha and is commented on by Shrinivasa in his Vedanta-kaustubha. Of the three realities admitted—God, souls, and matter—God is the independent reality, self-conscious, controller of the other two, free from all defects, abode of…

  • Sanakhte (king of Egypt)

    ancient Egypt: The 3rd dynasty (c. 2650–c. 2575 bce): Its first king, Sanakhte, is attested in reliefs from Maghāra in Sinai. His successor, Djoser (Horus name Netjerykhet), was one of the outstanding kings of Egypt. His Step Pyramid at ?aqqārah is both the culmination of an epoch and—as the first large all-stone building, many times larger than…

  • Sanana (island, Indonesia)

    Sula: Taliabu (the largest), Mangole, and Sanana (or Sulabesi), and several smaller ones make up the chain. The area of this group is about 1,875 square miles (4,850 square km). Taliabu and Mangole are separated by the narrow Capalulu Strait and are mountainous, thickly forested, and thinly populated. Taliabu has mountains…

  • Sanandaj (Iran)

    Sanandaj, city, capital of Kordestan province, northwestern Iran. It is located at an elevation of 4,990 feet (1,521 metres) at the foot of Mount Abidar. The city was called Sisar, meaning “30 heads,” in the itineraries of Ibn Khuradādhbih and Qudāmeh. The population is mostly Kurdish. The city was

  • Sanarelli, Giuseppe (Italian bacteriologist)

    Walter Reed: In 1896 an Italian bacteriologist, Giuseppe Sanarelli, claimed that he had isolated from yellow-fever patients an organism he called Bacillus icteroides. The U.S. Army now appointed Reed and army physician James Carroll to investigate Sanarelli’s bacillus. It also sent Aristides Agramonte, an assistant surgeon in the U.S. Army, to investigate…

  • Sanatan Sikh (Sikhism)

    Sikhism: The 18th and 19th centuries: …to be known as the Sanatan (“Traditional”) Sikhs, whereas the radical Lahore branch was known as the Tat Khalsa.

  • sanatana dharma (Hinduism)

    Sanatana dharma, in Hinduism, term used to denote the “eternal” or absolute set of duties or religiously ordained practices incumbent upon all Hindus, regardless of class, caste, or sect. Different texts give different lists of the duties, but in general sanatana dharma consists of virtues such as

  • S?n?tescu, Constantin (prime minister of Romania)

    Constantin S?n?tescu, Romanian military officer and statesman who was prime minister of Romania’s first liberation government following an antifascist coup of Aug. 23, 1944. From 1925 to 1928 S?n?tescu was military attaché at Paris and London. Raised to the rank of general in 1935, he was named

  • Sanatruces (king of Parthia)

    Sanatruces, king of Parthia from 76/75 to 70/69 bc, who restored unity to his kingdom. Sanatruces may have been a son of Mithradates I (reigned 171–138), the Parthian king who had established the kingdom’s power. Following the death of King Mithradates II in 88 bc, dynastic struggles troubled

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