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  • Sankore mosque (mosque, Timbuktu, Mali)

    Timbuktu: …then commissioned to design the Sankore mosque, around which Sankore University was established. The mosque still stands today, probably because of al-Sā?ili’s directive to incorporate a wooden framework into the mud walls of the building, thus facilitating annual repairs after the rainy season. The Tuareg regained control of the city…

  • Sankore, University of (university, Timbuktu, Mali)

    Mūsā I of Mali: Legacy: …empire, the founding of the University of Sankore, the expansion of trade in Timbuktu, the architectural innovations in Gao, Timbuktu, and Niani and, indeed, throughout the whole of Mali and in the subsequent Songhai empire are all testimony to Mansa Mūsā’s superior administrative gifts. In addition, the moral and religious…

  • Sankt Bernhardinpass (mountain pass, Switzerland)

    San Bernardino Pass, mountain pass (6,775 ft [2,065 m]), in the Lepontine Alps of Graubünden canton, southeastern Switzerland. Although the pass was not mentioned until 941, it is believed to have been in use since prehistoric times. The road over the pass connects the villages of Splügen and H

  • Sankt Gallen (Switzerland)

    Sankt Gallen, town, capital of Sankt Gallen canton, northeastern Switzerland, in the Steinach Valley, just south of Lake Constance (Bodensee). In 612 the Celtic missionary St. Gall founded a hermitage on the site. Disciples joined him, and c. 720 the foundation became a Benedictine abbey under

  • Sankt Gallen (canton, Switzerland)

    Sankt Gallen, canton, northeastern Switzerland, bounded north by Lake Constance (Bodensee); east by the Rhine Valley, which separates it from the Austrian Vorarlberg Bundesland (federal state) and from Liechtenstein; south by the cantons of Graubünden, Glarus, and Schwyz; west by the canton of

  • Sankt Gotthard Pass (mountain pass, Switzerland)

    St. Gotthard Pass, mountain pass in the Lepontine Alps of southern Switzerland, an important motor and railway route between central Europe and Italy. The pass lies at an elevation of 6,916 feet (2,108 metres) and is 16 miles (26 km) long. Although the pass was known to the Romans, it was not

  • Sankt Gotthardpass (mountain pass, Switzerland)

    St. Gotthard Pass, mountain pass in the Lepontine Alps of southern Switzerland, an important motor and railway route between central Europe and Italy. The pass lies at an elevation of 6,916 feet (2,108 metres) and is 16 miles (26 km) long. Although the pass was known to the Romans, it was not

  • Sankt Hans Aften (holiday)

    Midsummer’s Eve, holiday celebrating the longest day of the year in the Northern Hemisphere, the summer solstice (June 21). Midsummer’s Eve is observed in several countries. It is a national holiday in Sweden and Finland. In Sweden the holiday is officially observed on a Friday between June 19th

  • Sankt Johann (town, Austria)

    Sankt Johann, town, west-central Austria, on the broad middle course (Pongau) of the Salzach River southeast of Hallein. It is an Alpine summer and winter resort, with the spectacular Liechtensteinklamm (gorge) and its swirling falls of the Grossarlbache (stream). It is an old market town and now

  • Sankt Johann Im Pongau (town, Austria)

    Sankt Johann, town, west-central Austria, on the broad middle course (Pongau) of the Salzach River southeast of Hallein. It is an Alpine summer and winter resort, with the spectacular Liechtensteinklamm (gorge) and its swirling falls of the Grossarlbache (stream). It is an old market town and now

  • Sankt Maria im Kapitol (church, Cologne, Germany)

    Western sculpture: Carolingian and Ottonian periods: …on the wooden doors of Sankt Maria im Kapitol at Cologne display an affinity with the mid-11th-century Romanesque ivories of the Meuse district. The Carolingian bronze doors in Aachen were imitated at Mainz, where Bishop Willigis had similar portal wings made for his cathedral. He was far surpassed, however, by…

  • Sankt Michael (church, Hildesheim, Germany)

    Sankt Michael, basilican church in Hildesheim, Ger., that was built between 1010 and 1033 under Bishop Bernward, famous teacher and confidant of the Holy Roman emperor Otto III. The church is one of the most important examples of Ottonian architecture. The church was damaged in World War II but h

  • Sankt Michaelis (church, Hamburg, Germany)

    Hamburg: Architecture: …the most imposing is probably Sankt Michaelis, an 18th-century Baroque-style Protestant church with a rich white-and-gold interior. It was destroyed by fire in 1906, rebuilt, devastated again during World War II, and restored yet again after the war.

  • Sankt Michel (Finland)

    Mikkeli, city, southeastern Finland, northeast of Helsinki. Mikkeli received its town charter in 1838 and became the administrative capital of the province in 1843. It was the site of the Battle of the Porrassalmi Canal (1789), in which the Finns defeated a much larger Russian force. During World

  • Sankt Moritz (Switzerland)

    Saint Moritz, town, or Gemeinde (commune), Graubünden canton, southeastern Switzerland. Saint Moritz lies in the Oberengadin (Upper Inn Valley) and is surrounded by magnificent Alpine peaks. The town consists of the Dorf (village), the Bad (spa), and the hamlets of Suvretta and Champfèr. Originally

  • Sankt Peterburgsky Gosudarstvenny Universitet (university, Saint Petersburg, Russia)

    Saint Petersburg State University, coeducational state institution of higher learning in St. Petersburg, founded in 1819 as the University of St. Petersburg. During World War II the university was evacuated to Saratov. The university’s buildings were severely damaged during the Siege of Leningrad

  • Sankt P?lten (Austria)

    Sankt P?lten, city, capital of Nieder?sterreich Bundesland (federal state), northeastern Austria. It lies along the Traisen River between the foothills of the Alps and the Danube River, west of Vienna. Once the site of the Roman settlement of Aelium Cetium, the town developed in the 8th century

  • Sankt Veit (Austria)

    Sankt Veit, town, southern Austria. It lies along the Glan River north of Klagenfurt. Sankt Veit was the capital of the duchy of K?rnten (Carinthia) until 1518. Its town hall dates from 1468 and its old ducal castle from the 15th to 16th century. The Romanesque parish church was altered in the

  • Sankt Veit an der Glan (Austria)

    Sankt Veit, town, southern Austria. It lies along the Glan River north of Klagenfurt. Sankt Veit was the capital of the duchy of K?rnten (Carinthia) until 1518. Its town hall dates from 1468 and its old ducal castle from the 15th to 16th century. The Romanesque parish church was altered in the

  • Sankt Vith (Belgium)

    Eupen-et-Malmédy: …cantons”) of Eupen, Malmédy, and Sankt Vith. Until 1794 the region was part of the duchy of Limbourg, the ecclesiastical principality of Stavelot-Malmédy, and the duchy of Luxembourg. Under French rule from 1794 to 1814, it belonged to the Ourthe département (the present Liège province). Most of the region was…

  • Sankt Wolfgang (Austria)

    Sankt Wolfgang, town, central Austria. It lies on the east shore of Wolfgang (Aber) Lake in the Salzkammergut lake region, west of Bad Ischl. A cog, or rack, railway ascends the Schafberg (5,850 feet [1,783 metres]) from the town. The Late Gothic-style Pilgrimage Church (1430–77) has a magnificent

  • Sankt Wolfgang im Salzkammergut (Austria)

    Sankt Wolfgang, town, central Austria. It lies on the east shore of Wolfgang (Aber) Lake in the Salzkammergut lake region, west of Bad Ischl. A cog, or rack, railway ascends the Schafberg (5,850 feet [1,783 metres]) from the town. The Late Gothic-style Pilgrimage Church (1430–77) has a magnificent

  • Sankt-Peterburg (Russia)

    St. Petersburg, city and port, extreme northwestern Russia. A major historical and cultural centre and an important port, St. Petersburg lies about 400 miles (640 km) northwest of Moscow and only about 7° south of the Arctic Circle. It is the second largest city of Russia and one of the world’s

  • Sankuru River (river, Democratic Republic of the Congo)

    Sankuru River, main tributary of the Kasai River (itself a tributary of the Congo River) in Congo (Kinshasa), central Africa. About 750 miles (1,200 km) long, it begins in the western highlands of Katanga (Shaba), where it is known as the Lubilash River, and flows 285 miles (460 km) north and

  • sankyoku (Japanese music)

    Japanese music: Schools and genres: …term for koto chamber music, sankyoku, means music for three. The standard instrumentation today consists of a koto player who also sings, along with performers on a three-stringed plucked samisen lute and an end-blown shakuhachi flute. In earlier times a bowed variant of the samisen called the kokyū was used…

  • ?anl?urfa (Turkey)

    ?anl?urfa, city, southeastern Turkey. It lies in a fertile plain and is ringed by limestone hills on three sides. The city, of great age, controls a strategic pass to the south through which runs a road used since antiquity to travel between Anatolia and northern Mesopotamia. The modern name

  • Sanlúcar de Barrameda (Spain)

    Sanlúcar de Barrameda, port city, Cádiz provincia (province), in the comunidad autónoma (autonomous community) of Andalusia, southwestern Spain. It lies on the south bank of the Guadalquivir River estuary, north of Cádiz city. Barrameda derives from an Arabic word signifying “sandy gateway” and

  • Sanlúcar de Barrameda, duque de (prime minister of Spain)

    Gaspar de Guzmán y Pimental, count-duke de Olivares, prime minister (1623–43) and court favourite (valido) of King Philip IV of Spain. He attempted to impose a strong centralizing policy and eventually provoked rebellion and his own fall. Olivares’s father, Enrique de Guzmán, was the Spanish

  • Sanmen dam (dam, China)

    Yellow River: Economic development: …the huge dam at the Sanmen Gorge upstream of Luoyang and the reservoir impounded behind it. The project has augmented flood control on the plain and has also provided water for irrigation and hydroelectric power generation, although silt deposition in the reservoir has reduced its functional capabilities.

  • Sanmen Gorge (gorge, China)

    Sanmen Gorge, gorge enclosing one section of the Huang He (Yellow River) in western Henan province, eastern China. The gorge is the site of a large dam and hydroelectric installation. The gorge is some 20 miles (30 km) east of the city of Sanmenxia. At the gorge the Huang He narrows to flow between

  • Sanmenxia (gorge, China)

    Sanmen Gorge, gorge enclosing one section of the Huang He (Yellow River) in western Henan province, eastern China. The gorge is the site of a large dam and hydroelectric installation. The gorge is some 20 miles (30 km) east of the city of Sanmenxia. At the gorge the Huang He narrows to flow between

  • Sanmicheli, Michele (Italian architect)

    Michele Sanmicheli, Mannerist architect, especially noted for his original treatment of military fortifications. He was a pupil of his father, Giovanni, and his uncle Bartolomeo, both architects in Verona. At an early age he went to Rome, where he studied with architects trained under Donato

  • Sanmiguelia (fossil plant genus)

    Sanmiguelia, genus of fossil plants based upon impressions of palmlike leaves from the Triassic Period (251 to 199.6 million years ago) found in rocks from Colorado. It may be among the earliest of angiosperms, or flowering plants. The elliptic leaves were pleated, up to 40 cm (16 inches) long and

  • Sanmin Zhuyi (Chinese ideology)

    Three Principles of the People, the ideological basis of the political program of the Chinese Nationalist leader Sun Yat-sen (1866–1925), championing the principles of nationalism, democracy, and socialism. The principles were originally formulated as slogans for Sun’s revolutionary student group,

  • Sanming (China)

    Sanming, city, west-central Fujian sheng (province), southeastern China. It lies along the Sha River, a southern tributary of the Min River, the valley of which provides the chief southwest-to-northeast route through central Fujian. Westward and southwestward routes fan out into the mountainous

  • sann hemp (plant)

    Sunn, (Crotalaria juncea), annual plant of the pea family (Fabaceae) and its fibre, one of the bast fibre group. Sunn is likely native to the Indian subcontinent, where it has been cultivated since prehistoric times. The sunn plant is not a true hemp. The fibre is made into cordage, fishing nets,

  • sa??ā (Buddhist doctrine)

    skandha: …perceptions of sense objects (Sanskrit: sa?j?ā; Pāli: sa??ā); (4) mental formations (sa?skāras/sankhāras); and (5) awareness, or consciousness, of the other three mental aggregates (vij?āna/vi??ā?a). All individuals are subject to constant change, as the elements of consciousness are never the same, and man may be compared to a river, which retains…

  • Sannār Dam (dam, Sudan)

    Sennar Dam, dam impounding the Blue Nile River for irrigation at the town of Sannār in Sudan. Completed in 1925, it is 9,925 feet (3,025 metres) long with a maximum height of 130 feet (40 metres) and irrigates cotton and other crops of the plain of al-Jazirāh

  • Sannazarius, Actius Sincerus (Italian poet)

    Jacopo Sannazzaro, Italian poet whose Arcadia was the first pastoral romance and, until the rise of the Romantic movement, one of the most influential and popular works of Italian literature. Sannazzaro became court poet of the house of Aragon at the age of 20. In 1501, when Frederic, last king of

  • Sannazaro, Jacopo (Italian poet)

    Jacopo Sannazzaro, Italian poet whose Arcadia was the first pastoral romance and, until the rise of the Romantic movement, one of the most influential and popular works of Italian literature. Sannazzaro became court poet of the house of Aragon at the age of 20. In 1501, when Frederic, last king of

  • Sannazzaro, Jacopo (Italian poet)

    Jacopo Sannazzaro, Italian poet whose Arcadia was the first pastoral romance and, until the rise of the Romantic movement, one of the most influential and popular works of Italian literature. Sannazzaro became court poet of the house of Aragon at the age of 20. In 1501, when Frederic, last king of

  • sanni yakku (dance)

    South Asian arts: Tovil dance: The sanni yakku dance, exorcising the disease demon, has a series of humorous impersonations. One is of the demon as a beautiful woman, then as a pregnant woman, and finally as a mother. The exorcists ask questions about her pregnancy, and she lists all the respectable…

  • sannidhatri (Mauryan official)

    India: Mauryan government: The offices of the sannidhatri (treasurer), who kept the account, and the samahartri (chief collector), who was responsible for revenue records, formed the hub of the revenue administration. Each administrative department, with its superintendents and subordinate officials, acted as a link between local administration and the central government. Kautilya…

  • ?annīn, Jabal (mountain peak, Lebanon)

    Lebanon: Relief: …again to a second peak, Jabal ?annīn (8,842 feet [2,695 metres]), northeast of Beirut. To the south the range branches westward to form the Shūf Mountains and at its southern reaches gives way to the hills of Galilee, which are lower.

  • Sanniquellie (Liberia)

    Sanniquellie, town, north-central Liberia, located at the intersection of roads from Monrovia and C?te d’Ivoire (Ivory Coast). A rural administrative centre among the Mano and Malinke (Mandingo), Sanniquellie has secondary schools and the George W. Harley Memorial Hospital. There is local trade in

  • Sannō Ichijitsu Shintō (religion)

    Sannō Ichijitsu Shintō, (Japanese: “One Truth of Sannō Shintō”) in Japanese religion, the syncretic school that combined Shintō with the teachings of the Tendai sect of Buddhism. Shintō-Buddhist syncretism developed from the Japanese concept that Shintō deities (kami) were manifestations of

  • sannyasi (Hinduism)

    Sannyasi, (Sanskrit: “abandoning” or “throwing down”) in Hinduism, a religious ascetic who has renounced the world by performing his own funeral and abandoning all claims to social or family standing. Sannyasis, like other sadhus, or holy men, are not cremated but are generally buried in a seated

  • sannyasin (Hinduism)

    Sannyasi, (Sanskrit: “abandoning” or “throwing down”) in Hinduism, a religious ascetic who has renounced the world by performing his own funeral and abandoning all claims to social or family standing. Sannyasis, like other sadhus, or holy men, are not cremated but are generally buried in a seated

  • Sano (Japan)

    Sano, city, southern Tochigi ken (prefecture), east-central Honshu, Japan. It is situated on the northern edge of the Kantō Plain, on the Watarase River, a tributary of the Ione River, about 45 miles (70 km) north of central Tokyo. Sano is surrounded by low hills and occupies a plain, a plateau,

  • Sanofi-Aventis (French company)

    Sanofi-Aventis, French pharmaceutical company founded in 2004 through the merger of Sanofi-Synthélabo SA and a much larger French firm, Aventis. Primarily focused on the development and sale of prescription medications, Sanofi-Aventis is one of Europe’s largest pharmaceutical firms. Sanofi

  • Sanofi-Synthelabo (French company)

    Hoechst Aktiengesellschaft: Aventis was acquired by Sanofi in 2004.

  • Sanokole (Liberia)

    Sanniquellie, town, north-central Liberia, located at the intersection of roads from Monrovia and C?te d’Ivoire (Ivory Coast). A rural administrative centre among the Mano and Malinke (Mandingo), Sanniquellie has secondary schools and the George W. Harley Memorial Hospital. There is local trade in

  • Sanokwele (Liberia)

    Sanniquellie, town, north-central Liberia, located at the intersection of roads from Monrovia and C?te d’Ivoire (Ivory Coast). A rural administrative centre among the Mano and Malinke (Mandingo), Sanniquellie has secondary schools and the George W. Harley Memorial Hospital. There is local trade in

  • Sanpoil (people)

    Salish: …culture area, such as the Sanpoil, avoided complex social and political organization; warfare in that area was almost unknown, and external trade was not an important part of the local economy.

  • Sanqi (Chinese artist)

    Li Keran, painter and art educator who was a prominent figure in 20th-century Chinese art. He developed a personal style of landscape painting that was based upon the emulation of both ancient and contemporary masters. Li showed a gift for painting, calligraphy, and music as a child. When he was

  • Sanqing (Taoist deities)

    San-ch’ing, (Chinese: “Three Pure Ones”) highest triad of deities in the generalized pantheon of sectarian religious Taoism. First in evidence during the T’ang dynasty, the triad represented a ranking of three deities associated with the three highest heavens (or “pure” realms) in the Taoist

  • sanqu (Chinese literary genre)

    Chinese literature: Poetry: …new verse form known as sanqu (“nondramatic songs”), a liberalization of the ci, which utilized the spoken language of the people as fully as possible. Although line length and tonal pattern were still governed by a given tune, extra words could be inserted to make the lyrics livelier and to…

  • Sanquhar Declaration (Scotland [1680])

    Richard Cameron: …and David Hackston, issued the Sanquhar Declaration, calling for war on Charles II and the exclusion of the Roman Catholic James, Duke of York. With only a small group of men, he was easily taken and killed by royal troops at Airds Moss in Ayrshire in the summer of 1680.…

  • Sanremo (Italy)

    San Remo, town, Liguria region, northwestern Italy. It is the chief resort of that part of the Italian Riviera known as the Riviera dei Fiori, east of Nice, France. A year-round health resort since 1861, its repute was greatly increased by the visit of Frederick III of Germany in 1887–88. In 1920

  • Sanrio (Japanese company)

    Hello Kitty: …by the Japanese merchandising company Sanrio and known internationally as Hello Kitty, Kitty White is a small, round-faced, cartoon catlike girl with black eyes, a yellow nose, no mouth, and a red bow perched on her left ear. Sanrio maintains that Hello Kitty is a girl and not a cat,…

  • Sanron (Buddhism)

    San-lun, school of Chinese Buddhism derived from the Indian Mādhyamika school. See

  • SANS (physics)

    nanoparticle: Detection, characterization, and isolation: …small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), along with their surface-specific analogues GISAXS and GISANS, where GI is “grazing incidence,” and X-ray or neutron reflectometry (XR/NR). The advantage of those techniques is that they are able to simultaneously sample and average very large numbers of nanoparticles and often…

  • Sans égal (game)

    bagatelle: Sans égal is a French form of the game. Two players take part, one using the red balls and one using the white. The leader plays at the black, forfeiting a ball if he misses. His opponent then plays at the black if it has…

  • Sans Sault Rapids (rapids, Canada)

    Mackenzie River: The lower course: …a fast-water section known as Sans Sault Rapids; the river drops about 20 feet (6 metres) within a few miles. There is ample depth of water for the shallow-draft barges during July, but, despite deepening of the channel by rock blasting, shallow water is sometimes a navigation problem in late…

  • sans serif (typeface)

    Sans serif, in printing, a style of roman letter stripped of its serif—i.e., such embellishments as the vertical line at the end of the top right and lower left curved segments of the letter “s,” the base line on which the lowercase “n,” “m,” and “l” rest, etc. Though the concept of such a type

  • Sans Souci (palace, Haiti)

    Henry Christophe: …country, he shot himself at Sans-Souci palace (the citadel and palace were designated UNESCO World Heritage sites in 1982), and his kingdom became part of the Haitian republic in 1821.

  • sans-culotte (French revolution)

    Sansculotte, in the French Revolution, a label for the more militant supporters of that movement, especially in the years 1792 to 1795. Sansculottes presented themselves as members of the poorer classes or leaders of the common people, but during the Reign of Terror public functionaries and

  • SANSA (South African space agency)

    South African National Space Agency (SANSA), South African space agency that was founded to develop a national space program and coordinate existing space activities. Its headquarters are in Pretoria. SANSA is run by a chief executive officer, and its activities are divided into four divisions:

  • sansa (musical instrument)

    Mbira, plucked idiophone (instrument whose sounding parts are resonant solids belonging to the body of the instrument itself)—or more specifically, a lamellaphone—that is unique to Africa and widely distributed throughout the continent. The mbira consists of a series of tuned metal or bamboo

  • Sansanné-Mango (Togo)

    Mango, town, northern Togo, western Africa, situated on the Oti River near the Kéran National Park. The town served as the principal locale of Savanes until the late 1970s, when Dapango (formerly Dapaong) assumed that position. Mango still functions as a centre for cattle and peanut (groundnut)

  • Sanscrit language

    Sanskrit language, (from Sanskrit sa?sk?ta, “adorned, cultivated, purified”), an Old Indo-Aryan language in which the most ancient documents are the Vedas, composed in what is called Vedic Sanskrit. Although Vedic documents represent the dialects then found in the northern midlands of the Indian

  • sansculotte (French revolution)

    Sansculotte, in the French Revolution, a label for the more militant supporters of that movement, especially in the years 1792 to 1795. Sansculottes presented themselves as members of the poorer classes or leaders of the common people, but during the Reign of Terror public functionaries and

  • Sanseki (Japanese calligraphers)

    Fujiwara Yukinari: …known as one of the Sanseki (“Three Brush Traces”), in effect the finest calligraphers of the age. The others were Ono Tōfū and Fujiwara Sukemasa, and the three perfected the style of writing called jōdai-yō (“ancient style”).

  • Sansevieria (plant genus)

    Sansevieria, genus of about 70 species of flowering plants in the asparagus family (Asparagaceae), native primarily to tropical Africa. Many species have water-resistant leaf fibres that are sometimes used in the manufacture of ropes and for bowstrings, and several are grown as ornamentals for

  • Sansevieria hyacinthoides (plant)

    Sansevieria: Iguanatail, or bowstring hemp (S. hyacinthoides), has mottled leaves with light green bands and yellow edges; the greenish white fragrant flowers are borne in a tall cluster.

  • Sansevieria trifasciata (plant)

    Sansevieria: Mother-in-law’s tongue, or snake plant (Sansevieria trifasciata), is a popular houseplant with yellow-striped leaves and tiny pale green scented flowers. Iguanatail, or bowstring hemp (S. hyacinthoides), has mottled leaves with light green bands and yellow edges; the greenish white fragrant flowers are borne in a…

  • Sansevieria trifasciata laurentii (Sansevieria)

    Sansevieria: Mother-in-law’s tongue, or snake plant (Sansevieria trifasciata), is a popular houseplant with yellow-striped leaves and tiny pale green scented flowers. Iguanatail, or bowstring hemp (S. hyacinthoides), has mottled leaves with light green bands and yellow edges; the greenish white fragrant flowers are borne in a…

  • Sanshiro Sugata (film by Kurosawa)

    Kurosawa Akira: First films: …made his first feature film, Sanshiro Sugata, from his own scenario; this story of Japanese judo masters of the 1880s scored a great popular success. In 1944 he made his second film, Ichiban utsukushiku (The Most Beautiful), a story about girls at work in an arsenal. Immediately thereafter, he married…

  • Sansi (people)

    Sansi, nomadic criminal tribe originally located in the Rājputāna area of northwestern India but expelled in the 13th century by Muslim invaders and now living in Rājasthān state as well as scattered throughout all of India. The Sansi claim Rājput descent, but, according to legend, their ancestors

  • Sansin (religion)

    Sansin, (Korean: Mountain God) in Korean religion, a guardian spirit residing in mountains, whose cult has been closely associated with mountain tigers and is still fostered in Korean Buddhist temples. In early indigenous religion of Korea, worship of sacred mountains gradually gave way to worship

  • Sanskrit language

    Sanskrit language, (from Sanskrit sa?sk?ta, “adorned, cultivated, purified”), an Old Indo-Aryan language in which the most ancient documents are the Vedas, composed in what is called Vedic Sanskrit. Although Vedic documents represent the dialects then found in the northern midlands of the Indian

  • Sanskrit literature

    Sanskrit literature, body of writings produced by the Aryan peoples who entered the Indian subcontinent from the northwest, probably during the 2nd millennium bc. It developed as the vehicle of expression for the Brahmanical society that gradually established itself as the main cultural force

  • Sanskrit Reader (work by Lanman)

    Charles Rockwell Lanman: …who wrote the widely used Sanskrit Reader (1884) and helped edit the “Harvard Oriental Series,” which offered scholarly English translations of the ancient Hindu Vedic texts.

  • Sanskritization (sociology)

    Hinduism: Other sources: the process of Sanskritization: The development of Hinduism can be interpreted as a constant interaction between the religion of the upper social groups, represented by the Brahmans, and the religion of other groups. From the time of the Vedas (c. 1500 bce), people from many strata of society…

  • Sansom, William (British writer)

    William Sansom, writer of short stories, novels, and travel books who is considered particularly acute in his dissections of London life and scenes. Educated at Uppingham School, Rutland, Sansom worked in banking and advertising until World War II. After writing some film scripts following the war,

  • Sansovino, Andrea (Italian architect)

    Andrea Sansovino, Italian architect and sculptor whose works reflect the transition from early to High Renaissance. His earliest great work was the marble Altar of the Sacrament in S. Spirito, Florence, executed for the Corbinelli family between 1485 and 1490; the fineness of detail, high emotional

  • Sansovino, Jacopo (Italian sculptor)

    Jacopo Sansovino, sculptor and architect who introduced the style of the High Renaissance into Venice. In 1502 he entered the Florence workshop of the sculptor Andrea Sansovino and, as a sign of admiration, adopted his master’s name. In 1505 he accompanied the Florentine architect Giuliano da

  • Sanssouci Palace (palace, Potsdam, Germany)

    Potsdam: Landmarks include the Sanssouci Palace (1745–47), a masterpiece of German Rococo architecture with grounds that extend for more than 700 acres (285 acres); the Neue Kammern (“New Rooms”; 1747); the Bildergalerie (“Picture Gallery”; 1755–63); the Orangerie (1851–60); and the Neues Palais (“New Palace”; 1763–69). The St. Nicholas Church…

  • Sansui chōkan (work by Sesshū)

    Sesshū: Mature years and works: …or “Sansui chōkan” (formally titled Landscape of Four Seasons, 1486), is generally considered Sesshū’s masterpiece and is often regarded as the greatest Japanese ink painting. Depicting the four seasons, beginning with spring and ending with winter, it extends more than 50 feet (15 metres). Though based in both theme and…

  • Sant (Indian religious group)

    Sikhism: History and doctrine: …and eventually belonged to the Sant tradition of northern India, a movement associated with the great poet and mystic Kabir (1440–1518). The Sants, most of whom were poor, dispossessed, and illiterate, composed hymns of great beauty expressing their experience of the divine, which they saw in all things. Their tradition…

  • Sant’ Ana do Uruguai (Brazil)

    Uruguaiana, city, western Rio Grande do Sul estado (state), southern Brazil. It lies along the Uruguay River, across the bridge from the town of Paso de los Libres, Argentina. Founded in 1839 as Sant’ Ana do Uruguai, Uruguaiana was made a town and renamed in 1846; city status was accorded in 1874.

  • Sant’Abbondio, Church of (church, Como, Italy)

    Como: …former city hall; and the Church of Sant’ Abbondio, formerly the cathedral, consecrated in 1095 on the site of an 8th-century church. Two of the oldest buildings are the Church of San Carpoforo, believed to date from the 4th century and standing on the site of a temple to Mercury,…

  • Sant’Agnese in Agone (church, Rome, Italy)

    Francesco Borromini: Youth and education: …existing oval dome prefigured his Sant’Agnese in Agone (in Piazza Navona) in its placement of plastic volumes in space. Equally significant was his transformation of Maderno’s plan for Sant’Ignazio. Through his use of pairs of free-standing columns, he suggested an articulation of space, a major characteristic of his style. Space…

  • Sant’Agostino (church, Sansepolcro, Italy)

    Piero della Francesca: Mature period: …d’Angelo, commissioned an altarpiece for S. Agostino that Piero, characteristically, did not complete until 1469. The surviving panels of the altarpiece reveal Piero’s interest in the creation of monumental human figures through the sculptural use of line and light.

  • Sant’Agostino (church, Rome, Italy)

    Rome: Sant’Agostino: Of the scores of churches in the Campus Martius of historical, architectural, and artistic interest, Sant’Agostino (1479–83) is perhaps the most Roman. The church, constructed entirely of travertine looted from the Colosseum, was a favourite of many artists of the Renaissance period and beyond.…

  • Sant’Agostino, Church of (church, San Gimignano, Italy)

    San Gimignano: …with numerous frescoes; and the church of Sant’Agostino (1280–98), containing frescoes by Benozzo Gozzoli depicting scenes from the life of St. Augustine. The historic town centre was designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1990. San Gimignano is an important tourist centre and is noted for its wines. Pop. (2011)…

  • Sant’Ambrogio (work by Giusti)

    Giuseppe Giusti: …often considered his masterpiece, is Sant’Ambrogio (c. 1846), in which the poet’s hostility toward Austrian troops attending a mass turns into a feeling of sympathy and solidarity with them as they join in singing a chorus by Giuseppe Verdi.

  • Sant’Ambrogio Basilica (basilica, Milan, Italy)

    Sant’Ambrogio Basilica, basilica in Milan, Italy, that is an outstanding example of Lombard Romanesque architecture. Although the church was originally built between 379 and 386, the earliest portions of the present structure date from the 9th and 10th centuries. The rebuilt vaulted nave and

  • Sant’Andrea (church, Mantua, Italy)

    Correggio: Early life and career: …Mantegna’s family chapel in the church of Sant’Andrea at Mantua after the artist’s death. It seems certain that the two round paintings, or tondi, of the Entombment of Christ and Madonna and Saints are by the young Correggio. Although his early works are pervaded with his knowledge of Mantegna’s art,…

  • Sant’Andrea al Quirinale (church, Rome, Italy)

    Gian Lorenzo Bernini: Patronage of Innocent X and Alexander VII: …most impressive is that of Sant’Andrea al Quirinale (1658–70) in Rome, with its dramatic high altar, soaring dome, and unconventionally sited oval plan. But Bernini’s greatest architectural achievement is the colonnade enclosing the piazza before St. Peter’s Basilica. The chief function of the large space was to hold the crowd…

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