You are using an outdated browser. Please upgrade your browser to improve your experience and security.
  • ?anawbarī, al- (Muslim poet)

    Islamic arts: The new style: …by Mutanabbī’s colleague in Aleppo, al-?anawbarī (died 945), a classic exponent of the descriptive style. This style in time reached Spain, where the superb garden and landscape poetry of Ibn Khafājah (died 1139) displayed an even higher degree of elegance and sensitivity than that of his Eastern predecessors.

  • Sanā?ī (Persian poet)

    Sanā?ī, Persian poet, author of the first great mystical poem in the Persian language, whose verse had great influence on Persian and Muslim literature. Little is known of Sanā?ī’s early life. He was a resident of Ghazna and served for a time as poet at the court of the Ghaznavid sultans, composing

  • Sanbation (legendary river)

    Sambation, legendary “Sabbath River” beyond which the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel were exiled in 721 bc by Shalmaneser V, king of Assyria. Legends describe it as a roaring torrent (often not of water but of stones), the turbulence of which ceases only on the Sabbath, when Jews are not allowed to

  • Sanborn, Franklin Benjamin (American journalist)

    Franklin Benjamin Sanborn, American journalist, biographer, and charity worker. A descendant of an old New England family (its progenitor first immigrating in 1632), Sanborn attended Phillips Exeter Academy and Harvard College (B.A., 1855). In 1855 he settled in Concord, Massachusetts, then an

  • Sancai tuhui (Chinese text)

    China: Literature and scholarship: …herbal concoctions and their applications; Sancai tuhui (1607–09; “Assembled Pictures of the Three Realms”), a work on subjects such as architecture, tools, costumes, ceremonies, animals, and amusements; Wubeizhi (1621; “Treatise on Military Preparedness”), on weapons, fortifications, defense organization, and war tactics; and Tiangong kaiwu (1637; “Creations of Heaven and Human…

  • sancai ware (pottery)

    pottery: Provincial and export wares: …tile kilns also manufactured “three-coloured” (sancai) wares, perhaps originally a product of the Cizhou kilns. These were decorated with coloured glazes that were often kept from intermingling by threads of clay (cloisonné technique) or were used in conjunction with the pierced technique (fahua). Others have engraved designs under the…

  • Sancar, Aziz (Turkish-American biochemist)

    Aziz Sancar, Turkish-American biochemist who discovered a cellular process known as nucleotide excision repair, whereby cells correct errors in DNA that arise as a result of exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light or certain mutation-inducing chemicals. For his discoveries pertaining to mechanisms of

  • Sancerre (France)

    Sancerre, town, Cher département, Centre région, central France. It lies on a hilltop overlooking the Loire River, about 26 miles (42 km) northeast of Bourges. From 1037 to 1152 the title of count of Sancerre was held by the counts of Champagne, and from 1152 to 1640 it had its own counts, who were

  • Sanches, Francisco (Iberian-born French physician and philosopher)

    Francisco Sanches, physician and philosopher who espoused a “constructive skepticism” that rejected mathematical truths as unreal and Aristotle’s theory of knowledge as false. Sanches received a medical degree at Montpellier (1574) and taught philosophy at the University of Toulouse before becoming

  • Sánchez Cerén, Salvador (president of El Salvador)

    El Salvador: El Salvador in the 21st century: …both the United States and Salvador Sánchez Cerén—Funes’s vice president, a former guerrilla commander, who had been elected president in March of that year.

  • Sánchez Cerro, Luis M. (president of Peru)

    Víctor Raúl Haya de la Torre: …threw its support behind Colonel Luis M. Sánchez Cerro. After a hotly disputed election, Sánchez Cerro was inaugurated, and Haya de la Torre was jailed until Sánchez Cerro was assassinated in 1933.

  • Sánchez Coello, Alonso (Spanish painter)

    Alonso Sánchez Coello, painter who was one of the pioneers of the great tradition of Spanish portrait painting. The favourite portrait painter of King Philip II, he introduced into Spanish portraiture a specifically Spanish character that endured until Velázquez came to the court in the 1620s.

  • Sánchez Cotán, Juan (Spanish painter)

    Juan Sánchez Cotán, painter who is considered one of the pioneers of Baroque realism in Spain. A profoundly religious man, he is best known for his still lifes, which in their visual harmony and illusion of depth convey a feeling of humility and mystic spirituality. A student of the famous

  • Sánchez de Bustamante y Sirvén, Antonio (Cuban politician)

    Antonio Sánchez de Bustamante y Sirvén, lawyer, educator, Cuban politician, and international jurist who drew up the Bustamante Code dealing with international private law. Adopted by the sixth Pan-American Congress (Havana, 1928), which also elected him president, his code was ratified without

  • Sánchez de Lozada, Gonzalo (president of Bolivia)

    Bolivia: Restoration of civilian government: In the 1993 presidential election, Sánchez de Lozada and the MNR won a plurality, and, in order to ensure his selection by Congress, he formed an alliance with the Solidarity and Civic Union (Unidad Cívica Solidaridad; UCS). Sánchez de Lozada soon initiated a privatization and capitalization program that brought huge…

  • Sánchez Ferlosio, Rafael (Spanish author)

    Spanish literature: The novel: Rafael Sánchez Ferlosio’s El Jarama (1956; “The Jarama”; Eng. trans. The One Day of the Week), masterfully utilizing pseudoscientific impassivity and cinematographic techniques, depicts the monotonous existence of urban youth via their aimless conversations and exposes postwar apathy. Other young writers who first emerged in…

  • Sánchez Hernández, Fidel (president of El Salvador)

    Fidel Sánchez Hernández, El Salvadoran politician and military man (born July 7, 1917, El Divisadero, El Salvador—died Feb. 28, 2003, San Salvador, El Salvador), as president of El Salvador (1967–72), led the country into the so-called Soccer War in 1969. After a career in the military that i

  • Sánchez Junco, Eduardo (Spanish magazine publisher)

    Eduardo Sánchez Junco, Spanish magazine publisher (born April 26, 1943, Palencia, Spain—died July 14, 2010, Madrid, Spain), spawned a new style of British celebrity magazine with the launch in 1988 of Hello!, which offered a sugar-coated, scandal-free view into the lives of stars, royals, and other

  • Sánchez Mu?oz, Gil (antipope)

    Clement (VIII), antipope from 1423 to 1429. Sánchez was chosen to succeed Antipope Benedict XIII. Refusing to recognize the Roman pope Martin V during the Western Schism, Benedict created his own cardinals, who, through the influence of King Alfonso V of Aragon, chose Sánchez at the castle of

  • Sánchez Pizarro, Alejandro (Spanish singer-songwriter)

    Alejandro Sanz, Spanish guitarist and singer-songwriter who soared to international stardom in the late 20th century and remained popular into the 21st century with his flamenco-influenced popular music. Sanz was raised in Cádiz, a city in the Andalusia region of Spain. His father was a

  • Sánchez Vilella, Roberto (governor of Puerto Rico)

    Roberto Sánchez Vilella, Puerto Rican politician who, as governor of Puerto Rico (1964-69), helped modernize the U.S. commonwealth (b. 1913--d. March 25,

  • Sánchez, Beatriz (Chilean politician)

    Chile: Chile in the 21st century: ) Beatriz Sánchez of the Broad Front (Frente Amplio), a coalition of leftist political parties and grassroots organizations, finished a solid third with some 20 percent of the vote. Even more significant for the Broad Front than Sánchez’s strong showing, however, was the coalition’s performance in…

  • Sanchez, Chava (Mexican boxer)

    Salvador Sanchez, Mexican professional boxer, world featherweight (126 pounds) champion, 1980–82. Sanchez began his professional boxing career in 1975. His only loss was a 10-round decision (a fight whose outcome is determined by judges’ scoring) to Antonio Becerra for the vacant Mexican

  • Sánchez, Cristina (bullfighter)

    bullfighting: Performers: …young attractive bullfighters, such as Cristina Sánchez, who in 1996 became the first woman to have taken her alternativa in Europe and who made her debut as a full matador in Spain, are responsible for breathing new life into a supposedly moribund institution. However, others have long welcomed matadoras and…

  • Sánchez, Florencio (Uruguayan author)

    Uruguay: The arts: …among Latin American playwrights is Florencio Sánchez; his plays, written around the beginning of the 20th century and dealing with contemporary social problems, are still performed. From about the same period and somewhat later came the romantic poetry of Juan Zorrilla de San Martín, Juana de Ibarbourou, and Delmira Agustini…

  • Sanchez, Francisco (Iberian-born French physician and philosopher)

    Francisco Sanches, physician and philosopher who espoused a “constructive skepticism” that rejected mathematical truths as unreal and Aristotle’s theory of knowledge as false. Sanches received a medical degree at Montpellier (1574) and taught philosophy at the University of Toulouse before becoming

  • Sánchez, Luis Alberto (Peruvian politician and author)

    Luis Alberto Sánchez, Peruvian politician and author (born Oct. 12, 1900, Lima, Peru—died Feb. 6, 1994, Lima), was a prolific man of letters who wrote more than 70 volumes of history, biography, literary criticism, philosophy, fiction, poetry, and autobiography and was politically prominent as a l

  • Sánchez, Pedro (prime minister of Spain)

    Spain: Economic recovery and Catalonian independence: …the corruption charges, PSOE leader Pedro Sánchez, with the support of Catalan and Basque nationalist parties, challenged his government. On June 1, 2018, Sánchez ousted Rajoy after a motion of no confidence was narrowly approved by the Spanish parliament. Rajoy was the first Spanish leader since the restoration of democracy…

  • Sánchez, Ricardo (American poet)

    Ricardo Sánchez, U.S. ex-convict turned poetic dean of Chicano literature, a genre that featured writings fraught with descriptions of misery and embittered cries for social justice (b. March 29, 1941--d. Sept. 3,

  • Sanchez, Salvador (Mexican boxer)

    Salvador Sanchez, Mexican professional boxer, world featherweight (126 pounds) champion, 1980–82. Sanchez began his professional boxing career in 1975. His only loss was a 10-round decision (a fight whose outcome is determined by judges’ scoring) to Antonio Becerra for the vacant Mexican

  • Sanchez, Sonia (American poet, playwright, and educator)

    Sonia Sanchez, American poet, playwright, and educator who was noted for her black activism. Driver lost her mother as an infant, and her father moved the family to Harlem, New York City, when she was nine. She received a B.A. (1955) in political science from Hunter College in Manhattan and briefly

  • Sanchez, Sonia Benita (American poet, playwright, and educator)

    Sonia Sanchez, American poet, playwright, and educator who was noted for her black activism. Driver lost her mother as an infant, and her father moved the family to Harlem, New York City, when she was nine. She received a B.A. (1955) in political science from Hunter College in Manhattan and briefly

  • Sanchi (historical site, India)

    Sanchi, historic site, west-central Madhya Pradesh state, central India. It lies in an upland plateau region, just west of the Betwa River and about 5 miles (8 km) southwest of Vidisha. On a flat-topped sandstone hill that rises some 300 feet (90 metres) above the surrounding country stands India’s

  • Sānchi sculpture (Indian art)

    Sānchi sculpture, early Indian sculpture that embellished the 1st-century-bc gateways of the Buddhist relic mound called the Great Stupa (stupa No. 1) at Sānchi, Madhya Pradesh, which is one of the most magnificent monuments of its time. The region of Sānchi, however, like the great centres at

  • Sancho Abarca (king of Pamplona [Navarre])

    Sancho II Garcés, king of Pamplona (Navarre) from 970, Count of Aragon, and a son of García I (or II). He was defeated by the Moors in 973 and 981 when allied with Castile and Leon. He then submitted to the caliphate, one of his daughters marrying the chief minister of Córdoba, Abū ?āmir a

  • Sancho el Bravo (king of Castile and Leon)

    Sancho IV, king of Castile and Leon from 1284 to 1295, second son of Alfonso X. Though ambitious and ruthless, he was also an able politician and a cultivated man. In 1275 his elder brother, Fernando de la Cerda, was killed, leaving a son, Alfonso de la Cerda, heir to Alfonso X. Sancho, supported b

  • Sancho el Craso (king of Leon)

    Sancho I, king of the Spanish state of Leon from 956, a younger son of Ramiro II. After succeeding his brother, Ordo?o II, Sancho was overthrown by a revolt of his nobles and replaced by his cousin Ordo?o IV. Sancho sought help from the Umayyad caliph ?Abd ar-Ra?mān III, who helped him regain his t

  • Sancho el Deseado (king of Castile)

    Sancho III, king of Castile from 1157 to 1158, the elder son of the Spanish emperor Alfonso VII. His father’s will partitioned the realm between his two sons, Sancho III receiving Castile and Ferdinand II receiving Leon. After a military show of force, Sancho was able to reaffirm by treaty the v

  • Sancho el Fuerte (king of Navarre)

    Sancho VII, king of Navarre (Pamplona) from 1194 to 1234, the son of Sancho VI. Sancho was a swashbuckling but enigmatic personality who offended the Holy See by his friendship with the Muslims; he was in Africa in the service of the Almohads (1198–c. 1200). His absence cost Navarre the provinces o

  • Sancho el Fuerte (king of Castile)

    Sancho II, king of Castile from 1065 to 1072, the eldest son of Ferdinand I. He was allocated the kingdom of Castile in his father’s will, Leon and Galicia being given to his brothers. He refused to accept this division and dispossessed García of Galicia by force (1071). Alfonso VI of Leon,

  • Sancho el Grande (king of Pamplona [Navarre])

    Sancho III Garcés, king of Pamplona (Navarre) from about 1000 to 1035, the son of García II (or III). Sancho established Navarrese hegemony over all the Christian states of Spain at a time when the caliphate of Córdoba was in a state of turmoil. Sancho was uninterested in a crusade against the

  • Sancho el Mayor (king of Pamplona [Navarre])

    Sancho III Garcés, king of Pamplona (Navarre) from about 1000 to 1035, the son of García II (or III). Sancho established Navarrese hegemony over all the Christian states of Spain at a time when the caliphate of Córdoba was in a state of turmoil. Sancho was uninterested in a crusade against the

  • Sancho el Sabio (king of Navarre)

    Sancho VI, king of Navarre (Pamplona) from 1150 and son of García IV (or V) the Restorer. Sancho was the first to be called king of Navarre; previous kings were known as kings of Pamplona. In 1151 Castile and Aragon signed at Tudillén a treaty for the partition of Navarre. By skilled diplomacy S

  • Sancho García (count of Castile)

    Sancho III Garcés: …to Munia, daughter of Count Sancho García (d. 1017) of Castile, Sancho secured his own acceptance as count when Sancho García’s son, the child Count García, was assassinated (1029). He then took up Castilian irredentist claims in eastern Leon and occupied the Leonese capital, where he was crowned (1034)—taking the…

  • Sancho I (king of Leon)

    Sancho I, king of the Spanish state of Leon from 956, a younger son of Ramiro II. After succeeding his brother, Ordo?o II, Sancho was overthrown by a revolt of his nobles and replaced by his cousin Ordo?o IV. Sancho sought help from the Umayyad caliph ?Abd ar-Ra?mān III, who helped him regain his t

  • Sancho I (king of Portugal)

    Sancho I, second king of Portugal (1185–1211), son of Afonso I. Sancho’s reign was marked by a resettlement of the depopulated areas of his country, by the establishment of new towns, and by the rebuilding of frontier strongholds and castles. To facilitate his plans, he encouraged foreign settlers

  • Sancho I Garcés (king of Navarre)

    Sancho I Garcés, king of Pamplona (Navarre) from 905. He expanded his kingdom south of the Ebro River and maintained its independence in spite of the sack of his capital in 924 by the Umayyad caliph ?Abd ar-Ra?mān III of

  • Sancho II (king of Castile)

    Sancho II, king of Castile from 1065 to 1072, the eldest son of Ferdinand I. He was allocated the kingdom of Castile in his father’s will, Leon and Galicia being given to his brothers. He refused to accept this division and dispossessed García of Galicia by force (1071). Alfonso VI of Leon,

  • Sancho II (king of Portugal)

    Sancho II, fourth king of Portugal, son of Afonso II and of Urraca, who was the daughter of Alfonso VIII of Castile. Factions were so fostered during Sancho’s minority that his later government was never anything more than a series of vain attempts to achieve political stability in the kingdom.

  • Sancho II Garcés (king of Pamplona [Navarre])

    Sancho II Garcés, king of Pamplona (Navarre) from 970, Count of Aragon, and a son of García I (or II). He was defeated by the Moors in 973 and 981 when allied with Castile and Leon. He then submitted to the caliphate, one of his daughters marrying the chief minister of Córdoba, Abū ?āmir a

  • Sancho III (king of Castile)

    Sancho III, king of Castile from 1157 to 1158, the elder son of the Spanish emperor Alfonso VII. His father’s will partitioned the realm between his two sons, Sancho III receiving Castile and Ferdinand II receiving Leon. After a military show of force, Sancho was able to reaffirm by treaty the v

  • Sancho III Garcés (king of Pamplona [Navarre])

    Sancho III Garcés, king of Pamplona (Navarre) from about 1000 to 1035, the son of García II (or III). Sancho established Navarrese hegemony over all the Christian states of Spain at a time when the caliphate of Córdoba was in a state of turmoil. Sancho was uninterested in a crusade against the

  • Sancho IV (king of Castile and Leon)

    Sancho IV, king of Castile and Leon from 1284 to 1295, second son of Alfonso X. Though ambitious and ruthless, he was also an able politician and a cultivated man. In 1275 his elder brother, Fernando de la Cerda, was killed, leaving a son, Alfonso de la Cerda, heir to Alfonso X. Sancho, supported b

  • Sancho IV (king of Navarre)

    Sancho IV, king of Pamplona (Navarre) from 1054 to 1076, son of García III (or IV). Sancho had to contend with Castilian irredentism and Aragonese ambition. His act of persuading the Moorish king of Saragossa to become his vassal offended Alfonso VI of Castile, who invaded Pamplona (1074) and

  • Sancho o Capelo (king of Portugal)

    Sancho II, fourth king of Portugal, son of Afonso II and of Urraca, who was the daughter of Alfonso VIII of Castile. Factions were so fostered during Sancho’s minority that his later government was never anything more than a series of vain attempts to achieve political stability in the kingdom.

  • Sancho o Encapuchado (king of Portugal)

    Sancho II, fourth king of Portugal, son of Afonso II and of Urraca, who was the daughter of Alfonso VIII of Castile. Factions were so fostered during Sancho’s minority that his later government was never anything more than a series of vain attempts to achieve political stability in the kingdom.

  • Sancho o Funador (king of Portugal)

    Sancho I, second king of Portugal (1185–1211), son of Afonso I. Sancho’s reign was marked by a resettlement of the depopulated areas of his country, by the establishment of new towns, and by the rebuilding of frontier strongholds and castles. To facilitate his plans, he encouraged foreign settlers

  • Sancho o Povoador (king of Portugal)

    Sancho I, second king of Portugal (1185–1211), son of Afonso I. Sancho’s reign was marked by a resettlement of the depopulated areas of his country, by the establishment of new towns, and by the rebuilding of frontier strongholds and castles. To facilitate his plans, he encouraged foreign settlers

  • Sancho Panza (fictional character)

    Sancho Panza, Don Quixote’s squire in the novel Don Quixote by Miguel de Cervantes, a short, pot-bellied peasant whose gross appetite, common sense, and vulgar wit serve as a foil to the mad idealism of his master. He is famous for his many pertinent proverbs. Cervantes used the psychological

  • Sancho Ramírez (king of Aragon and Pamplona [Navarre])

    Sancho Ramírez, king of Aragon from 1063 to 1094 and of Pamplona (or Navarre; as Sancho V Ramírez) from 1076 to 1094, the son of Ramiro I of Aragon. After the murder of Sancho IV of Navarre, Sancho Ramírez, with Navarrese consent, became king of Navarre, forestalling the ambition of Alfonso VI of

  • Sancho the Brave (king of Castile and Leon)

    Sancho IV, king of Castile and Leon from 1284 to 1295, second son of Alfonso X. Though ambitious and ruthless, he was also an able politician and a cultivated man. In 1275 his elder brother, Fernando de la Cerda, was killed, leaving a son, Alfonso de la Cerda, heir to Alfonso X. Sancho, supported b

  • Sancho the Capuched (king of Portugal)

    Sancho II, fourth king of Portugal, son of Afonso II and of Urraca, who was the daughter of Alfonso VIII of Castile. Factions were so fostered during Sancho’s minority that his later government was never anything more than a series of vain attempts to achieve political stability in the kingdom.

  • Sancho the Cowled (king of Portugal)

    Sancho II, fourth king of Portugal, son of Afonso II and of Urraca, who was the daughter of Alfonso VIII of Castile. Factions were so fostered during Sancho’s minority that his later government was never anything more than a series of vain attempts to achieve political stability in the kingdom.

  • Sancho the Desired (king of Castile)

    Sancho III, king of Castile from 1157 to 1158, the elder son of the Spanish emperor Alfonso VII. His father’s will partitioned the realm between his two sons, Sancho III receiving Castile and Ferdinand II receiving Leon. After a military show of force, Sancho was able to reaffirm by treaty the v

  • Sancho the Fat (king of Leon)

    Sancho I, king of the Spanish state of Leon from 956, a younger son of Ramiro II. After succeeding his brother, Ordo?o II, Sancho was overthrown by a revolt of his nobles and replaced by his cousin Ordo?o IV. Sancho sought help from the Umayyad caliph ?Abd ar-Ra?mān III, who helped him regain his t

  • Sancho the Founder (king of Portugal)

    Sancho I, second king of Portugal (1185–1211), son of Afonso I. Sancho’s reign was marked by a resettlement of the depopulated areas of his country, by the establishment of new towns, and by the rebuilding of frontier strongholds and castles. To facilitate his plans, he encouraged foreign settlers

  • Sancho the Great (king of Pamplona [Navarre])

    Sancho III Garcés, king of Pamplona (Navarre) from about 1000 to 1035, the son of García II (or III). Sancho established Navarrese hegemony over all the Christian states of Spain at a time when the caliphate of Córdoba was in a state of turmoil. Sancho was uninterested in a crusade against the

  • Sancho the Populator (king of Portugal)

    Sancho I, second king of Portugal (1185–1211), son of Afonso I. Sancho’s reign was marked by a resettlement of the depopulated areas of his country, by the establishment of new towns, and by the rebuilding of frontier strongholds and castles. To facilitate his plans, he encouraged foreign settlers

  • Sancho the Strong (king of Castile)

    Sancho II, king of Castile from 1065 to 1072, the eldest son of Ferdinand I. He was allocated the kingdom of Castile in his father’s will, Leon and Galicia being given to his brothers. He refused to accept this division and dispossessed García of Galicia by force (1071). Alfonso VI of Leon,

  • Sancho the Strong (king of Navarre)

    Sancho VII, king of Navarre (Pamplona) from 1194 to 1234, the son of Sancho VI. Sancho was a swashbuckling but enigmatic personality who offended the Holy See by his friendship with the Muslims; he was in Africa in the service of the Almohads (1198–c. 1200). His absence cost Navarre the provinces o

  • Sancho the Wise (king of Navarre)

    Sancho VI, king of Navarre (Pamplona) from 1150 and son of García IV (or V) the Restorer. Sancho was the first to be called king of Navarre; previous kings were known as kings of Pamplona. In 1151 Castile and Aragon signed at Tudillén a treaty for the partition of Navarre. By skilled diplomacy S

  • Sancho V Ramírez (king of Aragon and Pamplona [Navarre])

    Sancho Ramírez, king of Aragon from 1063 to 1094 and of Pamplona (or Navarre; as Sancho V Ramírez) from 1076 to 1094, the son of Ramiro I of Aragon. After the murder of Sancho IV of Navarre, Sancho Ramírez, with Navarrese consent, became king of Navarre, forestalling the ambition of Alfonso VI of

  • Sancho VI (king of Navarre)

    Sancho VI, king of Navarre (Pamplona) from 1150 and son of García IV (or V) the Restorer. Sancho was the first to be called king of Navarre; previous kings were known as kings of Pamplona. In 1151 Castile and Aragon signed at Tudillén a treaty for the partition of Navarre. By skilled diplomacy S

  • Sancho VII (king of Navarre)

    Sancho VII, king of Navarre (Pamplona) from 1194 to 1234, the son of Sancho VI. Sancho was a swashbuckling but enigmatic personality who offended the Holy See by his friendship with the Muslims; he was in Africa in the service of the Almohads (1198–c. 1200). His absence cost Navarre the provinces o

  • Sanchong (Taiwan)

    San-ch’ung, former municipality (shih, or shi), northern Taiwan. In 2010 it became a city district of the special municipality of New Taipei City, when the former T’ai-pei county was administratively reorganized. San-ch’ung lies in the northern part of Taiwan’s western coastal plain on the west

  • Sanchuniathon (ancient Phoenician writer)

    Sanchuniathon, ancient Phoenician writer. All information about him is derived from the works of Philo of Byblos (flourished ad 100). Excavations at Ras Shamra (ancient Ugarit) in Syria in 1929 revealed Phoenician documents supporting much of Sanchuniathon’s information on Phoenician mythology and

  • Sanci (historical site, India)

    Sanchi, historic site, west-central Madhya Pradesh state, central India. It lies in an upland plateau region, just west of the Betwa River and about 5 miles (8 km) southwest of Vidisha. On a flat-topped sandstone hill that rises some 300 feet (90 metres) above the surrounding country stands India’s

  • Sancroft, William (archbishop of Canterbury)

    William Sancroft, archbishop of Canterbury, leader of a group of seven bishops who were imprisoned for opposing policies of the Roman Catholic king James II. In 1651 Sancroft was dismissed as a fellow at the University of Cambridge for refusing to take the Oath of Engagement, a declaration to

  • Sanct Hansaften-spil (work by Oehlenschl?ger)

    Adam Gottlob Oehlenschl?ger: …not only “Guldhornene” but also Sanct Hansaften-spil (“A Midsummer Night’s Play”); this latter work is a lyrical drama combining literary satire with poetic discourses on love and nature. His Poetiske skrifter (1805; “Poetic Writings”) contains two long cycles of lyric poems and Aladdin, a poetic drama on the writer’s own…

  • Sancta Sophia (work by Baker)

    Augustine Baker: …death from the plague, his Sancta Sophia, a systematic work compiled from his treatises, was published. It covers the entire range of ascetic and mystic theology. His other writings available in print are Secretum, a commentary on the Cloud of Unknowing, in which the first section is somewhat of a…

  • Sancti Spíritus (Cuba)

    Sancti Spíritus, city, central Cuba. It is located on the Yayabo River, a tributary of the Zaza River. The settlement was founded in 1516 on the Tuinicú River, but it was moved to the banks of the Yayabo in 1524. It is the oldest city of interior Cuba, and narrow crooked streets, old churches, and

  • sanctification (religion)

    grace: …man for his regeneration and sanctification. The English term is the usual translation for the Greek charis, which occurs in the New Testament about 150 times (two-thirds of these in writings attributed to Paul). Although the word must sometimes be translated in other ways, the fundamental meaning in the New…

  • sanction (social science)

    Sanction, in the social sciences, a reaction (or the threat or promise of a reaction) by members of a social group indicating approval or disapproval of a mode of conduct and serving to enforce behavioral standards of the group. Punishment (negative sanction) and reward (positive sanction)

  • sanction (international relations)

    economic statecraft: Forms and uses: …including both positive and negative sanctions. Negative sanctions are actual or threatened punishments, whereas positive sanctions are actual or promised rewards. Examples of negative sanctions include the following: refusing to export (embargoes), refusing to import (boycotts), covert refusals to trade (blacklists), purchases intended to keep goods out of the hands…

  • Sanctis, Francesco De (Italian critic)

    Francesco De Sanctis, Italian literary critic whose work contributed significantly to the understanding of Italian literature and civilization. De Sanctis, a liberal patriot, took part in the Neapolitan revolution of 1848 and for some years was a prisoner of the Bourbons. He then lived in exile in

  • Sanctorale (Christianity)

    church year: The major church calendars: …of Christmas, and (2) the Proper of Saints (Sanctorale), other commemorations on fixed dates of the year. Every season and holy day is a celebration, albeit with different emphases, of the total revelation and redemption of Christ, which are “made present at all times” or proclaim “the paschal mystery as…

  • Sanctorius (Italian physician)

    Santorio Santorio, Italian physician who was the first to employ instruments of precision in the practice of medicine and whose studies of basal metabolism introduced quantitative experimental procedure into medical research. Santorio was a graduate of the University of Padua (M.D., 1582), where he

  • Sanctorum Communio (thesis by Bonhoeffer)

    Dietrich Bonhoeffer: Early training: …doctoral thesis, Sanctorum Communio (1930; The Communion of Saints), in which he tried to combine a sociological and a theological understanding of the church, and in Akt und Sein (1931; Act and Being), in which he traces the influence of transcendental philosophy and ontology—as well as Kantian and post-Kantian theories…

  • sanctuary (international law)

    guerrilla warfare: Sanctuary and support: …alone prosper, it must control safe areas to which it can retire for recuperation and repair of arms and equipment and where recruits can be indoctrinated, trained, and equipped. Such areas are traditionally located in remote, rugged terrain, usually mountains, forests, and jungles.

  • sanctuary (religion)

    Sanctuary, in religion, a sacred place, set apart from the profane, ordinary world. Originally, sanctuaries were natural locations, such as groves or hills, where the divine or sacred was believed to be especially present. The concept was later extended to include man-made structures; e.g., the

  • Sanctuary (cave chamber, Trois Frères, France)

    Trois Frères: …interior chamber known as the Sanctuary. This area is filled with some 280 often-overlapping engraved figures of bison, horses, stags, reindeer, ibex, and mammoths. The great majority probably date to the mid-Magdalenian Period (about 14,000 years ago). The Sanctuary is dominated by the cave’s most famous figure, a small image,…

  • Sanctuary (film by Richardson [1961])

    Christology: Film: In Tony Richardson’s Sanctuary (1961; based on two stories of William Faulkner), Stevens’s Shane (1953), and Clint Eastwood’s Pale Rider (1985), for example, a figure sacrifices himself (Sanctuary) or joins the side of good in a fight between good and evil (Shane, Pale Rider).

  • Sanctuary (novel by Faulkner)

    Sanctuary, novel by William Faulkner, published in 1931. The book’s depictions of degraded sexuality generated both controversy and spectacular sales, making it the author’s only popular success during his lifetime. A vision of a decayed South, the novel pitted idealistic lawyer Horace Benbow

  • sanctuary city

    United States: ICE enforcement and removal operations: …withholding of federal funds from “sanctuary” cities that had chosen to provide refuge for illegal immigrants. That order was answered with defiant statements by a number of big-city mayors. Nevertheless, at the administration’s behest, in February the Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) agency began an aggressive effort to apprehend and…

  • sanctuary knocker (architecture)

    Sanctuary knocker, in architecture, knocker on the outer door of a Christian church. The sanctuary knocker could be a simple metal ring, which accounts for its other name of sanctuary ring, or it could be highly ornamental, as in the Norman example at Durham cathedral in England, dating from the

  • sanctuary ring (architecture)

    Sanctuary knocker, in architecture, knocker on the outer door of a Christian church. The sanctuary knocker could be a simple metal ring, which accounts for its other name of sanctuary ring, or it could be highly ornamental, as in the Norman example at Durham cathedral in England, dating from the

  • Sanctus (liturgical chant)

    Gregorian chant: The Sanctus and Benedictus are probably from apostolic times. The usual Sanctus chants are neumatic. The Agnus Dei was brought into the Latin mass from the Eastern Church in the 7th century and is basically in neumatic style. The concluding Ite Missa Est and its substitute…

  • Sancy Diamond (gem)

    Sancy diamond, fiery stone of Indian origin that is shaped like a peach pit and weighs 55 carats. It has a long history and has passed through many royal families. Purchased in Constantinople about 1570 by Nicolas Harlay de Sancy, the French ambassador to Turkey, it was lent to the French kings

  • Sancy Hill (mountain, France)

    Auvergne: Geography: …at the summit of the Puy de Sancy, in Puy-de-D?me, which is the highest point in central France. The Vivarais Mountains top out at Mount Mézenc, 5,751 feet (1,753 metres) above Haute-Loire, while in Cantal, an area of high plateaus, volcanic peaks rise to the Plomb du Cantal, at 6,096…

  • sand

    Sand, mineral, rock, or soil particles that range in diameter from 0.02 to 2 mm (0.0008–0.08 inch). Most of the rock-forming minerals that occur on the Earth’s surface are found in sand, but only a limited number are common in this form. Although in some localities feldspar, calcareous material,

Your preference has been recorded
Check out Britannica's new site for parents!
Subscribe Today!
色色影院-色色影院app下载