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  • Santo Ant?nio, Cachoeira de (waterfall, Brazil)

    Madeira River: …to the Cachoeira (falls) de Santo Ant?nio 807 miles (1,300 km) upstream, the first of 19 waterfalls or rapids that block further passage, near the town of P?rto Velho, Brazil. The Madeira-Mamoré Railway, which extended for 228 miles (367 km) between P?rto Velho and Guajará-Mirim, circumvented the falls and rapids…

  • Santo Domingo (national capital, Dominican Republic)

    Santo Domingo, capital of the Dominican Republic. It is situated on the southeast coast of the island of Hispaniola, at the mouth of the Ozama River, and is the oldest permanent city established by Europeans in the Western Hemisphere. The city is also the seat of the oldest Roman Catholic

  • Santo Domingo (island, West Indies)

    Hispaniola, second largest island of the West Indies, lying within the Greater Antilles, in the Caribbean Sea. It is divided politically into the Republic of Haiti (west) and the Dominican Republic (east). The island’s area is 29,418 square miles (76,192 square km); its greatest length is nearly

  • Santo Domingo de la Calzada (church, Spain)

    Damián Forment: …last work, the altar at Santo Domingo de la Calzada (1537–40), has a Renaissance frame, but the figures have become even more twisted and elongated. His work was an important influence on later Spanish sculptors and shows very clearly the transition from the Gothic to the Mannerist style.

  • Santo Domingo de Silos (painting by Bermejo)

    Bartolomé Bermejo: …to paint the altarpiece of Santo Domingo de Silos for the church in Daroca. Although Bermejo’s contract stipulated that he would face excommunication if he did not complete the work on time, he arranged an appendix to the contract that would allow another artist to finish it for him. He…

  • Santo Domingo el Antiguo (church, Toledo, Spain)

    El Greco: Middle years: …in the conventual church of Santo Domingo el Antiguo at Toledo (1577–79). Never before had the artist had a commission of such importance and scope. Even the architectural design of the altar frames, reminiscent of the style of the Venetian architect Palladio, was prepared by El Greco. The painting for…

  • Santo Domingo, Autonomous University of (university, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic)

    Dominican Republic: Education: The Autonomous University of Santo Domingo, founded in 1538, is the oldest institution of higher education in the New World. It was originally affiliated with the Roman Catholic church, but in the early 19th century its religious ties were severed; the university was reorganized in 1914,…

  • Santo Domingo, Battle of (Napoleonic Wars)

    Battle of Santo Domingo, (6 February 1806), British naval victory during the Napoleonic Wars. Although unwilling after the Battle of Trafalgar (1805) to face Britain in a full-scale fleet battle, the French navy was still able to attempt raids on British commerce and against distant colonies, as it

  • Santo Domingo, church of (church, Cuzco, Peru)

    Cuzco: The church of Santo Domingo, consecrated in 1654, incorporates the foundations and several walls of the Koricancha (Coricancha), a Quechua name meaning “Golden Enclosure,” or “Golden Garden”; the site was dedicated to Viracocha, the creator deity, and Inti, the sun god, and is also known as…

  • Santo Domingo, María de (Spanish mystic)

    illuminati: Early illuminati: …style her as a “pre-Alumbrado”—was María de Santo Domingo, who came to be known as La Beata de Piedrahita. She was a labourer’s daughter, born in Aldeanueva, south of Salamanca, around 1485. She joined the Dominican order as a teenager and soon achieved renown as a prophet and mystic who…

  • Santō Kyōden (Japanese author)

    Japan: The maturity of Edo culture: …various forms; representative authors are Santō Kyōden in the sharebon (genre novel), Jippensha Ikku in the kokkeibon (comic novel), and Takizawa Bakin in the yomihon (regular novel). They examined in detail such things as the townspeople’s way of life, customs, conceptions of beauty, and ways of thinking. Ikku is best…

  • Santo Spirito (church, Florence, Italy)

    Filippo Brunelleschi: Architectural career: Brunelleschi’s Church of Santo Spirito in Florence was designed either in 1428 or 1434. Work on the church was begun in 1436 and proceeded through the 1480s. A basilican church with a centrally planned eastern end, Santo Spirito is ringed by semicircular chapels opening off the dome-vaulted side…

  • Santo Tomás de Castilla (Guatemala)

    Santo Tomás de Castilla, port, northeastern Guatemala. It lies on Amatique Bay off the Gulf of Honduras and is administratively a part of Puerto Barrios. Santo Tomás was settled originally by Belgians in the 19th century; although the name was changed officially to Matías de Gálvez in 1958, the

  • Santo Tomás grottoes (grottoes, Paraguarí, Paraguay)

    Paraguarí: Santo Tomás grottoes, on a nearby hill, are noted for their hieroglyphic inscriptions, presumably the work of early indigenous peoples. One long cavern is the object of a Good Friday pilgrimage. Paraguarí is accessible by railway or highway from Asunción, Villarrica, and Encarnación. Pop. (2002)…

  • Santo Tomás, Cave of (cavern, Cuba)

    Cuba: Relief: …notably the 16-mile- (26-km-) long Cave of Santo Tomás in the Sierra Quemado of western Cuba. The main island is surrounded by a submerged platform covering an additional 30,000 square miles (78,000 square km).

  • Santo Tomé (church, Toledo, Spain)

    Toledo: …Santiago del Arrabal, and of Santo Tomé. The last has a fine tower and a chapel containing the painting Burial of the Conde de Orgaz by El Greco.

  • Santo Tomé de Guayana (Venezuela)

    Ciudad Guayana, city and industrial port complex, northeastern Bolívar estado (state), Venezuela, at the confluence of the Caroní and Orinoco rivers in the Guiana Highlands. Taking its name from the Guiana (Guayana) region, the traditional designation of Bolívar state, it was founded by the state

  • Santo, Ron (American baseball player and broadcaster)

    Ron Santo, (Ronald Edward Santo), American baseball player (born Feb. 25, 1940, Seattle, Wash.—died Dec. 3, 2010, Arizona), was a fixture at third base (1960–73) for the Chicago Cubs professional baseball team and was rewarded with five Gold Glove Awards (1964–68) for his spectacular fielding; even

  • Santo, Ronald Edward (American baseball player and broadcaster)

    Ron Santo, (Ronald Edward Santo), American baseball player (born Feb. 25, 1940, Seattle, Wash.—died Dec. 3, 2010, Arizona), was a fixture at third base (1960–73) for the Chicago Cubs professional baseball team and was rewarded with five Gold Glove Awards (1964–68) for his spectacular fielding; even

  • Santobello v. New York (law case)

    plea bargaining: History of plea bargaining in the United States: …specified in plea bargains (Santobello v. New York). In 1978 the Court held in Bordenkircher v. Hayes that prosecutors may threaten to bring additional charges against defendants who refuse to bargain as long as those charges are valid.

  • Santokh Singh (Sikh writer)

    Sikhism: Devotional and other works: …and the influential works of Santokh Singh (1787–1853), which were published in the first half of the 19th century. Santokh Singh’s first contribution, completed in 1823, was Gur Nanak Prakash (“The Splendour of Guru Nanak”; also known as the Nanak Prakash), which treated the life of Guru Nanak and relied…

  • Santolea (Spain)

    Western painting: Mesolithic: …carefully executed archer found at Santolea: he is dressed in painstakingly portrayed finery and is flanked by two other figures. This emphasis on man is new, but even more significant is the element of cooperation as part of a group whose social cohesion in warfare, hunting, or ritual was probably…

  • Santomé, Battle of (Dominican history)

    San Juan: The Battle of Santomé (1844), which achieved Dominican independence, was also fought nearby; it is commemorated by a monument. In addition to cattle, the economic activities of the city focus on the production of rice, coffee, corn (maize), fruit, and potatoes. Pop. (2002) urban area, 70,969;…

  • Santonian Stage (stratigraphy)

    Santonian Stage, fourth of six main divisions (in ascending order) of the Upper Cretaceous Series, representing rocks deposited worldwide during the Santonian Age, which occurred 86.3 million to 83.6 million years ago during the Cretaceous Period. Rocks of the Santonian overlie those of the

  • santoor (musical instrument)

    San?ūr, stringed instrument of the hammered dulcimer, or struck zither, family that is found in various forms across southeastern Europe, the Middle East, and South Asia. Related instruments—known by various names, such as the Hungarian cimbalom and the Chinese yangqin—are found in central and

  • Santoprene (elastomer)

    elastomer: Polymer blends: Santoprene (trademark) is an example. Santoprene consists of a mixture of approximately 60 parts ethylene-propylene-diene monomer copolymer (EPDM) with 40 parts polypropylene. A hydrocarbon oil, compatible with EPDM, and interlinking reagents for EPDM are also added. Because the polymers are molecularly incompatible, they form a…

  • Santorin (island, Greece)

    Thera, island, southernmost island of the Cyclades (Modern Greek: Kykládes) group, southeastern Greece, in the Aegean Sea, sometimes included in the Southern Sporades group. It constitutes a dímos (municipality) within the South Aegean (Nótio Aigaío) periféreia (region). Geologically, Thera is the

  • Santoríni (island, Greece)

    Thera, island, southernmost island of the Cyclades (Modern Greek: Kykládes) group, southeastern Greece, in the Aegean Sea, sometimes included in the Southern Sporades group. It constitutes a dímos (municipality) within the South Aegean (Nótio Aigaío) periféreia (region). Geologically, Thera is the

  • Santorini, duct of (anatomy)

    pancreas: Anatomy and exocrine and endocrine functions: …individuals a smaller duct (the duct of Santorini) also empties into the duodenum. Enzymes active in the digestion of carbohydrates, fat, and protein continuously flow from the pancreas through these ducts. Their flow is controlled by the vagus nerve and by the hormones secretin and cholecystokinin, which are produced in…

  • Santorio Santorio (Italian physician)

    Santorio Santorio, Italian physician who was the first to employ instruments of precision in the practice of medicine and whose studies of basal metabolism introduced quantitative experimental procedure into medical research. Santorio was a graduate of the University of Padua (M.D., 1582), where he

  • Santorius (Italian physician)

    Santorio Santorio, Italian physician who was the first to employ instruments of precision in the practice of medicine and whose studies of basal metabolism introduced quantitative experimental procedure into medical research. Santorio was a graduate of the University of Padua (M.D., 1582), where he

  • Santorum, Richard John (United States senator)

    Rick Santorum, American politician who served as a U.S. representative (1991–95) and senator (1995–2007) from Pennsylvania. He also sought the Republican presidential nomination in 2012 and 2016. Santorum grew up in a Roman Catholic family, the middle of three children. He studied political science

  • Santorum, Rick (United States senator)

    Rick Santorum, American politician who served as a U.S. representative (1991–95) and senator (1995–2007) from Pennsylvania. He also sought the Republican presidential nomination in 2012 and 2016. Santorum grew up in a Roman Catholic family, the middle of three children. He studied political science

  • Santos (Brazil)

    Santos, port city, southeastern S?o Paulo estado (state), southeastern Brazil. It occupies an alluvial plain on the inner side of S?o Vicente Island, cut off from the mainland by a tidal channel. The city lies only a few feet above sea level, and its swampy island is drained by deep concrete

  • Santos Calderón, Francisco (vice president of Colombia)

    Juan Manuel Santos: …to 1942, and his cousin Francisco Santos Calderón served as vice president (2002–10) under álvaro Uribe Vélez. The family also founded El Tiempo, one of the country’s largest newspapers. Santos attended the Naval Academy of Cartagena before traveling to the United States to earn a B.A. in economics and business…

  • Santos Calderón, Juan Manuel (president of Colombia)

    Juan Manuel Santos, Colombian politician who cofounded (2005) the Social Party of National Unity (Partido Social de Unidad Nacional, or Partido de la U), later served as president of Colombia (2010–18), and was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 2016 for his efforts to end the protracted war with the

  • Santos Castillo, Hernando (Colombian journalist)

    Hernando Santos Castillo, Colombian newspaper editor whose close connections with and support of the politicians in power led to his being considered the most influential journalist of his generation nationally (b. Aug. 12, 1922, Bogotá, Colom.—d. April 20, 1999,

  • Santos Dumont Airport (airport, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil)

    airport: Evolution of airports: La Guardia Airport and Santos Dumont Airport in Rio de Janeiro are examples of airports that still operate on sites originally chosen for their ability to handle large seaplanes. The large facilities at Southampton Water in the United Kingdom have now disappeared, but the artificial lake at Linate Airport…

  • Santos Football Club (Brazilian football club)

    Pelé: …national teams that won three World Cup championships (1958, 1962, and 1970).

  • Santos Leite, Ricardo Izecson dos (Brazilian football player)

    Kaká, Brazilian football (soccer) player who was named the World Player of the Year by the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) in 2007. Kaká owed his nickname to his younger brother Rodrigo, who as a child could not pronounce Ricardo and could manage only “Caca.” Kaká was seven

  • Santos Mardones, José de los (Chilean officer)

    Punta Arenas: José de los Santos Mardones, it flourished as a port of call and coaling station until the opening of the Panama Canal (1914) and the replacement of coal (still mined nearby) by fuel oil as a maritime fuel. Now the service centre of a large…

  • Santos Montejo, Eduardo (president of Colombia)

    Eduardo Santos Montejo, prominent Latin American journalist, president of Colombia, 1938–42. Santos earned a doctorate of law at the National University in 1908 and pursued further studies in Paris. He acquired the Bogotá daily newspaper El Tiempo in 1913, and he became active in Liberal Party

  • Santos Zelaya, José (president of Nicaragua)

    José Santos Zelaya, Nicaraguan politician and dictator from 1893 to 1910, noted for his hostility toward the United States and for his effort to unify Central America in 1907. During his rule he all but monopolized his country’s economic resources. In 1893 Zelaya came to power through a successful

  • Santos, Djalma (Brazilian association football player)

    Djalma Santos, (Djalma Pereira Dias dos Santos), Brazilian association football (soccer) player (born Feb. 27, 1929, S?o Paulo, Braz.—died July 23, 2013, Uberaba, Minas Gerais state, Braz.), displayed strong attacking skills as the defensive right-back for Brazil’s national team in four consecutive

  • Santos, Eugénio dos (architect)

    Marquis de Pombal: With architect Eugénio dos Santos’s plans, old medieval Lisbon was changed into one of the most beautiful European cities.

  • Santos, Juan Manuel (president of Colombia)

    Juan Manuel Santos, Colombian politician who cofounded (2005) the Social Party of National Unity (Partido Social de Unidad Nacional, or Partido de la U), later served as president of Colombia (2010–18), and was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 2016 for his efforts to end the protracted war with the

  • Santos, Lucia de Jesus dos (Portuguese nun)

    Lucia dos Santos, Portuguese shepherd girl, later a Carmelite nun, who claimed she saw visions of the Virgin Mary in 1917 at Fátima, Portugal, which subsequently became one of the most famous Marian shrines in the world. The first of six visions came to Lucia on May 13, 1917, while she was tending

  • Santos, Lucia dos (Portuguese nun)

    Lucia dos Santos, Portuguese shepherd girl, later a Carmelite nun, who claimed she saw visions of the Virgin Mary in 1917 at Fátima, Portugal, which subsequently became one of the most famous Marian shrines in the world. The first of six visions came to Lucia on May 13, 1917, while she was tending

  • Santos, Manoel Francisco dos (Brazilian athlete)

    Garrincha, Brazilian football (soccer) player considered by many to be the best right winger in the history of the sport. An imaginative and skillful dribbler, he starred along with Pelé and Didí on the Brazilian national teams that won two World Cup Championships (1958, 1962). His brother gave him

  • Santos, Moacir (Brazilian musician)

    Moacir Santos, Brazilian musician (born July 28, 1926, Flores do Pajeú, Pernambuco, Braz.—died Aug. 6, 2006, Pasadena, Calif.), played saxophone, as well as brass and stringed instruments; led Brazil’s Rádio Nacional orchestra; composed film scores, including, most notably, Amor no Pacifico (

  • Santos, Nilton (Brazilian association football player)

    Nilton Santos, (Nilton dos Reis Santos), Brazilian association football (soccer) player (born May 16, 1925, Governador Island, Rio de Janeiro, Braz.—died Nov. 27, 2013, Rio de Janeiro), brought a dynamic, aggressive style of left-back defense that made him one of the first defensive soccer players

  • Santos-Dumont No. 14-bis (Brazilian aircraft)

    Santos-Dumont No. 14-bis, airplane designed, built, and first flown by the Brazilian aviation pioneer Alberto Santos-Dumont in 1906. Inspired by rumours that the Wright brothers had made flights of over half an hour in the relative seclusion of a pasture near Dayton, Ohio, Santos-Dumont began work

  • Santos-Dumont, Alberto (Brazilian aviator)

    Alberto Santos-Dumont, Brazilian aviation pioneer who captured the imagination of Europe and the United States with his airship flights and made the first significant flight of a powered airplane in Europe with his No. 14-bis. Santos-Dumont, the son of a wealthy coffee planter, traveled to France

  • santour (musical instrument)

    San?ūr, stringed instrument of the hammered dulcimer, or struck zither, family that is found in various forms across southeastern Europe, the Middle East, and South Asia. Related instruments—known by various names, such as the Hungarian cimbalom and the Chinese yangqin—are found in central and

  • santouri (musical instrument)

    San?ūr, stringed instrument of the hammered dulcimer, or struck zither, family that is found in various forms across southeastern Europe, the Middle East, and South Asia. Related instruments—known by various names, such as the Hungarian cimbalom and the Chinese yangqin—are found in central and

  • Santrouschitz, Hermine (Austrian-born heroine)

    Miep Gies, (Hermine Santrouschitz; Hermine Santruschitz), Austrian-born heroine (born Feb. 15, 1909, Vienna, Austria-Hungary—died Jan. 11, 2010, Hoorn, Neth.), was the last surviving member of the group of five non-Jewish people who concealed eight Jews, including Anne Frank and her family, from

  • Santruschitz, Hermine (Austrian-born heroine)

    Miep Gies, (Hermine Santrouschitz; Hermine Santruschitz), Austrian-born heroine (born Feb. 15, 1909, Vienna, Austria-Hungary—died Jan. 11, 2010, Hoorn, Neth.), was the last surviving member of the group of five non-Jewish people who concealed eight Jews, including Anne Frank and her family, from

  • san?ūr (musical instrument)

    San?ūr, stringed instrument of the hammered dulcimer, or struck zither, family that is found in various forms across southeastern Europe, the Middle East, and South Asia. Related instruments—known by various names, such as the Hungarian cimbalom and the Chinese yangqin—are found in central and

  • Santurce (Puerto Rico)

    Latin American dance: Puerto Rico: The Santurce style is similar to Ponce’s. The man lifts his torso and keeps his arms rather stiff. He dances with sharp shifts of weight and produces accents with his legs. The woman wears a head scarf and a wide ruffled skirt over a starched white…

  • Santurce-Antiguo (city, Spain)

    Santurtzi, city, Vizcaya provincia (province), in Basque Country comunidad autónoma (autonomous community), northern Spain. It lies at the entrance to the Bay of Biscay. Santurtzi is the outport of Bilbao city, where iron ore and steel products are shipped. It is the site of an annual festival

  • Santurtzi (city, Spain)

    Santurtzi, city, Vizcaya provincia (province), in Basque Country comunidad autónoma (autonomous community), northern Spain. It lies at the entrance to the Bay of Biscay. Santurtzi is the outport of Bilbao city, where iron ore and steel products are shipped. It is the site of an annual festival

  • Sanudo, Marco (Italian ruler of Greek islands)

    Greece: The islands: …1207 among the Cyclades by Marco Sanudo, a relative of the Venetian doge, or magistrate, with a body of plundering merchants and nobles. Initially under the overlordship of the Latin emperor at Constantinople, the duchy later transferred its allegiance to Achaea in 1261 and to Naples in 1267, although Venice…

  • Sanudo, Marino (Italian historian [born 1466])

    Marino Sanudo, Venetian historian whose Diarii is an invaluable source for the history of his period. In his enthusiasm for historical and classical learning, Sanudo collected a notable library of manuscripts, rare books, maps, and ethnographical drawings. Sanudo began his Vite dei dogi (“Lives of

  • Sanudo, Marino (Italian author [flourished 1300])

    Crusades: The later Crusades: …of France, and in 1321 Marino Sanudo, in his Secreta fidelium crucis (“Secrets of the Faithful of the Cross”), produced an elaborate plan for an economic blockade of Egypt. But none of these or any other such schemes was put into effect.

  • Sanūsī, al- (Islamic religious leader)

    Al-Sanūsī, North African Islamic theologian who founded a militant mystical movement, the Sanūsīyah, which helped Libya win its independence in the 20th century. During his formative years in his native country, which was incorporated in the Ottoman Empire, al-Sanūsī observed the corruption of the

  • Sanūsīyah (Muslim Sufi sect)

    Sanūsīyah, a Muslim ?ūfī (mystic) brotherhood established in 1837 by Sīdī Mu?ammad ibn ?Alī as-Sanūsī. In modern history, the head of the Sanūsī brotherhood was king of the federal kingdom of Libya from its creation in 1951 until it was superseded by a Socialist republic in 1969. The Sanūsīyah b

  • Sanūsiyyah (Muslim Sufi sect)

    Sanūsīyah, a Muslim ?ūfī (mystic) brotherhood established in 1837 by Sīdī Mu?ammad ibn ?Alī as-Sanūsī. In modern history, the head of the Sanūsī brotherhood was king of the federal kingdom of Libya from its creation in 1951 until it was superseded by a Socialist republic in 1969. The Sanūsīyah b

  • Sanvitale, Francesca (Italian author)

    Italian literature: Women writers: Francesca Sanvitale won acclaim for her apparently autobiographical novels, such as Madre e figlia (1980; “Mother and Daughter”), though her Il figlio dell’impero (1993; “The Son of the Empire”) is a historical novel set in 19th-century France. Rosetta Loy, who had evoked a collective memory…

  • Sanvito, Bartolomeo (Italian calligrapher)

    calligraphy: The scripts of humanism (14th to 16th century): … of Verona, and Giovanni Marcanova, Bartolomeo Sanvito, and Andrea Mantegna from Padua; Mantegna, an engraver and painter, became one of the first Renaissance artists to incorporate classical lettering into his artwork. These men compiled their researches into sillogi (anthologies of texts from Roman inscriptions) that provided models for square capital…

  • Sanvitores, Diego Luis de (Spanish missionary)

    Northern Mariana Islands: Spanish colonial rule: …arrival of the Jesuit priest Diego Luis de Sanvitores in 1668. With him were priests, laymen, women, and some Filipino soldiers. Mariana of Austria, the regent of Spain, financed his mission, and he renamed the islands the Marianas in her honour. Sanvitores and his colonists established churches and religious schools.…

  • Sanwa Bank (Japanese bank)

    Sanwa Bank, former Japanese commercial bank that became part of UFJ Holdings in 2001 through its merger with Asahi Bank and Tōkai Bank. Sanwa was established in 1933 by the merger of Konoike Bank Ltd. (established 1877), Yamaguchi Bank Ltd. (1879), and the Sanjūshi Bank Ltd.

  • Sanwa Ginkō (Japanese bank)

    Sanwa Bank, former Japanese commercial bank that became part of UFJ Holdings in 2001 through its merger with Asahi Bank and Tōkai Bank. Sanwa was established in 1933 by the merger of Konoike Bank Ltd. (established 1877), Yamaguchi Bank Ltd. (1879), and the Sanjūshi Bank Ltd.

  • Sanxia, The (dam, China)

    Three Gorges Dam, dam on the Yangtze River (Chang Jiang) just west of the city of Yichang in Hubei province, China. A straight-crested concrete gravity structure, the Three Gorges Dam is 2,335 metres (7,660 feet) long with a maximum height of 185 metres (607 feet). It incorporates 28 million cubic

  • sanxian (musical instrument)

    Sanxian, (Chinese: “three strings”) any of a group of long-necked, fretless Chinese lutes. The instrument’s rounded rectangular resonator has a snakeskin front and back, and the curved-back pegbox at the end of the neck has lateral, or side, tuning pegs that adjust three silk or nylon strings. The

  • Sanxiong Pass (mountain pass, China)

    Nyainqêntanglha Mountains: …across the range traverses the Sanxiong Pass between Yangbajain and Nagqu (formerly Heihe). This carries the main road from Lhasa north to Golmud at the southern end of the Qaidam Basin in Qinghai province; a new rail line (opened 2006) connecting Lhasa and Golmud also links Lhasa to the rest…

  • Sanya Dharmasakti (prime minister of Thailand)

    Thailand: The 1973 revolution and its aftermath: The king chose Judge Sanya Dharmasakti, a former rector of Thammasat University, to be interim prime minister and to oversee the drafting of a new constitution. The constitution, promulgated in 1974, ushered in a brief period of parliamentary democracy in Thailand. Ranking members of the military, however, interpreted the…

  • Sanyal, Baba (Indian artist)

    Bhabesh Chandra Sanyal, Indian painter and sculptor who was credited with bringing modernism into Indian art and who was central in the founding of several Indian arts institutions. Sanyal studied sculpture and painting at the Government School of Art and Craft, Calcutta (now Kolkata). He was

  • Sanyal, Bhabesh Chandra (Indian artist)

    Bhabesh Chandra Sanyal, Indian painter and sculptor who was credited with bringing modernism into Indian art and who was central in the founding of several Indian arts institutions. Sanyal studied sculpture and painting at the Government School of Art and Craft, Calcutta (now Kolkata). He was

  • Sanyasimalai (hill, India)

    Shevaroy Hills: …5,231 feet (1,594 metres) at Sanyasimalai (Duff’s Hill) on the Yercaud plateau. Widespread bauxite deposits are the basis for aluminum-processing plants at Mettur and Yercaud. Coffee is extensively grown on the plateau. In 1845 the British established a hill station at Yercaud, which is now a resort and educational centre.

  • Sanyati River (river, Zimbabwe)

    Umniati River: …is also known as the Sanyati. The river valley has been interesting to mineral prospectors for years, and copper has been mined near the confluence with the Umfuli.

  • Sanz, Alejandro (Spanish singer-songwriter)

    Alejandro Sanz, Spanish guitarist and singer-songwriter who soared to international stardom in the late 20th century and remained popular into the 21st century with his flamenco-influenced popular music. Sanz was raised in Cádiz, a city in the Andalusia region of Spain. His father was a

  • Sanz, Jorge (Spanish actor)
  • Sanzhou (China)

    Xinyang, city, southern Henan sheng (province), east-central China. It is situated in the far south of the Henan plain, in the basin between the Dabie Mountains (south) and the Huai River (north). It has traditionally been on a cultural divide between the plain and the hilly districts to the south.

  • Sanzijing (Chinese catechism)

    China: The rise of Neo-Confucianism: …an elementary catechism, titled the Sanzijing (“Three Character Classics”), that conveyed the entire value system of this school in simple language for what approximated mass education.

  • Sanzio, Raffaello (Italian painter and architect)

    Raphael, master painter and architect of the Italian High Renaissance. Raphael is best known for his Madonnas and for his large figure compositions in the Vatican. His work is admired for its clarity of form and ease of composition and for its visual achievement of the Neoplatonic ideal of human

  • Sanzio, Raphael (Italian painter and architect)

    Raphael, master painter and architect of the Italian High Renaissance. Raphael is best known for his Madonnas and for his large figure compositions in the Vatican. His work is admired for its clarity of form and ease of composition and for its visual achievement of the Neoplatonic ideal of human

  • ?an?ā? (national capital, Yemen)

    Sanaa, city, capital of Yemen. It is situated at the western foot of Mount Nuqum, at an elevation of more than 7,200 feet (2,200 metres) above sea level, in the western part of the country. Sanaa has for many centuries been the chief economic, political, and religious centre of the Yemen Highlands.

  • sao (Chinese literature)

    fu: …to the more subjective, lyrical sao. Its prosody was freer than that of the sao, the rhyme pattern being less restrictive. The elements of the fu form include a long line, caesura, and the use of balanced parallel phrases. The use of rhyme places it somewhere between poetry and prose.

  • Sao (people)

    Cameroon: Ethnic and linguistic composition: The Sudanic-speaking peoples include the Sao, who live on the Adamawa Plateau; the Fulani; and the Kanuri. The Fulani came from the Niger basin in two waves, in the 11th and 19th centuries; they were Muslims who converted and subjugated the peoples of the Logone valley and the Kébi and…

  • S?o Bento, Palace of (building, Lisbon, Portugal)

    Lisbon: City layout: …of Bairro Alto is the Palace of the National Assembly, also known as the Palace of S?o Bento. Nearby is the official residence of Portugal’s prime minister. Farther west, toward Belém, Necessidades Palace houses the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

  • S?o Bernardo (novel by Ramos)

    Graciliano Ramos: In 1934 he published S?o Bernardo, the reflections of Paulo Honório, who has risen by methods ranging from petty deceit to murder to become master of the plantation St. Bernard, where he was once a hired hand.

  • S?o Bernardo (Brazil)

    S?o Bernardo do Campo, city, southeastern S?o Paulo estado (state), southern Brazil. It is located on a tributary of the Tietê River at 2,506 feet (764 metres) above sea level, part of the greater S?o Paulo metropolitan area. Formerly known as Borda do Campo and S?o Bernardo, the original colonial

  • S?o Bernardo do Campo (Brazil)

    S?o Bernardo do Campo, city, southeastern S?o Paulo estado (state), southern Brazil. It is located on a tributary of the Tietê River at 2,506 feet (764 metres) above sea level, part of the greater S?o Paulo metropolitan area. Formerly known as Borda do Campo and S?o Bernardo, the original colonial

  • S?o Brás, Angra de (bay, South Africa)

    Bartolomeu Dias: The voyage: …day it was) or the Bay of Cowherds, from the people he found there. Dias’s black companions were unable to understand those people, who fled but later returned to attack the Portuguese. The expedition went on to Angra da Roca (present-day Algoa Bay). The crew was unwilling to continue, and…

  • S?o Caetano do Sul (Brazil)

    S?o Caetano do Sul, city, southeastern S?o Paulo estado (state), southeastern Brazil, situated near the Tamanduatei River at 2,418 feet (737 metres) above sea level. It was founded in 1631 by Benedictine monks. S?o Caetano do Sul was made the seat of a municipality in 1948 and is now part of the

  • S?o Carlos (theatre, Lisbon, Portugal)

    Lisbon: Cultural life: The St. Charles and the National Theatre of Dona Maria II are Lisbon’s two principal theatres. The former, which was constructed in the late 18th century, has a beautiful elliptical interior, and the latter, which was built about 1845, displays a facade of six giant columns…

  • S?o Carlos (Brazil)

    Campinas, city, eastern S?o Paulo estado (state), southeastern Brazil, located in the highlands near the Atibaia River at 2,274 feet (693 metres) above sea level. Formerly known as Nossa Senhora da Concei??o de Campinas de Mato Grosso and as S?o Carlos, it was given town status and was made the

  • S?o Carlos (central S?o Paulo state, Brazil)

    S?o Carlos, city, in the highlands of eastern S?o Paulo estado (state), southeastern Brazil. It is located at 2,903 feet (885 metres) above sea level on Monjolinho Stream, a tributary of the Jacaré Gua?u River. Formerly known as S?o Carlos do Pinhal, the settlement was given town status in 1865 and

  • S?o Carlos do Pinhal (central S?o Paulo state, Brazil)

    S?o Carlos, city, in the highlands of eastern S?o Paulo estado (state), southeastern Brazil. It is located at 2,903 feet (885 metres) above sea level on Monjolinho Stream, a tributary of the Jacaré Gua?u River. Formerly known as S?o Carlos do Pinhal, the settlement was given town status in 1865 and

  • S?o Cristóv?o (Brazil)

    S?o Cristóv?o, city and port, eastern Sergipe estado (state), northeastern Brazil. It is located near the mouth of the Vasa Barris River, almost adjacent to Aracaju, the state capital. It is a port for coastal shipping, and its industries include sugar milling and distilling. The city was the

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